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Kozo Sasaki Collection

3,185 items

The Kozo Sasaki collection is comprised of approximately 3,185 images of Asian artwork. The images are a compilation of slides and black & white photographs taken by Dr. Kozo Sasaki. The artwork ranges from the Momoyama period (1573-1603) to the Taisho period (1912-1926).

The Kozo Sasaki collection contains 3,033 slides and 152 black & white photographs taken by Dr. Kozo Sasaki himself. The slides and photographs depict Asian artwork, primarily Japanese, ranging from the late 16th century to the early 20th century and cover the Momoyama (1573-1603) to Taisho periods (1912-1926). The majority of the images are Edo period paintings and hanging scrolls. Many of the slides were taken of art in situ. Also included in the collection are images of sculptures, ceramics, mandalas, woodblock prints, sketches, illustrations, decorative arts, and photographs of temples. A set of twelve Japanese handscrolls are captured in a series of 152 black & white photographs.


Asian Scrolls Collection, 1046 B.C.E.-1915 C.E. (majority within 618 C.E.-1644 C.E.)

56 items

The Asian Scrolls collection is comprised of 56 facsimile handscrolls and books of Japanese and Chinese origin. The scrolls depict landscapes and animals, as well as scenes from famous works and stories. Among the scrolls are also examples of the calligraphy of famous artists, such as Kobo-Daishi. The originals were created throughout the Tang, Sung, and Ming dynasties.

The Asian Scrolls collection is composed of 56 facsimile handscrolls and books of Japanese and Chinese origin. The scrolls depict landscapes, animals, and scenes from famous works and stories. Among the scrolls are examples of the calligraphy of famous artists, such as Kobo-Daishi. The original scrolls were created throughout the Tang, Sung, and Ming dynasties. This collection contains copies of the Japanese work “Ippen Shomin Ekotoba” and “Letter to Saicho” and the Chinese work “Admonitions of the Instructress of the Ladies in the Palace." As these scrolls are reproductions, the originals are housed in other institutions such as the British Museum, Beijing’s Palace Museum, and Honolulu’s Academy of Arts. Four of the scrolls are of Chinese artwork but have been reproduced by the Japanese, and therefore, the artist’s names have been translated differently.

Mixed within the collection is a series of approximately five books. The leaves of the books are connected in an alternating format, creating an accordion style book. While many of the books contain artwork depicting scenes of natures and scenes from famous works, one book contains photographs of bronze Chinese objects. The photographs have titles but the book is untitled.


Mary Heald and Mary Heald Lane diary, 10 September 1858 - 9 January 1905

0.5 Linear Feet (One manuscript box)

The collection consists of a single diary in which two successive generations of women chronicle the upbringing of their own daughters.

The collection consists of a one-volume diary written by two generations of women about their respective daughters. The diary begins in 1858 with Mary Heald writing about the birth of her own daughter, Mary. Entries continue through the first year of the younger's life, and details not only her growth, but also the elder Mary's experiences raising one child and grieving the early death of her son.

Entires recommense in 1905, when the younger Mary begins chronicalling the young-adult years of her then 10-year-old daughter Madeleine. Mary describes Madeleine's maturation for the next five years and includes some brief notes from Madeleine, as well as her own writing.


Hubert S. Smith Naval letters and documents, 1458-1915 (majority within 1746-1915)

2 linear feet

The Hubert S. Smith Naval Letters and Documents collection is made up of individual manuscripts relating to naval and commercial maritime operations.

The Hubert S. Smith Naval Letters and Documents collection is made up of over 380 manuscript letters and documents relating to maritime military, commercial, financial, and legal subjects from the 15th to the 20th centuries, primarily concerning Great Britain and America. The collection includes materials relating to Continental European wars, the American Revolution, the African slave trade, the Civil War, and exploratory ventures. The collection also reflects day-to-day ship operations and naval employment, diplomacy, marine technology, the purchase and sale of ships, insurance, and publications and books relating to maritime affairs. While primarily focused on English and American navies, the contributors discuss a wide variety of places, including continental Europe, the Baltic region, Russia, Asia, Turkey, South America, and Africa.


Latin America collection, 1518-1883 (majority within [18th-19th century])

57 volumes

Collection of bound and miscellaneous manuscripts relating to the history of Latin America between 1518 and 1882. These materials pertain to laws, religious doctrines, indigenous cultures and interactions with Europeans, city ordinances, land holdings, and other subjects.

The Latin America collection is made up of 57 volumes of miscellaneous items related to New Spain, Mexico, Peru, and Guatemala. The items span from 1518 to 1882. The materials came to the Clements Library from multiple dealers and donors between 1928 and 1951. The New Spain series is made up of volumes that broadly cover the areas under Spanish control in Latin America. The Mexico, Peru, and Guatemala series is made up of materials that specifically address each of those areas. Topics addressed in the letters and documents include laws, religious doctrines, indigenous culture and interactions with Europeans, city ordinances, land holdings, viceregal matters, and many other subjects. Of particular note is a 1760 manuscript copy of a 1587 original of three religious dramas in the Nahuatl language. In 2023, an 1822 contemporary manuscript copy of Manuel de la Barcena's Manifiesto al Mundo: La Justicia y Necesidad de la Independencia de Nueva-España was added to Volume 38.

In addition to this finding aid, the Clements Library has created detailed the following descriptions of each volume in the collection: Latin America Collection: Volume Descriptions.


British Grants of Arms, 1570-1721 (majority within 1684-1700)

1 volume

This bound volume contains individual manuscript copies of documents, which grant persons or institutions of England or Ireland the right to claim and bear hereditary coats of arms and, in some cases, admission to the peerage or alteration of their noble titles. The documents are arranged in three sections, dating from 1666 and 1684-1694 (Section I), 1570-1700 (Section II), and 1716-1721 (Section III).

This bound volume contains individual copies of documents, which grant persons or institutions of England or Ireland the right to bear hereditary coats of arms or admit members to the peerage. The volume was once owned by Earl George Macartney; his bookplate appears on the inside front cover. The documents are arranged in three sections, dating from 1666 and 1684-1694 (Section I), 1570-1700 (Section II), and 1716-1721 (Section III). The first two sections (103 pages and 77 pages, respectively) are separately paginated and indexed. The third section consists of 18 non-paginated, non-indexed pages. Many of the earliest items are likely 18th-century copies.

The documents in Sections I and II are predominantly grants allowing Englishmen to establish or bear hereditary coats of arms, signed by the Garter King of Arms, Norroy King of Arms, and/or the Earl Marshal. They present justifications for a named individual to bear a coat of arms or assume a noble title, often mentioning their high standing and ancestral longevity. Those items related to heraldic devices often provide details about the badge to be granted. Many documents are accompanied by pencil sketches, ink drawings, and colored drawings of coats of arms. Several items reflect notable individuals and institutions, such as Sir George Jeffreys (p. 17); Francis Nicholson, then governor of Maryland (p. 93, 1693/4); and the College of William and Mary (pp. 96-97, May 14, 1694). A few documents in Section II are petitions sent to officials, requesting them to grant coats of arms or similar favors.

The third section holds 18 pages of copied documents, which bestow noble titles upon the following individuals in England and Ireland between 1716 and 1721:
  • John Beaumont, Viscount
  • Thomas Parker, Baron
  • James Stanhope, Viscount
  • Matthew Aylmer, Baron
  • Philip Wharton, Duke
  • George Carpenter, Baron
  • William Grimston, Baron
  • Lionel Cranfield Sackville, Duke
  • William Posonby, Baron

Bartolomé de las Casas Tyrannies et Cruautez des Espagnols Perpetrees es Indes Occidentales..., 1582

One volume

This volume is an early French translation of Bartolomé de Las Casas influential treatise Brevissima Relacion de la Destruccion de las India, an indictment of the Spanish conquerors for acts of brutality inflicted on the indigenous peoples of the New World.

In 1539, Bartolomé de las Casas wrote Breuissima relacion de la destruycion de las Indias..., a short treatise that indicted the Spanish conquerors for acts of brutality inflicted on the American Indians in the New World. The first of nine tracts on this subject, Brevissima was first published in 1552 and later published in France in 1579 as Tyrannies et Cruautez des Espagnols Perpetres es Indes Occidentales Quon dit le Nouveau Monde: Brievement Descrites en Lettre Castillane par L'Evesque Don Frere Bartelemy De Las Casas...fidelement traduites par Jackques De Miggrode: à Paris par Guillaume Julien.... Clements manuscript was likely prepared in 1582 for an illustrated Paris edition which was never printed; the 17 watercolor illustrations, depicting gruesome acts of torture, are similar to the engravings used by DeBry for his 1598 Latin edition.

Las Casas wrote two chronicles, Historia General de las Indias and Historia Apologetica de las Indias, which were designed to form a single work. He asked his executors not to publish them until forty years after his death. They were not printed, in fact, until 1875-1876 at Madrid, when they appeared under the title "Historia de las Yndias." The original manuscripts are in the Biblioteca de la Academia de la Historia, Madrid. The Clements copy corresponds to the prologue and first 11 chapters of the printed Historia General.


Letters, Documents, & Other Manuscripts, Duane Norman Diedrich collection, 1595-2007 (majority within 1719-1945)

3.5 linear feet

The Letters, Documents, and Other Manuscripts of the Duane Norman Diedrich Collection is a selection of individual items compiled by manuscript collector Duane Norman Diedrich (1935-2018) and the William L. Clements Library. The content of these materials reflect the life and interests of D. N. Diedrich, most prominently subjects pertinent to intellectual, artistic, and social history, education, speech and elocution, the securing of speakers for events, advice from elders to younger persons, and many others.

The Letters, Documents, and Other Manuscripts of the Duane Norman Diedrich Collection is a selection of individual items compiled by manuscript collector Duane Norman Diedrich (1935-2018) and the William L. Clements Library. The content of these materials reflect the life and interests of D. N. Diedrich, most prominently subjects pertinent to intellectual, artistic, and social history, education, speech and elocution, the securing of speakers for events, advice from elders to younger persons, and many others.

For an item-level description of the collection, with information about each manuscript, please see the box and folder listing below.


Viscounts Melville papers, 1600-1851 (majority within 1780-1830)

14 linear feet

The Viscounts Melville papers contain the letters of British statesman Henry Dundas, 1st viscount Melville, and of his son Robert Saunders Dundas, 2nd viscount Melville, first lord of the admiralty. The collection contains incoming correspondence and some copies of letters and drafts of memoranda by the Melvilles. The papers are almost entirely political in nature and deal with English, Scottish, American, Indian, and European affairs.

The Viscounts Melville papers (14 linear feet) contain the letters of British statesman Henry Dundas, 1st viscount Melville, and his son Robert Saunders Dundas, 2nd viscount Melville, first lord of the admiralty. The collection contains approximately 1,500 Henry Dundas items and 850 Robert Dundas items, and is primarily comprised of incoming official correspondence, some copies of outgoing letters, and drafts of memoranda by the Melvilles. The papers are almost entirely political in nature and deal with English, Scottish, American, Indian, and European affairs.

The Henry Dundas papers chiefly concern British political affairs and military engagements in France, America, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Russia, Spain, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Minorca, Portugal, Corfu, Trieste, Malta, Sicily, the West Indies, the East Indies, and South America. The majority of these span 1794 to 1805, and relate to his tenure as secretary at war and first lord of the admiralty.

Included in the collection are:
  • Diplomatic correspondence
  • Memoranda on British trade
  • Letters dealing with Indian and British patronage
  • Military intelligence reports, defense plans, and secret naval memoranda concerning the war with France
  • Secret reports on internal affairs of France covering 1791 to 1795 from his nephew George Buchan, Financier Walter Boyd, and J. Bedinfield
  • Intelligence on English prisoners of war in France, including details on the treatment of prisoners
  • Memorials that provide details on individual service member's careers
  • Dealings with the Danish East India Company
  • Miscellaneous naval material, such as reports on ship construction and repairs and on the fleets of other nations

American affairs consumed much of Melville's attention in the 1780s and 1790s while he served on the Committee of the Private Council for Trade and Foreign Plantations. Topics discussed include compensation claims from American Loyalists for losses during the war, and claims of British merchants against Americans for unpaid debts incurred during the war. Of particular interest are the letters between Melville and Grenville that relate to American debt issues (1785-1805 with a concentration in 1792). Also of note are letters from Thomas Jefferson and members of Congress concerning the 1794 Jay Treaty between England and the United States. Also present are the trial briefs prepared for Dundas' defense during his 1806 impeachment proceedings.

Below is a selection of notable items:
  • January 14, 1735: Report to the Great Britain Board of Trade on the state of American and West Indies commerce and fortifications, covering 1734-1735 (40 pages)
  • May 5 and July 14, 1763: Secretary of State Charles Wyndham, 2nd earl of Egremont to the Privy Council, concerning trade in the American colonies after the French and Indian War and a proposal to create a frontier military force
  • June 12, 1784: Dr. John Halliburton to Henry Melville, relating his struggles as a Loyalist who fled from Rhode Island to Halifax during the American Revolution
  • July 10, 1791: Lady Eglantine Wallace's account of the plan for the French Royal Family's attempted escape
  • November 19, 1794: Draft of the Jay Treaty (American Treaty of Commerce, signed by Lord Grenville, along with a copy of a letter from Thomas Jefferson to George Hammond regarding the treaty, 81 pages)
  • August 3, 1798: Mary Scott's description of the young King of Prussia
  • July 18, 1799: Anonymous letter from a secret service agent in Göttingen concerning "cloak and dagger" operations to send intelligence through Frankfurt
  • June 29, 1804: Secret intelligence from Admiral William Cornwallis concerning attacks on Brest and plans to burn the French fleet there
  • October 17, 1807: William Sweetland's report on the Barbary Coast enclosed in a Sir Charles Flint letter

The Robert Dundas Melville papers relate primarily to his office as first lord of the admiralty from 1812 to 1830. These include material concerning the War of 1812, and secret admiralty memoranda documenting ship locations and movements, strength of forces, and instructions to and from various British admirals. Notably, Melville received copies of intercepted letters from Albert Gallatin, John Quincy Adams, John Speyer, S. Bourne, and R. G. Beasley to President James Madison from 1813 to 1814. The collection also provides insights into American-British tensions in the Great Lakes region in the years after the war. Between 1815 and 1820, Melville received many reports and letters related to the treatment of scurvy in the navy.

Below is a selection of notable items:
  • June 6, 1812: Lord Keith's "Observations upon the Coast of America"
  • January 6, 1813: Richard Bickerton concerning proposed attacks on Boulogne and Dieppe
  • October 6, 1813: Admiral George Tate to Robert Melville containing a complete list of the Russian fleet
  • November 23, 1813: George Campbell's plans for constructing naval vessels in the Great Lakes, with detailed ship diagrams
  • February 26, 1814: Britain Navy Commissioner Samuel Bentham's detailed report on the Battle of Lake Erie (25 pages)
  • July 15, 1814: Charles and George Baillie's presentation of a petition for abolishing the British slave trade
  • March 1815: Many letters concerning the Duke of Orleans's plan to escape England
  • September 25, 1815: Manuscript draft to Thomas Moore regarding communications about the "Merchants of Liverpool & Manchester engaged in the trade to Spanish South America."
  • November 1815: Dr. William Beaty's letter on the value of providing lemon juice and vinegar to sailors for health at sea
  • April 25-August 6, 1820: Anthony Maitland, 10th earl of Lauderdale, to Robert Melville concerning Trieste and Malta with detailed information on affairs
  • August 25, 1823: Account of scurvy patients received yearly at naval hospitals at Haslar, Plymouth, Yarmouth, Deal, and Paington for the years 1803-1822
  • 1825: Lord Auckland's report on prize ship laws
The Bound Volumes series (7 volumes) is comprised of the following material:
  • The Melville Correspondence, 1780-1830 (146 items), containing official letters to and from the viscounts Melville
  • Frederick Duke of York letters to Melville (32 letters), relating to militia and military matters, and including a color portrait of the Duke, and 1804 and 1810 accounts for field work expenses incurred by the Home Office, covering the years 1795 to 1803
  • "Precis of Mr. Dundas's Correspondence with the Several Departments of his Majesty's Government," covering the Portland and Perceval ministries (46 pages), March 1807-July 23, 1810
  • Four bundles of military letters and documents concerning conflicts in Europe, covering the years 1793, 1794, 1795, and 1804-1813

Sir Walter Raleigh, A Discourse of the Peace with Spain and retayning of the Netherlands, 1602

1 volume

Sir Walter Raleigh's A Discourse of the Peace with Spain and retayning of the Netherlands is a 49-page manuscript treatise intended to persuade King James I to maintain a positive relationship with the Netherlands during peace negotiations with Spain in 1602.

Sir Walter Raleigh's A Discourse of the Peace with Spain and retayning of the Netherlands is a 49-page treatise, bound in vellum, intended to persuade King James I to maintain a positive relationship with the Netherlands during peace negotiations with Spain in 1602. Raleigh outlined the reasons for his belief that England should accept an alliance with the Netherlands following a thaw in relations with Spain and discussed relationships between major European powers.


Washingtoniana collection, 1602-1932

0.25 linear feet

The Washingtoniana collection (approximately 160 items) contains letters and documents concerning George Washington and his extended family, as well as items that discuss Washington and his legacy.

The Washingtoniana collection (160 items) contains letters and documents concerning George Washington and his extended family, as well as items that discuss Washington and his legacy. The collection contains 73 items written during Washington's lifetime, 79 after his death, and 8 undated items. The collection consists of memorials, essays, sermons, speeches, and letters mentioning and discussing Washington. Also included are items related to Washington's estate and his extended family.

Family members involved include:
  • Augustine Washington
  • Bailey Washington
  • Bushrod Washington
  • Corbin Washington
  • George Corbin Washington
  • Henry Augustine Washington
  • Hobarth Washington
  • J.M. Washington
  • Jane C. Washington
  • John A. Washington
  • John H. Washington
  • Julia E Washington
  • L.Q. Washington
  • Lawrence Washington
  • Louis Washington
  • Marie Washington
  • Martha Washington
  • P.G. Washington
  • R.C. Washington
  • Richard Washington
  • Richard Blackburn Washington
  • S.T. Washington
  • Samuel Washington
  • Sarah Washington
  • T.B. Washington
  • Warner Washington
  • William Washington
  • William Augustine Washington
  • William Townshend Washington
Examples of items:
  • 1602: Washington family deed signed by Lawrence and Hobarth Washington
  • December 9 and 18, 1796: Moses Everett to H. Everett on hearing Washington speak and meeting both George and Martha Washington
  • December 18, 1799: Jonathan Bayard Smith to Robert Frazer, regarding the death of Washington and its effect on Congress and the citizens of Philadelphia
  • 1800: Pamphlet "Eulogy on General Washington," by John A.M. Andrews
  • March 1, 1809: Henry Lee legal document concerning debt, collateral, and accumulated interest of Henry Lee to Bushrod Washington
  • 1825 August 27: William Townshend Washington, Letter of expatriation written from the Harbor of Smyrna
  • c.1830: [George Washington Parke Custis]: "Custis Recollections of the Life & Character of Washington," including two reminiscences: "The Levee" and "The Drawing Room"
  • March 1844: Mary E. Custis essay on "The Tomb of Washington"
  • February 22, 1849: Jarvis M. Hatch's address to the Utica Lodge, number 47 of Freemasons on the anniversary of the birth of George Washington
  • May 8, 1760: Jared Sparks to George Henry Moore concerning General Charles Lee's contact with General Howe in 1777, and his thoughts on Valley Forge
  • July 22, 1762: Edward Everett to Charles A. Dana concerning his biography of Washington
  • Undated: One pink and one olive-colored ribbon with a pictures of George Washington and the words "Washington Literary Association"

Philippine History Small Manuscripts Collection, 1619-1962

1.5 Linear Feet — 1 archive box, 1 manuscript box, 1 oversized flat box, and 1 small box containing a reel of microfilm.

The Philippine History Small Manuscripts Collection consists of 27 individual manuscripts--each less than 0.25 linear feet--related to the history of the Philippines. The collection includes correspondence, books, diaries, photographs, and microfilm gathered from various sources covering a wide chronological span, from the 17th century through the mid-20th century, with the bulk of the material related to the U.S. occupation of the Philippines from the Spanish-American War (1898) through World War II (1939-1945).

The Philippine History Small Manuscripts Collection consists of 27 small collections (each less than 0.25 linear feet) related to the history of the Philippines. These collections have been compiled over time from various sources. The materials cover a wide span in chronology and content, from 17th century Spanish Jesuit ethnology to mid-20th century photographs of Filipino politicians. The bulk of the material covers the period from the Spanish-American War (1898) through World War II (1939-1945), primarily representing American perspectives and stories. For instance, there are many examples of U.S. soldiers' diaries, recording their military experiences in the Philippines, especially during the Philippine-American War. Of particular note are two collections authored by Emilio Aguinaldo and Manuel Quezon, both Filipino politicians and presidents who played important roles in shaping the history and governance of the Philippines following independence from Spain.


Gibbs family papers, 1635-1846

51 items (0.25 linear feet)

The Gibbs family papers consist primarily of copies of 17th century documents relating to early colonial history. Also important is a collection of courtship letters, a set of diaries, and a genealogical tract.

The Gibbs family papers are a heterogeneous collection consisting largely of copies of 17th century documents apparently made by William Gibbs (b. 1785) in the 1820s when studying the early colonial history of Essex County, Mass. Most of the documents relate to Cape Ann and the towns of Salem, Lynn, and Beverly, and include a number of items pertaining to the sale or grant of lands by Massachusett Indians to English settlers. Several are copies of depositions taken from elderly Native Americans between 1680 and 1700, documenting their recollections of the earliest land transactions, borders between towns, and the etymology and Massachusett names for rivers and other geographic features. The collection also includes copies of two letters written by William Gilbert, who bears an uncertain relation to the Gibbs, to his grandparents in England. In the first of these, Gibbs provides an excellent description of the destruction wreaked upon the towns of eastern Massachusetts during King Philip's War, and the in the second, he writes of being afraid to return home to England due to the depredations of "Turks" upon "richly Loaden" American shipping.

Among the more important materials in the Gibbs papers are Henry Gibbs' (1709-1759) copies of 21 of his 27 courtship letters to his first wife, Margaret Fitch, written between December 27th, 1737 and December 19th, 1738 (the first of the letters preserved is numbered "6", and they continue in unbroken succession until one month before the couple was married). These letters provide an intimate view of the initiation and pursuit of a relationship between members of two of Salem's elite families. From the beginning, the letters are familiar, affectionate, even flirtatious, becoming ever more so over the course of the year. "I ought to look upon myself as somewhat unreasonable in my desires," he wrote in letter no. 8 (the third preserved), "when ye more I am with you, ye more Covetous I am of being so, & yt it is with regrett yt I am even now at a distance from you: however, I can't but regard it as a sure presage yt (if ever it be my happy Lott to live with you) your Company will alwaies be a Source of ye most pleasing entertainment & Delight to me." Elsewhere (letter 10), he wrote "When I mention ye friendship I have for you, I am far from confining it to a cold, Stoical Approbation of ye good qualities I think you possessed of, but include in it all yt is meant by Love considered as an Affection of ye Soul. Tis this tender passion joined with that regard & esteem which reason and judgement approve of, yt is ye only foundation of ye pleasure yt is ever found in Friendship." In this correspondence, Henry eloquently describes weddings, a Quaker meeting he attended, the love lives of acquaintances, local gossip, and above all, often at considerable length, his ideas of love. At several crucial junctures in letter 16, Henry resorted to the use of a code to disguise passages dealing with an apparently embarrassing encounter with a newly married friend. The letters are a rich source for the study of views of love and marriage among the upper classes in colonial Massachusetts.

A second important set of items in the Gibbs Papers are the diaries of Henry Gibbs (1749-1794) written between April 14th, 1789 and May 17th, 1793 (with some gaps). Gibbs' diaries are filled with deeply religious sentiments, fretting over the state of his soul and of the world, but contain numerous references to secular events, and moving discussions of sickness in the family, death, and other major life crises.

William Gibbs (b. 1785) was the author of a genealogical tract, Family notices collected by William Gibbs, of Lexington, Mass. (Lexington, Mass., 1845), and each of the first three Henry Gibbs is included in John L. Sibley's biographies of Harvard graduates.


George Townshend, 1st Marquis Townshend papers, 1649-1848 (majority within 1764-1772)

2.25 linear feet

The papers of George Townshend, 4th Viscount and 1st Marquis Townshend, particularly concerning his lord lieutenancy of Ireland.

The collection contains 127 letters and 7 letterbooks, covering the years 1649 to 1848, with the bulk concentrated around 1767-1772. The materials relate almost entirely to Townshend's career as lord lieutenant of Ireland.

The Correspondence series primarily contains Townshend's incoming correspondence for the 1760s and 1770s, with a small number of outgoing items written by Townshend. Letters concern Townshend's political career, the politics of Ireland, the Seven Years War, political patronage, and Townshend's social and family life. While sailing to North America in the spring of 1759, Townshend wrote some of the earliest letters in the collection to his wife Charlotte; in these he described the voyage and his shipmates. On February 18, 1759, he mentioned acquainting himself with a French pilot on the deck of the HMS Neptune, and wished that his young son George could see the assemblage of ships at Plymouth. Other early letters relate to his career in Parliament, including a bill to expand the militia, which he strongly supported (May 11, 1765).

During 1767 to 1772, the years in which Townshend served as lord-lieutenant of Ireland, the bulk of letters concern Irish politics, political patronage, and Townshend's social life in Dublin. One frequent topic was the augmentation of the army in Ireland, which Townshend advocated as a way to standardize the size of British and Irish regiments. The collection includes the comments of William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, on the subject (March 14, 1768), as well as those of Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Earl of Grafton (October 18, 1768). Also present is Lord Frederick North's discussion of another of Townshend's undertakings, the division of the Irish Board of Revenue into two boards of excise and customs (January 3, 1771), and Shelburne's comments on a bill to enable Catholics to lend money to Protestants (May 7, 1768).

In addition to references to these political issues, the Correspondence series contains numerous mentions of patronage as well as payments made to several Irish politicians. On January 16, 1768, Shelburne wrote to Townshend, acknowledging his "secret and confidential" letters and recommended offering a "certain Salary" to the lord chief justice of the Kings Bench in Ireland. He also noted, "In regard of the Bill for Appointing The Judges during good Behaviour, I can add nothing more to what I have already said on that Subject to your Excellency." Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquis Bath, noted in a letter that "other Opportunities must be found, as soon as possible, for providing for some of the most eminent of those Gentlemen who so honorably supported Government the last Session of Parliament" (July 8, 1769). In addition, Townshend received frequent requests from friends and acquaintances for favors and minor roles in the government. This includes a request by a Henrietta Macartney that Townshend confer on her younger brother "any small place of about four hundred pounds a year" (February 11, 1768), as well as a request for a favor from William Barrington for a friend's son. Occasional bits of Irish news, letters concerning family matters (including the death of Townshend's wife in August 1770), and remarks about Townshend's departure from Ireland in late 1772 are also part of this series. On this last topic, Richard Jackson wrote, that the exit must provide "agreeable Relief to you from the long Fatigue and Trouble of a painful Preeminence in this Country" (September 4, 1772).

The Letter Books series contains 7 letter books covering 1767-1772. The original numbering of volumes 1-7 has been kept despite some overlapping dates. The letter books consist of George Townshend's outgoing letters to various recipients, including, among many others, William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington; Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton; William Petty-FitzMaurice, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne (known as the Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784); Frederick North, Lord North; and John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. Several early letters contain references to the death his younger brother, Charles, in August 1767, and the family's grief over the loss. However, most letters relate to politics, patronage and appointments, and Townshend's activities as the lord-lieutenant of Ireland. In letters to his colleagues, Townshend wrote candidly about many topics, including the filling of political vacancies, conditions in Ireland, and his agenda for augmenting the army in Ireland and reorganizing the Irish Board of Revenue. In a letter of November 28, 1768 (Volume 1), he wrote to Grafton, "With respect to Ireland it is true Sir that Preferments in the Church since I have been here, have gone chiefly and in unnatural Proportion to the Natives." To Lord Frederick Campbell, he wrote about the Irish poor: "The emancipating the poor Irish Peasants from the savage Oppressive Landlords…will have a very salutary effect both upon the Service of the Crown & the prosperity of the Kingdom." ([January 1769] Volume 1, page 337). The letterbooks provide a wealth of information on the various positions taken by Townshend, as well as the duties required of him as lord-lieutenant.


Letters, Documents, & Sermons, Blandina Diedrich collection, 1652-1967 (majority within 1726-1886)

1.25 linear feet

The Blandina Diedrich Collection is a selection of manuscript items compiled by her son Duane Norman Diedrich and dedicated to her memory. The content of these letters, sermons, documents, and other materials reflect the life and interests of Blandina Diedrich (1903-1996), most prominently subjects pertinent to Christianity, home, and the family.

The Blandina Diedrich Collection is a selection of manuscript items compiled by her son Duane Norman Diedrich and dedicated to her memory. The manuscripts reflect the life and interests of Blandina Diedrich, most prominently Christianity, home, and the family. Items include sermons from prominent ministers or preachers of different Protestant denominations, documents related to church operations and discipline, letters by prominent and everyday persons respecting their faith and beliefs, correspondence of missionaries, and reflections on religion's role in all manner of human endeavor.

The collection is comprised of over 260 letters, manuscript sermons and hymns, documents, and other items. For a comprehensive inventory and details about each item in the collection, please see the box and folder listing below.


Thomas and Jonathan Danforth collection, 1656-1688

7 items

The Thomas and Jonathan Danforth collection contains documents pertaining to legal matters reflecting comtemporary procedures relating to testimony and bail, overseen by the Danforths in late-17th century Massachusetts.

The Thomas and Jonathan Danforth collection contains documents pertaining to legal matters overseen by the Danforths in late-17th century Massachusetts. Among the documents are brief, signed statements concerning property disputes and other legal matters that reflect contemporary legal procedures related to testimony and bail. Thomas and Jonathan Danforth were directly involved in most of the cases, in both personal and legal capacities. The collection also includes a document pertaining to the construction of a bridge over the Concord River near Billerica, Massachusetts, as well as "A Transcript of birth, in the Towne of Billerica" that records several births between October 1687 and February 1688. Thomas and Jonathan Danforth each signed three items, one item was signed by both men.


Anne-Louis de Tousard papers, 1659-1932 (majority within 1777-1820)

3.75 linear feet

The Tousard papers contain the correspondence of the army officer and military engineer Anne-Louis de Tousard, relating to his plantation in Saint-Domingue (Haiti), military service, and family life.

The Correspondence and Documents seriescontain 3.75 linear feet of material, arranged chronologically, and spanning 1659-1932 (bulk 1778-1820). The collection contains both incoming and outgoing letters, covering Tousard's service in the American Revolutionary War, his management of a coffee plantation in Haiti, family life, settlement in the United States beginning in 1793, and military activities in Haiti and America. The majority of the material is in French, with a few scattered items in English. Most of the letters have been translated into English; quotes in this finding aid draw from those translations.

After a 1659 inventory of property owned by "M. Touzard," an ancestor of Louis Tousard, the collection opens with several letters pertaining to Tousard's time in North America during the American Revolution. These include several lengthy letters items by Tousard himself with commentary on his French and American Army officers, the progress of the war, his attempts at learning English, and his impressions of several cities. In a long letter dated August 3, 1777, he noted the capture of Fort Ticonderoga by the British and the desire of Americans to put General Philip Schuyler on trial for its surrender. He also stated that everything in Philadelphia cost "a dreadful price" and that "the money here is discredited." In the same letter, he discussed the major generalship that had been promised to, and later taken from, Philippe Charles Tronson de Coudray and called the Americans "vain, disunited, envying and detesting the French." Tousard's relatives, including his mother, wrote the bulk of other letters during the period. These primarily share news of the Tousards' social circle in France and occasionally make brief reference to political turmoil there.

Beginning in 1786, the focus of the collection shifts to the courtship and eventual marriage partnership of Marie-Reine St. Martin, a young widow and native of Saint-Domingue, and Louis Tousard. Their affectionate sequence of letters begins December 23, 1786. In addition to revealing details of their personalities and relationship, the letters also shed light on their shared management of several coffee plantations and dozens of slaves. Louis' letters to Marie discuss politics in Haiti and France, show the difficulty of importing desired goods to Haiti, and express regret that he must frequently spend time away from her. The couple frequently articulated the idea that together they formed an effective partnership; in a letter of January 26, 1788, Louis wrote, "On my arrival I shall tell you my plans. You will tell me yours and from the two we shall make a single one." In another letter, he stated his dependence "entirely on [Marie's] good judgment" in managing their coffee workforce (May 3, 1789). The letters also provide details of plantation life, including the preciousness of wine and bacon and difficulties of obtaining them (June 20, 1787), Marie's hobbies and entertainments on the plantation (May 3, 1789), and the difficulties of feeding the slaves and workmen (April 3 and 6, 1789).

In their letters, the couple also wrote frankly about their slaves. Escape seems to have been a frequent occurrence; after a particular incident, Louis urged Marie not to become discouraged and assured her that "[t]he slaves will soon stop running away…. Try to make them be afraid of me" (December 28, 1787). In another letter, presumably after a similar event, Louis wrote to tell Marie that he had sent "two collars to help the Maroon negroes to walk in the woods or at least able to feel their stupidity in creating enduring shame for themselves" ([No month] 27, 1787; filed at the end of 1787). The Tousards also complained that their slaves stole from them ([1787]) and inspired each other to rebellion (January 17, 1788). In addition to doling out punishments to them, Louis and Marie also sometimes expressed affection for various slaves, and presented them with gifts of clothing and food. In one incident, Marie went further and defended a slave, referred to repeatedly as "The African": "The poor African was beaten by a driver. I have complained, but I could not obtain justice" (January 10, 1793). Louis also commonly worked alongside the slaves that he oversaw, and sometimes even noted, "I worked like a slave," as in a letter of May 3, 1789. The letters are especially valuable for the detailed information they provide on the complexities of the master-slave relationship.

Although Tousard's regiment attempted to put down the Haitian Revolution, the collection contains only a handful of references to fighting. The most direct, dated "September 1791," likely refers to an engagement at Port-Margot. On the subject, Tousard wrote, "I gave a lesson to the cavalry. I taught them to charge. Two cannon shots were fired at us and they had not time to fire again. In one minute we were upon them and cut them down." Thereafter, the collection documents Tousard's imprisonment in France and contains some material concerning his later military career and family life, including letters between Tousard, his daughters, and their husbands. Also among the later items are a small number relating to his consular appointments in Philadelphia and New Orleans. Two letters concern the quarantine imposed on ships arriving in Philadelphia during the yellow fever epidemic of 1798, the first of which (Timothy Pickering to Tousard; June 27, 1798) informs Tousard of the decision of Congress to prevent ships from Saint-Domingue landing at Philadelphia, ordering him to stand by in his capacity as Major of Artillery. The second is a copy of orders to Stephen Decatur to prevent the landing of a ship manned by "Frenchmen and Negroes," the latter of whom "have discovered a Disposition to outrage" (June 28, 1798). Tousard's letter of July 25, 1814, includes a detailed discussion of the attitudes of the French residents of New Orleans toward the Bourbons. Suffice it to say that Tousard, the Royalist, elicited the negative attention of the "Jacobins" of New Orleans. The collection closes with letters between Tousard's daughters, Caroline and Laurette, and several items concerning his death on March 4, 1817.

The Tousard papers also contain many undated items, which have been placed at the end. These include a significant number of letters by Marie, who frequently left date information off her letters, as well as a small printed portrait of Tousard. Also present is an uncut bookplate, showing Tousard's coat-of-arms, motto, liberty cap, artillery, and the right arm that he lost during the Battle of Rhode Island in 1778. Also of interest is a biographical sketch of Tousard, written by one of his nieces sometime after his death.

The Account Book series includes one account book with entries dated from 1813 to 1816. Louis and Laurette Tousard appear several times throughout the volume.

The Printed Items series contains two items, Histoire des Six Dernières Années de l'Ordre de Malte (1805) and Justification of Lewis Tousard Addressed to the National Convention of France. Written and Published from the Bloody Prisons of the Abbaye, by Himself. The 24th of January, 1793 (Philadelphia: Daniel Humphreys, 1793).


Charles Townshend papers, 1660-1804 (majority within 1748-1767)

9.5 linear feet

The Townshend papers included the private and public records of Charles Townshend who served in various positions in the government of Great Britain including as Secretary of War during the Seven Years War and as Chancellor of the Exchequer where he authored the Townshend Acts to tax the American colonies.

The Townshend papers contain approximately 2,600 items, including letters, documents, accounts, and printed matter relating to the public life and activities of Charles Townshend, gathered largely during the last period of his career. The collection is an extremely valuable resource for study of British commercial and mercantile policy in the 1760s, administrative perspectives on the mounting crisis in the North American colonies, and the inner workings of British political life. The papers reflect Townshend's serious research efforts in his role as policymaker; much of the collection consists of documents that he gathered for his own information on legal cases, British politics, financial and treasury matters, and affairs in North America, the West Indies, and Africa. Also present is a small amount of incoming and outgoing correspondence and an assortment of memoranda and speech drafts by Townshend. The collection spans 1660-1804, but the bulk centers around the 1750s and 1760s, when Townshend held an appointment on the Board of Trade and Plantations (1748-1754) and served as Lord of the Admiralty (1754), Secretary-at-War (1762-1763), President of the Board of Trade (1763-1765), Paymaster General (1765-1766) and Chancellor of the Exchequer (1766-1767). The collection was originally arranged by Charles Townshend into numerous bundles marked with wrappers. This original order has largely been maintained and hence, document types and topics are scattered across the collection.

See "Additional Descriptive Data" for a partial subject index of the papers as well as a list of printed matter in the collection.


A moderate amount of Townshend's incoming and outgoing correspondence is located throughout the collection. This includes contemporary copies of his letters to and from William Barrington and Thomas Gage relating to the War Office during his time as Secretary-at-War (Box 8/ Bundle 2), numerous incoming letters concerning patronage and requesting favors (8/3/A), and correspondence between Townshend and John Morton concerning politics and happenings in the House of Commons in 1764-1766 (8/37). Also present are a series of letters written from the Mediterranean by Commodore Augustus Keppel, describing British peace negotiations with Tunis and Tripoli and the signing of a treaty on October 21, 1751, (Box 297/1/2) and incoming correspondence on a variety of topics from William Dowdeswell, George Sackville-Germain, George Younge, William Shirley, Edmund Burke, Wellbore Ellis, George Macaulay, Edward Walpole, Henry Pelham-Clinton (3rd Duke of Newcastle), and John Stuart, (3rd Earl Bute).

Legal Papers

The collection also contains scattered documents relating to legal issues and court cases in the late-18th century. The box marked 8/5 contains accounts of the court cases of the following parties, heard before the House of Lords and the Commissioners of Appeals in 1760: Francis Watkins; Francis Dalby; the Proprietors of Sulbrave, Northamptonshire; the Pennsylvania Land Company; a group of London fishmongers; and John Potter, Archbishop of Canterbury. Also represented are several cases concerning prizes captured by Dutchmen (8/5). Other legal papers include those relating to Townshend's wife, Caroline, 1st Baroness Greenwich, which span 1754 to 1789 and are located in Box 298, and documents concerning Samuel Waldo and his service in the Siege of Louisburg (8/24/a).

Other Documents

The Charles Townshend papers contain numerous documents gathered by Townshend for his own information or created by him during the process of policymaking. These include many items relating to North America, including reports on trade, military matters, the characteristics and features of various regions, and debates on British policies. Among the military-related topics addressed are recruitment for the British army in North America in the years 1753-1763 (8/22), expenses of maintaining a force in North America for 1765-1766 (8/28), the cost of maintaining various British forts (8/31), and the debate over foreign officers' commissions in America in 1756 (8/4). Other items concern trade between North America and Great Britain; this includes a 1761 memorandum on the prevalence of smuggling in Boston (297), information on Newfoundland fisheries (8/4 and 299), and notes on the importation of iron bar from America (299). A group of undated documents relate to the settlement of East and West Florida (8/34) and the expenses related to the settlement of East Florida by Greeks (297/4/5). Box 8/31 contains Townshend's own notes on his proposal to impose new duties on salt, wine, oil, fruit, glass, tea, sugar, molasses, china, and paper. A draft of the Townshend Duties is also included in the papers.

Other documents in the collection concern a variety of British political matters, such as contested 1754 English parliamentary elections (8/32), estimates of the strength of several parties in the House of Commons (8/42), and proceedings against John Wilkes in the House of Commons (296). The collection also includes Townshend notes for his speeches opposing the Marriage Act (298), and documents concerning his election to Parliament for Great Yarmouth in 1754 and 1756 (8/52).

Additional scattered papers relate to world trade and matters of the British Treasury. A substantial amount of material concerns the East India Company, including debates on the taxation of tea, memoranda concerning precedents for government intervention in East India Company matters, and Townshend's 1766 notes on a bill concerning East India, all of which are located in the Bowhill Box. Box 298 contains many lists and statistics on British imports and exports abroad, particularly to the North American colonies. Other documents pertain to the British manufacture of earthenware and china, the coal trade (8/40), and trade with Africa, including the activities of the Committee on African trade in 1752-1754 (297/5/3).


Loammi Baldwin and Loammi Baldwin, Jr. papers, 1662-1864 (majority within 1785-1835)

4.75 linear feet

Family and business papers of Loammi Baldwin and his son Loammi Baldwin, Jr., engineers of Woburn, Massachusetts.

Family and business papers of Loammi Baldwin and his son Loammi Baldwin, Jr., engineers of Woburn, Massachusetts.

This collection contains family deeds dating to the seventeenth century, but the bulk of the materials lies between 1785 and 1835. The papers include 479 maps and considerable correspondence between members of the Baldwin family. James Fowle Baldwin was superintendent for construction of the Boston and Lowell Railroad and, as a state senator, served on a commission to investigate sources of pure water for Boston. George Rumford Baldwin (b. 1798) constructed the canal between the Alatamaha and Turtle Rivers in Georgia. The correspondence of Loammi Baldwin, Jr., contains letters from Secretaries of the Navy, governors of Massachusetts, Boston officials, and incorporators of the early canals and railroads. Drafts of his replies, reports, engineering estimates, printed materials, and accounts are among the papers.


J. Green, Commentaries on the Book of Genesis, 1663-1664

1 volume

This volume contains 303 pages of commentary on parts of the Book of Genesis, composed between May 31, 1663, and November 13, 1664. The commentaries include summaries of verses, as well as associated questions, answers, and observations.

This vellum-bound volume (7.5"x5.5") contains 303 densely written pages of commentary on the Book of Genesis, composed between May 31, 1663, and November 13, 1664. The author dated the commentaries roughly once a month, and sequentially covered Genesis 13:1-25:34, including much of the story of Abraham and the beginning of the story of Jacob. The author wrote commentaries for individual verses, occasionally running several pages in length, and he or she often provided a summary of the events described in the original text. Questions, accompanying answers, and additional observations explore the verses in greater depth and provide an interpretation of their meaning, occasionally referring to additional Bible verses.

The signature of J. Green is on the first page of the manuscript, dated 1708. "Saml. Gerrish" appears on the same page.


Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney papers, 1665-1828 (majority within 1780-1788)

4.25 linear feet

The Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney papers contain the official letters of Lord Sydney, spanning his entire political career, as well as material related to his grandfather, Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend (1664-1738); his father, the Honorable Thomas Townshend (1701-1780); and his son, John Thomas Townshend, 2nd Viscount Sydney (1764-1831). Of note is material related to the Shelburne ministry and the Paris peace negotiations at the end of the American Revolutionary War (1782-1783).

The Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney papers (approximately 1,000 items) contain the official papers of Lord Sydney, as well as letters and documents related to his grandfather, Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend (1664-1738); his father, the Honorable Thomas Townshend (1701-1780); and his son, John Thomas Townshend, 2nd Viscount Sydney (1764-1831). The collection is primarily made up of incoming letters and government documents, along with some drafts of letters written by Sydney. Of note is material related to the Shelburne ministry and the Paris peace negotiations (1782-1783).

The Secret Instructions and State Documents relating to the Negotiations for the Independence of America series (51 items) is comprised of two bound volumes of letters and documents. These include letters, reports, negotiation instructions, printed treaty articles, and minutes of the Privy Council, all related to the Peace of Paris that ended the American Revolution. Present are items in the hand of Sydney; William Petty, Lord Shelburne; Henry Seymour Conway; Evan Nepean; Thomas Orde; and Henry Strachey (see Additional Descriptive Data for an index of this material).

The Correspondence and Documents series (approximately 940 items) comprises the bulk of the collection and consists largely of incoming official letters and documents written during Sydney's political career.

The earliest material (1665-1761) relates to the official capacities of Sydney's forebears, Horatio Townshend, Charles Townshend, and the Honorable Thomas Townshend. These papers concern local politics, particularly regardingWhitchurch, as well as international affairs and trade relations with Europe, the West Indies, and America, including issues surrounding the international slave trade. Other topics covered in this period are currency issues in the American colonies, trade issues with Spain and the Spanish-controlled West Indies and South America, and dealings with the South Sea Company.

While the earliest Sydney item is a memo from [1748] concerning French Fishing rights off Newfoundland and Cape Breton, the first substantial grouping of his papers begins in 1762, when Sydney served as clerk of the board of green cloth. The collection documents each of Sydney's subsequent official roles: lord of the treasury (1765-1766), paymaster of the forces under William Pitt and member of the Privy Council (1767-1768), and active opposition voice in the House of Commons (1769-1782). Much of this material is related to Parliamentary responsibilities, trade, and politics concerning the Pay Office. Approximately 200 items relate to Sydney's office in the Shelburne ministry during 1782. Of note are 51 items about the Paris peace negotiations, consisting of letters, secret instructions, official documents, minutes of council meetings, and memoranda, and letters between Shelburne and Sydney on the peace process and other foreign affairs in the Mediterranean, Portugal, and Spain.

Approximately 300 items fall between 1783 and 1789, when Sydney served the Pitt ministry. This material concerns home politics, election news, lawmaking, intelligence from Europe (primarily Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Spain), and British interests in India. The collection contains about 200 items, scattered throughout the collection, concerning the West Indies, including letters, memorials, petitions, and customs documents, many of which relate to the Leeward Islands during the American Revolutionary War, and to the St. Eustatius affair in 1781. Also of note are 16 letters from Sydney to George III, and 12 letters to Sydney from the King, as well as 20 letters from British Secretary of War George Young between 1775 and 1788.

The last 34 items relate to John Thomas Townshend, 2nd Viscount Sydney (1764-1831), covering the period from his father's death in 1800 until 1830. These letters are both social and political in nature. Of note is an 1803 document proposing a new order of knighthood called the "Order of Military Merit."

The series contains 74 undated items. These are ordered by creator's last name, with 39 miscellaneous fragments, documents, poems, essays in Latin, and printed items at the end.

Selected Highlights from the Correspondence and Documents series

Pre-Sydney Material (1665-1761):
  • March 11, 1708 and [1708]: Petitions from the governors and assemblies of the Leeward Islands and St. Christopher to Queen Anne petitioning for protection from invaders
  • Board of Trade to Queen Anne concerning Governor of New York Robert Hunter's proposal to settle 3,000 Palatines in New York and to employ them in the production of naval stores
  • March 31, 1724: Auditors to the treasury department reporting on money due Robert Hunter for providing subsistence for the Palatines sent to New York
  • [1730]: Charles Townshend's "Considerations on the Assiento Contract" and the slave trade in the West Indies
  • November 1, 1732: Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount, to Charles Townshend, 3rd Viscount, containing instructions for managing Whitchurch
  • October 4, 1733: Lewis Morris to the Great Britain Board of Trade on "Reasons against Paper Currency in New York and New Jersey"
  • February 17, 1735: Francis Harrison reporting on politics in New York from the point of view of the "court party"
  • January 15, 1736 and [1736]: Three items providing opinions on liquor licensing in England
  • January 12, 1738: William Richardson concerning the selling of wine to Cambridge University
  • [1740]: Proposed method "for supplying the Brazills with Negros, & an Encrease of the British Trade and Navigation"
  • [1745]: "A Plan for Negotiation of a Peace with Spain"
  • September 4, 1746: Ferdinand VI to Joseph Ruiz de Noriega, granting trading privileges for trading slaves in the Spanish colonies
  • [1748]: Remarks on the taking of Fort St. Louis by Admiral Knowles (March 8, 1747/1748)
  • September 27, 1751: James Ord to Henry Pelham, inclosing three items, one describing "The Present State of the African Trade particularly with relation to the English Collonys"
  • [1753]: Petition to George II from Lord Baltimore for consent to "Bar the Entail upon the Province of Maryland"
  • [1760]: Document on the Settlement of Nova Scotia and Louisbourg by the British
Sydney's early political career (1761-1781):
  • May 1-June 10, 1769 and October-December 1772: Intelligence concerning tension between the British and the Caribs ("Black Charibs") of St. Vincent and plans for an expedition against the Caribs
  • [1771], May 31, 1772: Report on Puerto Rico for Sir Ralph Payne and a letter from Daniel O'Flaherty related to the island
  • February 9, 1774: Power of Attorney relating to High Hall Wentworth's sugar plantation in Grenada
  • December 23, 1777: Letter from John Thornton discussing British treatment of prisoners of war and political attitudes toward the American Revolution
  • June 9, 1778: British Peace Commissioners to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, concerning peace negotiations, independence, withdrawing the army, and refugees
  • July 17, 1779: John Frodsham's "Narrative of the Proceedings of His Majesty's Fleet, under the Command of Vice Admiral Byron from 25th May 1779 to the 15th July 1779" written from St. Kitts
  • July 26, 1779: Anonymous letter on the Spanish declaration of war
  • November 27, 1779: Letter of support from an anonymous merchant approving Sydney's stand against Lord North in the House of Commons
  • [1779]: Intelligence on the French Fleet in the West Indies near Jamaica
  • [1780]: Edward Thomson's estimate of the forces necessary to take Surinam
  • July 30, 1781; April 20, 1782; September and October 1782: English translation of "A true and impartial Account of the present State of Peru" and intelligence on a revolt in Peru
Sydney's service in the Shelburne ministry (1782):
  • February-July, 1782: Letters from Sir Robert Boyd concerning the siege of Gibraltar and Boyd's procuring of 12 Lamego hams as a prize
  • August 7, 1782: James Macabee to Shelburne from the Salopian Coffeehouse, outlining a "plan for an expedition against the Havannah, connected with an idea conducive to pacification with America"
  • August 13, 1782: Proposal from Benedict Arnold to Shelburne to fund the construction of a ship of war
  • August 24, 1782: John Murray Dunmore, 4th earl of Dunmore, to Sydney containing a proposal to settle displaced Loyalists on the Mississippi River after the American Revolution
  • September 4, 1782: Anonymous letter opposing the sending of an ambassador to the Barbary State of Morocco
  • [September 1782]: Report translated from the Spanish on a revolt in Peru
Sydney's service in the Pitt ministry (1783-1789):
  • [1783]: Notes on New England trade
  • June 25, 1784: Henry Caldwell to Thomas Townshend, concerning taxes and the Quebec Act's effect on Canada
  • July 17, 1784: Intelligence from Juan Pablo Viscardo y Guzman, on the state of Spanish settlements in South America
  • September 24, 1784: William Pitt to Sydney enclosing a letter from George III to Pitt concerning the East India Company and military forces in India[1784]: Document containing "observations on the Statute of 14 Geo: 3 For regulating Madhouses"
  • [1784]: "Case of an English Subject at the Capture of Saint Eustatius by Lord Rodney and General Vaughan in the year 1781"
  • [1785]: Document containing a "Comparative View of the Trade to Jamaica from the Continent of America in the years 1784 & 1785 and before the War"
  • January 9, 1786: Marquis de Lafayette to John Adams dealing with trade between American and French merchants
  • June 28, 1786: Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Henry Hope to Evan Nepean concerning Canadian politics and governance
  • July 5, 1786: Documents and copies of letters from Sir George Brydges Rodney, commander in chief of the West Indies to the Secretary of the Navy, concerning St. Eustatius and the Leeward Islands, and from William Knox on the St. Eustatius Bill
  • June 30, 1788: Thomas de Grey to Sydney concerning William Pitt's slave bill
  • December 3, 1788 and [1788]: Resolution from the Privy Council containing the record of examination by George III's physicians of his illness and a report on the medical treatment given to the King
  • March 1, 1789: Report from "Speculator A" to Sydney concerning corruption in Cape Breton
  • April 9, 1789: Richard Downing Jennings account of the proceedings of Lord Rodney and General Vaughan at St. Eustatius
  • June 6, 1789: Statement for Sydney's secret service-related accounts
  • May 28, 1790: George Townshend memorandum to the House of Lords concerning the importation of personal property by subjects of the United States
  • November 20, 1792: Sydney to unknown concerning the French character and the French role in the American Revolution
Undated items:
  • Memorial from John Blankett regarding establishing a colony for convicts on Madagascar
  • Extracts from Captain Arthur Phillip's diary detailing affairs with diamond mining in Brazil
  • William Townshend to Nicholas Hawksmoor containing a brief note and a detailed pencil sketch of the doorway in the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford
  • Sydney's notes on the economy of New England
  • Miscellaneous document: Observations on a bill to regulate distillers
  • Miscellaneous document: On the status of St. Lucia
  • Miscellaneous document: On the status of Surinam in the 17th century

The Additional Items series (3 items) consists of an account book, a legal report, and a legal document. The account book documents governmental expenses for secret services during the American Revolution, many of which are disbursements for Evan Nepean (1782-1791). The legal report concerns an inquiry into Edward Lascelles, collector of customs in Barbados, by Surveyor General Robert Dinwiddie (c.1745). The final item is a "Deed of trust" for land and slaves owned by Henry Compton and others in St. Kitts Island.


William Petty, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne, 2nd Earl of Shelburne papers, 1665-1885

48 linear feet

This collection contains the letters and official papers of Lord Shelburne, British politician, Member of Parliament, secretary of state for the Southern Department, and Prime Minister. The papers document British foreign, colonial, and domestic affairs throughout the 18th century with special focus on the periods 1766-1768 and 1782-1783.

The William Petty, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne, 2nd Earl of Shelburne papers consist of the letters and official papers of Lord Shelburne, British politician, member of parliament, secretary of state for the Southern Department, and Prime Minister from 1782-1783. These document British foreign, colonial, and domestic affairs, covering the 18th century with special focus on the periods 1766-1768 and 1782-1783. The papers are made up of dispatches, memoranda, trade statistics, reports, essays, questionnaires, and copies of treaties. They cover the conduct of the French and Indian War; the colonies in North America and the West Indies; the 1783 American peace negotiations in Paris; relations with Europe, Africa, and India; the management of the royal household's lands and revenues (1745-1789); and records of the Home Office, Parliament, Customs Revenue, Board of Trade, Army, Navy, War, and Pay offices and Treasury (1760-1797).

Shelburne was an avid collector of books, pamphlets, manuscripts, reports, maps, and prints, and was known as one of the most well-informed politicians of his day. During his political career, Shelburne had access to, and was able to commission, high level reports on domestic and foreign affairs; his papers reveal the British perspective on foreign relations, civil and military, with Europe, America, India, and Africa. Shelburne and his personal librarian Samuel Paterson collected and organized much of the present collection when Shelburne retired from political office.

In addition to the official letters, the collection contains family papers, including letters from Shelburne to his wife Sophia, to his son John, and from his young son William Granville. The Lacatia-Shelburne series, acquired separately from the rest of the collection, is comprised of 207 official letters originally belonging to Shelburne.

The European and Mediterranean Politics series (42 volumes) documents British diplomatic relations and financial interests in Europe and northern Africa. The series contains political and diplomatic letters and copies of letters with officials from the major powers of Europe, including: Austria, France, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Spain, and Switzerland, as well as Mediterranean powers such as the Ottoman Empire, the Barbary States (Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli), and the Italian states. Also present are copies of treaties and reports on the military and trade capabilities of many of these nations. Though they cover British foreign relations from the beginning of the 18th century, these papers primarily document the 1760s, including the 1763 Peace of Paris, and Shelburne's activities as secretary of state for Southern Department (1766-1768).

The Colonial Affairs and the 1783 Treaty of Paris series (48 volumes) contains Shelburne's letters and reports concerning the British colonies in North America and the West Indies. Of particular interest is the material related to the negotiations leading up to the Treaty of Paris, which Shelburne supervised as Prime Minister (1782-1783). Included are letters and memoranda from the peace commissioners and secretaries at Paris, such as Richard Oswald, Henry Strachey, Thomas Townshend, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay, among others. Also present are drafts and copies of preliminary treaties and opinions on the ongoing negotiations. The Assiento papers contain official and private letters and documents of the South Sea Company, a British mercantile venture that, for 30 years after the Treaty of Utrecht, had exclusive rights to sell slaves to Spanish territories in America. The papers comprise confidential agent reports, bills for traded goods and slaves, ship inventories, factory reports, and diplomatic letters between Spain and England on slave trade policies.

Other notable material includes:
  • Diplomatic correspondence concerning the end of the Seven Years War (French and Indian War) in 1763
  • Copies of letters, intelligence reports, and documents received by Lord Fox and Shelburne from various European courts during the peace negotiations (1782-1783)
  • Orders, letters, memorials, and documents to and from the colonial governors of the American colonies, Canada, and the West Indies islands
  • Records of West Indian trade, and reports on Jamaica, Barbados, and Tobago (1766-1767)
  • Officially commissioned descriptions of the Islands of St. John, Cape Briton, Magdalen, Grenada, St. Vincent, and Dominica (1765-1767)
  • Reports on commerce with America including trade statistics
  • Letters and papers concerning relations and trade with the Choctaw, Creeks, Mohican, and Six Nation Indians (1703-1767)
  • Questionnaires, with answers, sent to colonial governors concerning the "Civil Establishment" and "Accounts of the Fees of Office" (1766-1767)
  • Accounts of American civil and military expenses (1765-1767)
  • Reports on the Mutiny Act, Indemnity Act, Stamp Act, and other parliamentary laws concerning the American colonies
  • Reports on Spanish and Portuguese settlements in South America and the rights of the Spanish in the South Seas
  • Minutes on African Affairs (1765-1767)
  • Reports and instructions related to Minorca, Gibraltar, and the coast of Africa
  • A letter from George Croghan to Shelburne on the discovery of mastodon bones in Big Lick, Ohio Territory (Volume 48, pages 131-134)

The East Indian Affairs series (11 volumes) contains Shelburne's papers related to British financial and political interests in India. Included are official letters and documents (both originals and copies) transmitted to Shelburne to keep him up to date with activities and conflicts. Shelburne was heavily invested in the East India Company and was one of the company's most vocal advocates in Parliament.

The series includes:
  • A chronological account of significant events in the establishment and activities of the East India Company (1601-1761)
  • Finances and budgets of the East India Company along with copies of original government and business documents (1766-1767)
  • Policy proposals for India and the East India Company including notes for speeches in parliament (1760-1790)
  • A narrative history of the second war with Hyder Ali Khan (Second Anglo-Mysore War), with maps (1779-1782)
  • A narrative history of Indian kingdoms
  • Letters with the Secret Committee of the East India Company and other company officials

The British Government series is comprised of 5 subseries.

The Parliament, Customs Revenue, Trade, Imports, and Exports subseries (39 volumes) contains Shelburne's collection of official records, reports, accounts, and letters related to British customs, taxes, expenses, and trade revenue. These document British financial operations throughout most of the 18th century, and show Shelburne's efforts to reform domestic financial policies.

The subseries includes:
  • Reference tables describing the division of power in British government, including the King, House of Lords, and House of Commons
  • Abstract reports on the Stamp Tax (1734-1764)
  • Customs reports for revenue and departmental expenditures
  • Lists of customs officers and employees
  • Import and export records for trade with Europe, Africa, and America
  • Letters and documents concerning excise taxes, the post office, and the stamp duties
  • Financial reports on the royal household, lands, and revenues (1745-1789) and instructions on the management of the royal estate
  • City of London papers, including proceedings of councils and letters concerning raising troops, establishing meeting halls, quelling riots, crime, and other topics (1588-1783)
  • Reports on England's forests, corn and food, and currency (paper money and coins)

Note: Volume 100, entitled "A Table Reference Concerning the King, Lords, and Commoners," is not the same Volume 100 as noted in the Historic Manuscript Commission Report, which was entitled "East India Correspondence," and is not at the Clements.

The British Army, Navy, and Military Administration subseries (20 volumes) contains material related to the British military and information on foreign forces covering 1694 to 1783.

Included are:
  • Papers on War Office expenses for troops in Britain, Africa, Gibraltar, Scotland, and America (1765-1783)
  • Papers concerning the navies and armies of foreign powers, including Spain, France, and Holland
  • Naval department commissions, expenses, warrants, bills, and patents (1701-1779)
  • Copies Admiralty and Navy Board letters (1695-1779)
  • Shipping lists for equipping stations and ports (1770-1780 and 1783)
  • Copies of intelligence on French and Spanish navies(1777-1780)
  • Contracts for individuals employed by the navy
  • Chronological records of the major policy decisions, events, and projects of the British navy

The volumes in the Ireland subseries (4 volumes) were owned by the Lansdowne family as recently as 1982.

The Cabinet and Treasury Minutes subseries (5 volumes) document Shelburne's governmental activities from 1762-1783. The cabinet minutes cover Shelburne's tenure as secretary of state of the Southern Department from 1766 to 1768. Included are instructions, announcements, and letters concerning issues with military officials and ambassadors in Ireland, Sweden, Spain, and Portugal. The treasury minutes cover Shelburne's activities as Prime Minister from July 1782 to March 1783.

These concern financial matters of the British government, such as:
  • Purchasing land
  • Reviewing petitions and paying reparations to British Loyalists who lost property in the war with America
  • Issuing warrants to the military
  • Paying compensation for ships lost doing official business in the West Indies.

Also present are minutes of motions on various parliamentary subjects, such as the 1780 riots in London, speeches for and against settling peace with America, and speeches concerning French and Spanish treaties (1782-1782).

The Appeals and Minutes of the House of Lords subseries (16 volumes), include 8 volumes that document the "appellant's cases" brought before the House of Lords between 1769 and 1788. These printed volumes contain the case declarations, pleas, breaches, verdicts, final judgments, and reasons. Many entries are manuscript comments about the case. 8 volumes of manuscript minutes of the House of Lords span 1767 to 1788 and include cursory information about bills, petitions, cases, and other business. Several printed copies of the King's speeches to Parliament and the Lords' addresses in reply are included in volumes HL-14, HL-15, and HL-16.

The Personal Correspondence series (167 items) is comprised of two subseries: The Shelburne family letters, the Lansdowne-Bowles letters.

The Shelburne family letters subseries contains seven volumes of material related to Shelburne and his family, including Lady Sophia Carteret, William Granville Petty, John Petty Earl of Wycombe, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, and Lady Louisa Fitzpatrick. Also present are letters from Shelburne to his friend and colleague Thomas Coutts.

These are:
  • Volume 1 contains 47 letters from Shelburne to his first wife Lady Sophia Carteret from 1766 to 1770. In these, Shelburne noted his daily activities, detailing greetings he shared with passers-by, visitors, dining companions, and meetings with government officials and dignitaries. He updated her on news of their friends and acquaintances in London, and frequently expressed his love for her.
  • Volumes 2 and 3 consist of 48 letters to Shelburne from his young son William Granville Petty (1774-1778). Also present are letters from a servant named Thomas Servis who reported on William's health. Volume 3 contains more letters from William, several with mentions of the American Revolution, as well as a short memoir written by William's tutor after the boy's death in 1778, an elegy by his brother Viscount Fitzmaurice, and copies of 4 of William's scholastic essays.
  • Volume 4 contains 37 letters from Shelburne to his son John Petty, Earl Wycombe, from 1768 and 1780-1789. Shelburne primarily wrote of personal and family news, providing many details on John's brother Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice and the health of his step mother Lady Louisa. He also discussed John's social obligations, and occasionally, political events. Also present is a letter in which Shelburne asked the unknown recipient to be the godfather of his newborn son (1768).
  • Volume 5 consists of 23 letters from Shelburne to his friend and colleague Thomas Coutts (1735-1822), a wealthy and prominent London banker who owned the House of Coutts & Company. These letters span 1793 to 1802 and include discussions of personal business, news of acquaintances, and domestic and international politics of the day, such as the French Revolution, William Pitt and other political leaders, and the political state of Ireland.
  • Volume 6 is comprised of three letters and three engraved portraits of Shelburne. The portraits are dated 1780, 1798, and undated, and the letters include a brief note from Shelburne to a Mr. Lawrence (May 10, 1782), a letter from Shelburne to the Earl of Egremont concerning the war in North America and its implications in Europe (July 9, 1762), and a letter from Shelburne to James Currie (September 5, 1800).

The Lansdowne-Bowles letters subseries (69 items) contain letters from Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquis of Lansdowne, and his wife Louisa to Magdalene and William Bowles. The letters span 1806-1835 and 53 items are undated; most are addressed from London. Henry Lansdowne's letters (24 items) are all to Reverend William Bowles, his friend and a frequent recipient of his patronage. Louisa contributed 45 letters, all to Magdalene Bowles; she discussed administrative aspects of a school that they jointly managed. She often remarked on the hiring of new teachers, and assessed their qualifications and personal merits. Louisa also discussed visits to the Lansdowne estate, Bowood, and made queries about the characters of potential visitors.

The Lacaita-Shelburne letters series (706 items) is a collection of letters compiled by Sir James Lacaita and his son Charles Carmichael Lacaita spanning 1692 to 1885. James Lacaita was Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquis of Lansdowne's private secretary from 1857 to 1863, during which time he organized Shelburne's unbound letters. Many items in this series (270 items) are addressed to Shelburne or were originally among his papers. These represent documents from his career, including political matters and discussions of peace negotiations with America (1760-1801). The 19th century material is addressed chiefly to James Lacaita, Lady Holland, Nassau William, Sr., and Anthony Panizzi, mostly from British and Italian politicians and Dante scholars. In all, the series contains letters from 274 contributors, primarily British and Italian lords, politicians, and military figures. See the Name Index for a list of contributors.

In addition to this finding aid, the Clements Library has created a detailed Volume Index and a Name Index and Geographical Index. For additional information see the Clements Library card catalog.


Bland family papers, 1665-1912 (majority within 1778-1834)

58 items

The Bland family papers contain correspondence, documents, and genealogical information related to the family of Theodoric Bland, a Continental Army officer, delegate to the Continental Congress, and Virginia politician.

The Bland family papers contain correspondence, documents, and genealogical information related to the family of Theodoric Bland, a Continental Army officer, delegate to the Continental Congress, and Virginia politician. The earliest items in the Correspondence and Documents series are related to his ancestors, including a court document from "James Citty," listing a "Theo. Bland" as a member of the court (October 16, 1665), and a 1720 letter regarding British military affairs. The Theodoric Bland in this collection wrote the majority of items, often copies of his outgoing correspondence related to local and national politics in the latter years of the American Revolution; among these are letters to Benjamin Harrison and to Patrick Henry. Two items concern the Siege of Gibraltar, including a 1778 warrant for John Sweetland and a letter by Thomas Cranfield to his mother and father about his experiences during the siege (September 7, 1783). The collection also holds a muster roll of Lt. Purviss's Company, in a regiment of guards, from 1779. Later legal documents pertain to the career of Maryland judge Theodorick Bland, of another branch of the Virginia Bland family. Later material includes several personal letters to "Mr. and Mrs. Bland" from family and friends dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as well as responses to genealogical inquiries.

The Genealogy and Images series contains engravings and drawings of several Bland family members, including a detailed pencil drawing of P. E. Bland, who served as a colonel in the Civil War. Other genealogical notes trace branches of the family through the mid-19th and early-20th centuries.

The Bookplates and Printed Items series holds several bookplates, 20th century newspaper clippings, and pages from books.


Mullett Family papers, 1665-1924 (majority within 1825-1924)

1 linear foot — 1 oversize folder

Williamston, Ingham County, Michigan, family. Financial records, clippings, and correspondence relating to Mullett Farm and John Mullett, surveyor; extract, 1864, from Meridian Township Register Book; letterpress book, journal, and correspondence, 1852-1893, of John H. Forster, surveyor, agent for Pewabic Mining Company, Hancock, Mich., and later owner of Springbrook Farm, Ingham County, Michigan; diary, 1840-1841, of Catherine Hall; and map, 1859, of Mullett Farm; and photographs.

The Mullett family collection contains many useful descriptions of the state, and is a good source of information for some of the state's economic and topographic conditions during the 19th century. The papers, 1825-1936, are broken down into four series.


Joseph Woory account, 1666

6 pages (1 item)

The Joseph Woory account records the travels of an English expedition that set out from Charles Town on June 16, 1666, to explore the area from Cape Romano down to Port Royal.

Joseph Woory was a member of the English expedition that set out from Charles Town on June 16, 1666, to explore the area from Cape Romano (Cape Fear, called Cape San Romano by the Spanish) down to Port Royal. The expedition took 26 days, during which time they visited St. Helena Island, where they saw a large wooden Spanish cross, Edisto, and Kiawah Island. Woory wrote about the rich quality of the soil, the different kinds of vegetation, varieties of fish and fowl, and Indian fields planted with corn, peas, and beans. The explorers visited Indian villages at Edisto and St. Helena, where they left behind one of their company, Henry Woodward, to learn the Indian language. Woory reported that the Indians were friendly and "seemed very willing to have us settle amongst them." The company sailed from Port Royal on July 9 and arrived at Charles Town on the 12th.


Reading (Mass.) documents, 1666-1731

17 items

This collection consists of 17 manuscript documents respecting local affairs in Reading, Massachusetts, between 1666 and 1731. The documents address property, indigent persons, town meetings (calls to meet and issues addressed), and financial matters.

This collection consists of 17 manuscript documents respecting local affairs in Reading, Massachusetts, between 1666 and 1731. The documents address property, indigent persons, town meetings (calls to meet and issues addressed), and financial matters. Examples include:

  • April 30, 1666: An agreement drafted between representatives from the towns of Woburn and Reading reestablishing town boundaries. One attendee was William Cowdrey, a founding member of Reading who served as a deacon, Clerk of the Writs, Town Clerk, a selectman, a chairman, and a Representative to the General Court.
  • January 4, 1710: An order, issued by Jn. Horbert (Town clerk), for Constable Thomas Taylor to "warn John Rich forth with to cause to depart and leave this town" the "indigent" person living in his household. Note on the verso indicates the warning was delivered according to the "warrant."
  • June 5, 1711: Three individuals from Reading--Cptn. Nickols, Mr. Riley, and Burnap--"are impoured to answer to a petishon presented to the genarall court by sum of the inhabitants of the North syde of Ipswi[c]h river for a precinct to be asined them and to defend the Towns intrest."
  • April 21, 1712: Receipt of payment to constable "Gorge Flent," signed by Elizabeth Pierpont.
  • February 7, 1727/8: A warrant ordering Hannah Dix, having arrived in Reading "about the thirteenth of November & doth reside in our town at the house of Joseph Wessen," "to depart [out of Wessen's home] & out of this town to Boston from whence she came."
  • September 8, 1731: Agenda for a forthcoming meeting, with an item "To hear ye Indian Deed of our Township Read if they if they [sic.] please if sd Deed can be procured."

Handy family papers, 1670s-1980s

77 linear feet

[NB: This is a TEMPORARY finding aid for an IN-PROCESS collection; some restrictions apply]. The Handy Papers document the lives and professional activities of four generations of the Handy Family of Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. The collection largely revolves around James Henry Handy (1789-1832), Isaac William Ker Handy (1815-1878), Moses Purnell Handy (1847-1898), Sarah Matthews Handy (1845-1933), Frederick Algernon Graham Handy (1842-1912), Egbert G. Handy (1858-1938), Rozelle Purnell Handy (1871-1920), Sarah V. C. Handy (1876-1963), and H. Jamison Handy "Jam Handy" (1886-1983). The Handy family were largely educated, politically active, literary southerners, who were a part of many of the social and intellectual currents of especially the mid- and late-19th century. The papers offer resources for study of the Civil War, particularly its effect on Virginia civilians and southern prisoners of war at Fort Delaware; the history of southern families; late nineteenth-century American politics; Presbyterian history; late nineteenth-century newspaper journalism; the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1892-93; and genealogy. In its current, temporary housing, the papers include 30 boxes of correspondence, 27 boxes of family papers and topics files, six boxes of World's Columbian Exposition papers; eight boxes of photographs, plus separately housed images; four boxes of newspapers and newspaper clippings; 12 boxes of Jam Handy and Jam Handy Organization papers; 60 boxes of scrapbooks; and six boxes of books and serials (plus many loose books and other printed items).

[NB: This is a TEMPORARY finding aid for an IN-PROCESS collection. This current scope note pertains almost entirely to Handy family papers acquisitions of the 1980s (an estimated 60-65 boxes of the total 153 boxes). Among the in-process materials are 60 boxes of scrapbooks, largely kept by Rozelle P. Handy and Sarah V. C. Handy].

The Handy Papers document the lives and professional activities of four generations of the Handy Family of Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. The collection largely revolves around James Henry Handy (1789-1832), Isaac William Ker Handy (1815-1878), Moses Purnell Handy (1847-1898), Sarah Matthews Handy (1845-1933), Frederick Algernon Graham Handy (1842-1912), Egbert G. Handy (1858-1938), Rozelle Purnell Handy (1871-1920), Sarah V. C. Handy (1876-1963), and H. Jamison Handy "Jam Handy" (1886-1983). The Handy family were largely educated, politically active, literary southerners, who were a part of many of the social and intellectual currents of especially the mid- and late-19th century. The papers offer resources for study of the Civil War, particularly its effect on Virginia civilians and southern prisoners of war at Fort Delaware; the history of southern families; late nineteenth-century American politics; Presbyterian history; late nineteenth-century newspaper journalism; the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1892-93; and genealogy.

In its current, temporary housing (see the box listing in this finding aid), the papers include 50 boxes of correspondence, 26 boxes of family papers and topics files, six boxes of World's Columbian Exposition papers; eight boxes of photographs, plus separately housed cased images; four boxes of newspapers and newspaper clippings; 12 boxes of Jam Handy and Jam Handy Organization papers; 60 boxes of scrapbooks; and six boxes of books and serials (plus many loose books and other printed items).

The following is a former description by Curator of Manuscripts Galen Wilson, for the Handy Family Papers acquisitions of the 1980s (50-60 boxes of materials):

"Isaac Handy's fondness for history led him to the belief that he lived at an important moment in the life of the nation, and every wrinkle of the sectional crisis of the 1850s and 60s seemed to confirm. His correspondence and diaries from the eve of the war through its conclusion are a reflection of a well-educated southerner's reaction to the events unfolding about him and provide insight into the development of his political sympathies. Even after his arrest in July 1863 and his incarceration at Fort Delaware, Handy remained conscious of being part of "history in the making," not only continuing his twenty-five-year habit of keeping a diary, but in planning for a future book on Fort Delaware, soliciting memoirs of war service from his fellow prisoners. Handy saved these manuscripts, plus the correspondence he received while in prison (much of it from Confederate civilians), pasting them into two large scrapbooks. These have been disbound and the material cataloged item-by-item and interfiled chronologically in the collection's correspondence. Drafts and copies of the book which Handy wrote about his confinement, United States Bonds, are present in the collection.

Among the many individual areas of American Civil War interest are Isaac W. K. Handy's description of the battle between the ironclads Monitor and Merrimac, and the journal which Moses Handy kept during his service in the Confederate army in 1865. The soldiers' reminiscences collected by Isaac Handy at Fort Delaware include several exceptional accounts, including biographical and autobiographical sketches of M. Jeff Thompson, the mayor of St. Joseph, Missouri, turned "Swamp Rat" militia commander. Thompson played a major role during the summer of 1861 in defending Missouri's slave system from John C. Frémont's emancipation proclamation.

Other Civil War war-related materials include Isaac Handy's 1861 sermon on "Our National Sins" and fast-day sermons from the same year. The reminiscences of a myriad of former Confederate officers are scattered throughout Handy's correspondence of the late 1870s, all intended to be used in a history of the war planned by the Philadelphia Times. Also present is some documentation of Frederick A. G. Handy's father-in-law, Edwin Festus Cowherd, a Confederate soldier.

While the Handy collection provides thorough documentation of life among the eastern Handys, it also contains a significant body of correspondence from the westward sojourn of Isaac and Mary Jane Handy from 1844 to 1848. Isaac and his wife wrote over 100 letters from Missouri, in which they described the powerful ideological lure of the west, their family's adjustment to new surroundings, and the social and political climate of the old southwest. An index to these letters, prepared by Isaac Handy, is present, along with an original binding. Isaac's diary for the years spent in Missouri provides a valuable point of comparison for the letters.

Political and social commentary flows throughout most of the collection, from Jesse Higgins' campaign for reform of the federal legal and judicial systems, 1805-1806, through the fin de siècle political interests and involvements of Moses Handy.

The political impact of Reconstruction plays a major role in the collection, particularly in the letters of Congressman Samuel Jackson Randall (1828-1890) of Pennsylvania. The election of 1896 is well documented and the collection includes much correspondence with the Republican President-maker Mark Hanna. For his efforts on behalf of the Republican Party in this election, Moses Handy had hoped to net a foreign consulate through Hannah but was disappointed. Handy's transition from Confederate soldier to Republican politico is subtly documented and provides an interesting case study in political opportunism.

The Handy Family Papers are an important resource for the history of the Presbyterian Church during the 19th century. The 2nd Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C., was a major focus of James Henry Handy's life, and the early history of this congregation is well documented in correspondence dating from the 1820s. Rev. Daniel Baker was the first pastor of the congregation, and although Baker's tenure was controversial, James remained a close friend of Baker's for the rest of their lives. The collection thus contains items concerning Baker and his relationship with the 2nd Church, and several letters written by him after he left to assume a pastorate in Savannah, Georgia.

Isaac Handy's vocation as a Presbyterian minister and his avocation as an historical researcher merge in this collection, deepening the documentation of the church. Perhaps spurred by being asked to contribute some biographical sketches to William B. Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit, Handy sought out primary documents relating to the colonial Presbyterian clergy and congregations. Aspects of his own career in the church is documented through a scattered series of letters from former parishioners--many of which were received during his imprisonment at Fort Delaware--and in letters written by Isaac to his sons. A thick file of Isaac's sermons is present, several of which were published. Among these sermons is "The Terrible Doings of God" (23:31), which concerns the Yellow Fever Epidemic near Portsmouth, Virginia, in 1855. He delivered this eulogy at a Baptist church for members of several different Portsmouth churches. Handy earned acclaim during the crisis by staying to help the victims rather than fleeing to safer ground.

Isaac Handy's literary flair was inherited by Frederick and Moses, and both pursued careers in newspapers. Moses' career is more thoroughly documented than Frederick's, and much of the correspondence written between 1869 and 1890 concerns Moses' efforts in the newspaper business. There are several folders of general newspaper correspondence dating from 1865 to 1897, an entire box of unsorted clippings by and about the Handys, and boxes of mounted clippings of Moses, Sarah, and Rozelle Handy's published writings. Journalistic endeavors of other family members are also present.

One of Moses Handy's greatest claims to fame was his role as chair of Department O (Publicity and Promotion) for the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893. His involvement with the Exposition is documented in correspondence, reports, financial papers, brochures, photographs, and memorabilia. The advertising campaign begun in 1890 has been cited as the prototype of modern publicity strategies, and the Handy Papers offer an unparalleled view into the inner workings of the key department. The collection also contains information about the San Francisco Mid-Winter Exposition (1893), a sort of subsidiary event to the main Chicago attraction, and the general correspondence for 1891-93 contains some references to the World's Fair.

Isaac Handy's lifelong ambition was to publish "The Annals and Memorials of the Handys and their Kindred." Beginning in the 1850s, he gathered genealogical data on all descendants of "Samuel Handy, the Progenitor," an Englishman who emigrated to Maryland to farm tobacco. Three drafts of this work, in increasing thickness, were completed in 1857, 1865, and the 1870s. Isaac was prepared to publish the work in the 1870s and had an advertising flier printed, but when subscriptions did not meet expectations and Handy died in 1878, the project foundered. The manuscript then passed to Moses Handy, whose own intentions for publishing the book never reached fruition, possibly due to his untimely death at the age of fifty. In 1904, Isaac's youngest surviving son, Egbert, acquired the manuscript from Moses's widow, Sarah Matthews Handy, but his publication plans did not gather momentum until 1932.

With a great deal of vigor, Egbert attempted to update the manuscript, now sixty years out of date, and had a new advertising circular printed. Again, death removed the Annals' main advocate. The manuscript remained in the possession of Egbert's widow, Minerva Spencer Handy, and in the 1940s she gave it to Frederick A. G. Handy's widow, Lelia Cowherd Handy, then living in Arlington, Virginia. Before her death in 1949, Leila entrusted the material to her granddaughter Mildred Ritchie. The Clements Library acquired the manuscript from Mrs. Ritchie along with other family papers. A century and a third after Isaac began the project, the Annals were published by the Clements Library in 1992. The Handy Family Papers contain various drafts of the manuscript, plus many notes and letters concerning its publication."

[NB: This is a TEMPORARY finding aid for an IN-PROCESS collection. This current scope note pertains almost entirely to Handy family papers acquisitions of the 1980s (an estimated 60-65 boxes of the total 153 boxes). Among the in-process materials are 60 boxes of scrapbooks, largely kept by Rozelle P. Handy and Sarah V. C. Handy].


Ebenezer Jackson, Jr. papers, 1672, 1814-1863 (majority within 1814-1863)

11 items

This collection contains letters and documents related to the family of Congressman Ebenezer Jackson, Jr., of Savannah, Georgia, and Middletown, Connecticut. Jackson and his father wrote and received personal letters about contemporary political issues. The letters offer commentary on the Missouri Compromise, the 1860 United States presidential election, secession, and the Civil War. Jackson also wrote about his travels in Boston, Massachusetts, and offered advice to his brother Amasa, who attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in the mid-1820s.

This collection contains 9 letters and 2 documents related to the family of Ebenezer Jackson, Jr., of Savannah, Georgia, and Middletown, Connecticut. Jackson and his father wrote and received personal letters about contemporary political issues such as the Missouri Compromise, the 1860 United States Presidential election, secession, and the Civil War. Jackson also wrote to his father about his travels in Boston, Massachusetts, and offered advice to his brother Amasa, who attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in the mid-1820s.

Ebenezer Jackson, Jr., authored 4 letters in this collection. He wrote 2 letters to his father in which he discussed his impressions of Boston, a publication in support of the War of 1812 (March 13, 1814), and his Pennsylvania to Connecticut travel plans (July 5, 1825). Jackson's mother, Charlotte Fenwick Jackson, contributed to his first letter, urging her husband to keep "Harriette" in school. Ebenezer Jackson sent 2 letters to his brother Amasa, who attended the Cheshire Academy in Cheshire, Connecticut, in 1820, and the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1823; he offered educational advice and congratulated him on his academic achievements.

Ebenezer Jackson, Jr., received 4 political letters from acquaintances. A committee in Middletown, Connecticut, strongly urged Jackson to accept his nomination for a United States Senate seat in 1834 and explained the reasons why he would be a strong candidate (March 13, 1834). Hezekiah Huntington wrote about political parties and the 1860 presidential election (August 21, 1860); former Florida governor Richard K. Call strenuously voiced his opposition to secession (January 19, 1861); and United States Senator Lafayette Sabine Foster affirmed his support for the Union's military efforts against the Confederacy, as well as his disdain for the peace efforts of Horace Greeley and others (January 27, 1863).

Ebenezer Jackson, Sr., sent 1 letter to William Van Deusen, in which he shared his opinions about the Missouri Compromise (March 25, 1820). He anticipated continued conflicts between the North and South over slavery, and mentioned the possible effects those conflicts might have on British opinion about the United States.

The collection's documents are an undated copy of a 1672 deed between John Stows and John Willcoke for land in Middletown, Connecticut, and an 1836 memorandum of the estate of Ebenezer Jackson, Sr., addressed to Mary C. Oliver of Boston, Massachusetts.


Detroit (Michigan) Collection, 1672, 1868, and undated

.25 cubic foot (in 1 box)

Collection includes copies of French documents re: Detroit military and Indian relations history, letters from a French Register in Quebec, documents in English on same topics, probably copied from Gen. Thomas Gage's papers, and later additions of miscellaneous Detroit history documents in English.

This collection includes nineteenth century copies of French documents concerning early military and Indian relations history, 1698, 1738, and some 1743/1747 letters copied from a French register in Quebec in 1842. Most of these documents were numbered and compiled in a specific order.

There are also documents in English concerning the same topics, 1763, 1766, probably copied from Gen. Thomas Gage’s paper. Gage’s papers are housed at the Clements Library in Ann Arbor.

Lastly, later additions to this collection include various miscellaneous documents in English about Detroit history, 1672, circa 1868? These papers were in the State Papers Office, Military Correspondence Series.

Many variations in spelling are evident throughout the collection.

Lewis Cass (1782-1866) supposedly ordered a copy of documents relating to early Detroit history from France during his years as Governor of Michigan (1813-1831). It is unknown whether or not some of this material could have eventually been purchased at auction for the Clarke.

Special thanks goes to Barbarah Saungweme who translated some of the French language materials.


Van Vechten family collection, 1672-1947 (majority within 1768-1896)

1 linear foot

This collection is made up of correspondence, military documents, financial records, and other items related to the Van Vechten (also Van Veghten) family of Albany and Catskill, New York, and Detroit, Michigan. Most of the material dates from the mid-1700s to the late 1800s.

This collection is made up of correspondence, military documents, financial records, and other items related to the Van Vechten (also Van Veghten) family of Albany and Catskill, New York, and Detroit, Michigan. Most of the material dates from the mid-1700s to the late 1800s.

Two loose Correspondence items are a letter from Abraham Van Vechten to Harmanus Bleecker regarding news from Albany, New York, and local politics (January 20, 1813) and a letter that Abraham Van Vechten received from an acquaintance (November 10, 1813).

The Scrapbook (37 pages), currently disbound, contains printed and manuscript documents, notes, and other items from the late 1700s and early 1800s. Military records include muster rolls and related registers concerning Samuel Van Vechten's Continental Army company; a muster roll for John Van Vechten's company of the 66th Regiment of New York militia, pertaining to his service in the War of 1812; and military commissions for Samuel and John Van Vechten, signed by Cadwallader Colden and Daniel D. Tompkins. A Revolutionary War parole claim and several additional documents concern Jonathan, Lucas, and other members of the Elmendorff family. Additional items include a land survey conducted by Samuel Van Vechten in 1773, indentures pertaining to lands in the state of New York, a political broadsheet printed by the Albany Argus (October 12, 1824), and a letter from George Clinton to Christopher Tappen dated July 1, 1768.

The Orderly Book (34 pages) pertains to John Van Vechten's service in the New York Milita in the War of 1812. Orders, dated September 14, 1814-November 29, 1814, concern troop movements, drills and parades, and logistical matters. John's son Peter presented the volume to his own son, James, in 1913.

The Financial Records series contains loose and bound items. The Accounts subseries (7 items) contains brief notes and calculations; an undated document by Philip Phelps of the Albany Comptroller's office is also present.

Two Account Books belonged to members of the Van Vechten family in the 18th century. The first (approximately 310 pages) contains records dated from approximately 1672-1752, some of which were written in Dutch. The second half of this volume is an extensive genealogical record of the Van Vechten family and related families, compiled by Peter Van Vechten in the early to mid-1890s. The second account book (approximately 260 pages), which may have belonged to Teunis Van Vechten (1707-1785), contains records pertaining to individuals customers, dated from approximately 1768 to 1787 (bulk 1770s). Most entries pertain to sales of foodstuffs and related services, such as grinding wheat; at least one customer regularly paid for postage. Many of the individuals referenced in the volume were residents of Catskill, New York, including farmers, blacksmiths, and other laborers.

The Maps series includes 3 Loose Maps and a Survey Book. The individual maps include John Van Vechten's manuscript survey of lands along Batavia Kill; a printed map of the "Hollow Land" in the Netherlands, including the area around Amsterdam, showing city locations, the North Sea, and the Zuiderzee; and a blueprint map of lands belonging to Teunis Van Veghte [sic] in September 26, 1770. Samuel Van Vechten's Survey Book (approximately 40 pages) contains instructions for conducting land surveys, with illustrated examples and problems. Some pages bear small sketches of buildings.

The Photographs series (5 items) includes reproduced 19th-century portraits of Charlotte Scott, Harmon William Van Veghten, and Mary Jane Tigert, as well as a 20th-century portrait of John J. Tigert IV. The final item is a photograph of a house that belonged to the Schuyler family.

The undated Recipe Book contains manuscript instructions for making cakes, puddings, custard, blancmange, whipped cream, and other items. Newspaper clippings pasted into the front page include recipes for numerous types of cakes and puddings.

The Genealogy series (13 items) includes manuscript and typed notes about the Van Veghten (or Van Vechten) and Schuneman families, genealogical charts and trees pertaining to the Vanderpool and Van Vechten families, and reproduced images of manuscript notes about the Van Vechten family. Also included is a reproduced image of the Van Vechten family crest. The notes concern persons born as early as the mid-1600s and as late as the mid-1940s. Additional genealogical material may be found in one of the collection's account books (see above).

Miscelleanous material (5 items) includes fragments and an etching of a man and dog in front of a country home.


James Duncan papers, 1673-1875

51 items (0.25 linear feet)

James Duncan was a British naval captain who served during the Seven Years' War and the Revolutionary War. His papers contain information related to his military service, probate records, and a proposal for ending slavery in Britain.

The Duncan Papers include manuscripts relating to James Duncan's Revolutionary War service, principally his attempts to gain compensation for losses sustained while in the service of the British crown. The series of documents concerning the settlement of his estate are useful for study of English probate, and the remainder of the collection relates mainly to the legal affairs of the family. Of particular interest, however, are an account by James Duncan's ancestor, William Duncan (1613-ca.1673) about a shipwreck in 1631, and a draft of a manuscript written by James Duncan proposing a plan for ending slavery in Great Britain and ridding the country of its former slaves.


Don Antonio de Vea journal, 1675-1676

1 volume

The Antonio de Vea journal documents a sea voyage from Peru to the Strait of Magellan in southern Chile in 1675-1676.

The Antonio de Vea journal contains 106 pages (53 folios) of Spanish-language entries, covering September 21, 1675-April 19, 1676. Between folios 34 and 35, the volume contains an inlaid map of the coast of Chile from Isla de Chiloe to Golfo de Trinidad. Also included with the journal is a printed version of the Spanish text.

The journal comprises entries of varying length, describing sailing conditions and major events that occurred during the journey. In late-October and early-November 1675, de Vea recounted a stop at the island of Doña Sebastiana, and a near-shipwreck on rocks. He also noted receiving supplies, the collapse of a church on the island, and the worsening health of several Native Americans on the ship. In December 1675, he described the abandoned island of Santa Barbara, which was overrun with wild dogs that the Chono Indians had left behind (December 4), fishing with nets in the port of Nuestra Señora de la Concepción (December 7), and a hurricane (December 11). Entries on December 27, 1675, and January 2, 1676, document the questioning of several Indians onboard concerning European pirates. On January 30, de Vea described a shipwreck that killed 16 men, 11 of whom were Chono Indians, near the western entrance to the Strait of Magellan.

After the entry of January 30, he did not write again until mid-March. The entries from March and April 1676 are generally very brief and describe the sailing conditions on the return to Peru, some repercussions of the shipwreck (March 30), and their arrival in Callao (April 17).


Alexander Wedderburn, 1st Earl of Rosslyn papers, 1676-1801 (majority within 1764-1800)

0.75 linear feet

The Alexander Wedderburn papers contain correspondence, documents, notes, and writings pertaining to Anglo-American relations during the late 18th century. The papers include items about the Boston Tea Party, the American Revolution, and claims brought under the 1794 Treaty of Amity (Jay Treaty).

The Alexander Wedderburn papers contain correspondence, documents, notes, and writings pertaining to Anglo-American relations during the late 18th century. The papers include items about the Boston Tea Party, the American Revolution, and claims brought under the 1794 Treaty of Amity (Jay Treaty). The collection is arranged in a three-level hierarchy that reflects document genre, chronological period, and series maintained from the collection's original order in the Clements Library.

The Correspondence series contains three subseries:

The David Wedderburn correspondence subseries (1764-1765) contains 5 manuscript letters written by David Wedderburn, a lieutenant colonel in the 22nd Regiment of Foot, to his brother, Alexander Wedderburn. David described the final leg of his journey from Great Britain to North America, including travel throughout the West Indies and his arrival at Mobile. In his final letter, David discussed the lasting impact of recent administrative conflicts between civil and military authorities in the Floridas.

The American Revolutionary War Era correspondence subseries contains four sub-subseries:

The Boston correspondence sub-subseries (1773-1775) contains 20 letters (primarily contemporary manuscript copies) and one newspaper extract regarding developments in Boston prior to the outbreak of the American Revolution; most of the letters include additional enclosures. Alexander Wedderburn, the intended recipient of a majority of these manuscript copies, numbered them in an ordered sequence. The content of the letters pertains to committees of correspondence, attempts to force recipients of tea from the East India Company to publicly resign their commissions, violence against consignees of East India Company tea, and the Boston Tea Party.

Massachusetts Governor Thomas Hutchinson wrote ten letters, mostly to William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth; Sir Frederick Haldimand wrote four letters, also to Lord Dartmouth; Rear Admiral John Montagu wrote two letters to Philip Stephens, each recorded as having been enclosed in letters from the Lord of the Admiralty (not present); and two letters were enclosures in a letter of William Barrington (not present). Additional enclosures include a broadside (in Hutchinson to Dartmouth, December 2, 1773) and a narrative, which describes an instance of mob violence on November 3, 1773 (in Hutchinson to Dartmouth, November 4, 1773). In the sub-subseries' three later letters, all written in 1775, Richard Clarke and James Putnam describe the lingering effects of the Boston Tea Party and the Battles of Lexington and Concord. An extract from the Massachusetts Gazette is also present in Wedderburn's numbered series.

The Wemyss correspondence sub-subseries (1773-1776) contains eight letters written to James and William Wemyss about British Parliamentary discussions (including those respecting measures against America), military activity in Quebec, and the New York and New Jersey campaign. Major General James Grant wrote six of seven letters to James Wemyss, from London, Halifax, and New York; Francis Anderson wrote the seventh letter from Edinburgh. The remaining letter in the sub-subseries, from Luke Fraser in Edinburgh to William Wemyss, includes a copy of letter from Grant to Fraser.

The Woolwich Shipwrights correspondence and report sub-subseries (1775) contains three items related to rebel recruitment tactics within Great Britain. Two letters, their enclosures, and a manuscript report describe efforts by supporters of the American rebellion to recruit the striking shipwrights of Woolwich and summon Alexander Wedderburn to an upcoming cabinet meeting on the issue. One enclosure contains several excerpts of acts of Parliament deemed relevant to the current North American situation.

The George Germain correspondence sub-subseries (1779) contains a letter written by George Germain to Alexander Wedderburn and James Wallace about the possibility of peace negotiations between British and American commissioners. An enclosed extract of a letter from the British commissioners to Germain describes the general mood in North America and proposes specific measures for restoring British rule over the colonies.

The Anglo-American Relations correspondence subseries (1794-1800) contains three sub-subseries:

The West Indies correspondence report sub-subseries (1794) is made up of a report and enclosed manuscript note, presented by the advocate, attorney, and solicitor generals of Great Britain to the Duke of Portland, concerning legal jurisdiction in the West Indies. They primarily relate to naval power and to the possible establishment of prize courts.

The Rufus King correspondence sub-subseries (1796-1799) includes two letters related to property disputes arising under the 1794 Treaty of Amity. The first letter, written by Rufus King in the third person, is accompanied by a printed form. The second, a short note written by George Hammond to Alexander Wedderburn, contains several copies of Rufus King's letters, which relate to shipping on the Atlantic Ocean and to the relative success of neutrality efforts between Great Britain and the United States.

The Thomas Macdonald correspondence sub-subseries (1799-1800) consists of eight letters written by British commissioner Thomas Macdonald to Alexander Wedderburn, concerning claims made under Article 6 of the 1794 Treaty of Amity. Enclosures within these letters include correspondence between Macdonald and George Grenville, contemporary manuscript copies of notes from American courts about disputed claims, and two printed sets of minutes related to specific court cases.

The Documents series consists of three subseries:

The Pre-American Revolutionary War Era commissions and proclamations subseries (1676-1772) contains four manuscript copies of British legal documents. Three of the documents are directly related to enclosures within John Pownall's report on the Gaspée Incident (see below). They include a 1676 commission for Herbert Jeffreys, Francis Morrison, and Sir John Berry, to investigate grievances in Virginia; a blank commission for enquiry into grievances in New Jersey (1752); and a 1772 royal proclamation for "Discovering and Apprehending the persons who plundered and burnt the Gaspée Schooner." The final item in the series is a manuscript copy of Queen Anne's 1705 "Act to prevent all Traitorous Correspondence with Her Majesty's Enemies," particularly the French.

The Gaspée report and enclosures subseries (1772) is John Pownall's short contemporary report on the "Gaspée incident," in which a group of Americans plundered and burned the schooner HMSGaspée . Pownall particularly addressed questions of legal jurisdiction and suggested locations where trials for conspirators might be held. Twenty-five of the report's original 26 appendices remain with the document; they relate to five specific precedents: a 1711 uprising in Antigua (mentioned in the absent enclosure), Bacon's Rebellion (1676), the Dominion of New England (1686-1689), David Creagh's correspondence with the Queen's enemies (1712), and the effects of piracy (beginning in the 1670s).

The American Revolutionary War Era documents subseries contains the following six sub-subseries:

The State of Facts and Proceedings Respecting the Black Charribs of St. Vincent sub-subseries [1773] is a 26-page report on the history of St. Vincent from 1627 to 1773. The report provides a justification for "the Expedition now carrying in for the reduction of the Charibbs" and regards property ownership and the historical relationship between British settlers and indigenous peoples on the island.

The Statues for Restoring Order in the Colony of Massachusetts Bay sub-subseries [1774] contains two draft versions of an act to reinforce Great Britain's authority over the North American colonies, accompanied by two sets of notes directly commenting on proposed changes to the document. Alexander Wedderburn's alterations and annotations on the first draft (which is written entirely in his hand) are reflected in a second draft, which he further annotated. Four pages of notes (some in Wedderburn's hand) suggest improvements to the bill and contain reflections on later drafts of the statute.

The Draft of the Prohibitory Act sub-subseries [1775] is a manuscript copy of the Prohibitory Act (forbidding trade with the American colonies), written in a neat, unknown hand and annotated extensively by Alexander Wedderburn.

The Draft of a Pardon for Laying Down Arms sub-subseries [1776] is in Alexander Wedderburn's hand and includes his notes and annotations. This document is similar to a proclamation released by William and Richard Howe during the early stages of the American Revolution, and offers a full pardon to any rebels who will lay down their arms and swear an oath of allegiance to King George III.

Two draft Acts Proposing Negotiations with the Americans (1778), annotated by Alexander Wedderburn, propose plans for negotiating an end to the rebellion in the American colonies. The first, an "Act for preventing the dangers which may arise from several acts and proceedings lately done and had in his Majesty's dominions in America &c. &c.," includes specific proposals for demands and concessions to be offered in potential peace talks, along with Alexander Wedderburn's frequent annotations. The second, a bill for sending commissioners to America, is entirely in Wedderburn's hand and pertains more specifically to the responsibilities of and restrictions upon a potential British peace commission.

The Lists of Captured Ships sub-subseries (1779-1780) contains five lists of vessels captured by various combatants during the American Revolution. Each list is organized geographically and identifies the number of vessels captured on specific trade routes, the number recaptured or otherwise returned, the number remaining in either British or enemy possession (as appropriate), and the tonnage of captured vessels. Lists in the series include: ships captured by the French (January 6, 1779), from and by the Spanish (January 10, 1779 and January 10, 1780, respectively), by the Americans (January 3, 1780), from the French (January 8, 1780), and from the Americans (January 3, 1780). The list of ships captured by the Americans (January 3, 1780) includes a short manuscript memorandum on the inevitable inaccuracy of the included data.

The Notes and Other Writings series contains two subseries:

The American Revolutionary War Era notes and writings subseries includes the following sub-subseries:

The Narrative of the Boston Riots (1774), a 28-page account of disturbances in Boston related to the importation of tea from the East India Company. The manuscript includes some short notes made by Alexander Wedderburn.

Alexander Wedderburn's Notes on the Outbreak of the American Rebellion [1775] provide his reflections on the first year of the American Revolution, regard upcoming speeches to be made in Parliament, and discuss the recent interruption of commerce in the North American colonies.

The Notes on Potential Peace Negotiations with America (1778) contain eight documents regarding the potential for negotiations between Great Britain and the American rebels. Three draft essays by Alexander Wedderburn include one subsequently sent to Lord Frederick North and two offering Wedderburn's defense of the idea of a treaty. The series also contains Wedderburn's notes on a speech given by Charles Fox in Parliament ("Heads of a speech on the Bills for a Treaty with America"), and notes on the failure of Pulteney's plan of negotiation. Two additional documents in the series are written in different, distinct hands, and include "Smith's thoughts on the state of the contest with America" and "Pulteney's Sketch of Resolutions."

A Statement on American Loyalists, written after 1781, is an anonymous 11-page reflection on the effect of Loyalists during the American Revolution, particularly in the Southern District.

The Notes on Claims Made Under the Treaty of Amity subseries [1790s] contains three items documenting and reflecting upon claims presented under the 6th Article of the 1794 Treaty of Amity. The first of these is a list of the number of claims presented between May 29, 1797, and December 4, 1798, broken down into smaller time periods. Accompanying this document are two sets of Alexander Wedderburn's notes discussing a number of specific claims made under the Treaty.

The undated Notes on Land Grants in Nova Scotia subseries present a brief history of lands in Acadia originally granted to William Alexander, later Lord Stirling, in 1621. The document traces relevant changes in ownership to 1668 and offers the anonymous author's conclusion that the lands in question, having never been fully part of the British Dominion, bear no relevance to a contemporary (likely late 18th century) legal case.

The Printed items series includes three items related to political and economic developments in the United States at the turn of the nineteenth century. The first is a 1795 printing of the 1794 Treaty of Amity, thought to have belonged to Alexander Wedderburn. A four-page copy of the Porcupine, dated March 20, 1801, includes the London newspaper's account of recent proceedings in Parliament as well as a mocking account of Thomas Jefferson's election to the United States presidency. The final item in the series is a short printed report on the growth of American tonnage between the conclusion of the American Revolution and 1801, including some statistical figures and accompanying analysis.


Women, Gender, and Family collection, 1678-1996 (majority within 1800-1906)

0.5 linear feet

The Women, Gender, and Family collection contains miscellaneous individual items relating to women, gender, and family primarily in America, between 1678 and 1996.

The Women, Gender, and Family collection contains miscellaneous items relating to women, gender, and family between 1678 and 1996. The bulk of the collection ranges in from 1800 to the early 20th century and is geographically focused on the United States of America. Topics include marriage and divorce, childrearing and motherhood, household management, and consensual and coerced sex. Other areas of interest cover women’s various forms of labor, legal restitution for paternity suits and financial support, and education for women and children. While not as heavily represented, multiple items detail women's engagement in politics, slavery and abolition, and women's rights.


John Morin Scott family papers, 1679-1893 (majority within 1800-1846)

3.25 linear feet

The John Morin Scott family papers are made up of correspondence, legal and financial documents, and other items related to multiple generations of the Scott family, including New York City lawyer John Morin Scott; his son, Lewis Allaire Scott; and his grandson, John Morin Scott, mayor of Philadelphia from 1841-1844.

The John Morin Scott family papers (3.25 linear feet) are made up of correspondence, legal and financial documents, and other items related to multiple generations of the Scott family, including New York City lawyer John Morin Scott; his son, Lewis Allaire Scott; and his grandson, John Morin Scott, mayor of Philadelphia from 1841-1844.

The collection's Personal Correspondence series (approximately 750 items, 1767-1889) is comprised primarily of letters between John Morin Scott and Mary Emlen Scott (whom Scott often addressed as "Bonny") from 1816 to the 1850s. During business trips to cities such as Harrisburg and Easton, Pennsylvania, John Morin Scott discussed his legal career, his work in the state legislature, political issues, and personal news; Mary Emlen Scott wrote about her life in Philadelphia. John Morin Scott also received letters from his children and from individuals respecting his term as Philadelphia mayor. Other correspondence includes an early series of letters to Mayor Richard Varick of New York City.

Lewis A. Scott's correspondence (132 items, 1868-1893) relates to the Scott family genealogy. Lewis A. Scott corresponded with family members about their ancestors and wrote to authors and publishing houses about printed accounts of the family lineage. Some letters pertain to Scott's attempts to locate documents about his early ancestors.

The collection's Legal Correspondence, Documents, and Financial Records series (approximately 800 items, 1764-1893) regard property, finances, and the legal affairs and estates of the Scotts and related families. John Morin Scott's legal correspondence (333 items, 1812-1844) contains business letters to Scott about court procedures, decisions, and financial matters. At least one item mentions a reward offered for the return of a captured slave (May 20, 1822). Documents include legal and financial contracts and agreements, financial accounts, bank checks, indentures, letters, and estate administration papers. Many items concern property in New York and one small group pertains to Revolutionary War surgeon Charles McKnight.

One small account book tracks the owner's expenses, and includes notes about the author's travels and activities, around 1850. A notebook contains a list of the Scott family silver in Mary Emlen's possession in 1874.

The Maps seriesincludes 19 surveyors' maps for land in Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and other locations. Many of the surveys relate to members of the Scott family and allied families; some pertain to Philadelphia real estate. Three undated survey notebooks pertain to land in "Orange County" and "Deer Park," and include notes about deeds and surveys conducted in these areas.

The Genealogical Materials series (47 items, [1887-1891]) largely concern members of the Scott family and they include essays, extracts from published histories, notebooks, loose notes, a family tree, and applications for the Pennsylvania Sons of the American Revolution. At least 2 items relate to the Emlen family. Sketches of two coats of arms are accompanied by descriptions.

The Printed Items series includes 2 advertisements for genealogical and historical works, Mary Scott's reprinted will, a poem by W. T. Meredith titled "Ancrum's Cross," and 12 newspaper clippings. The clippings are obituaries and biographical articles about the younger John Morin Scott, including an account of an assassination attempt during his term as mayor of Philadelphia (1843).


Lamb-Sykes family papers, 1680-1947 (majority within 1819-1911)

11 linear feet

The Lamb-Sykes family papers contain correspondence, financial and legal documents, daguerreotypes, and other materials related to the Philadelphia families' daily lives and business endeavors. The collection reflects their legal and mercantile affairs, investments, real estate, and involvement with the Mechanics Bank of Philadelphia.

The Lamb-Sykes family papers date from 1683 to 1947, with the bulk of the materials concentrated between 1819 and 1911. They form a record of the lives of the Lamb and Sykes families of Philadelphia, especially their financial, legal, and business activities. The collection includes approximately 300 letters; 9 linear feet of accounts, receipts, tax records, promissory notes, and legal documents; 60 account and expense books; 6 daguerreotypes; and 0.5 linear feet of school papers, family history, printed and ephemeral items, and other materials.

The Correspondence series is made up of approximately 300 letters to and from members of the Lamb, Sykes, and Norris families, between 1819 and 1907. Few writers sent more than a small number of letters to their family and friends. The correspondence reflects a variety of different activities and experiences, and many different geographical locations. Selected examples include:

  • Six letters between the Carswells and the Jacksons. Andrew Jackson and his wife Rachel sent four letters to Margaret and Margaretta Carswell between 1819 and 1822; Margaretta and Andrew Jackson each wrote 1 letter in 1843. These letters refer to historical events, such as the Treaty of Doak's Stand (Rachel Jackson's letter of October 20, 1820). In 1843, Margaretta wrote to Andrew Jackson about her intention to create a school for girls. The former U.S. President commended her for her proposal, and promised to spread the word amongst his female relations.
  • Five letters by Margaret Carswell, cousins, and siblings to Margaretta Lamb, from West Ely, Missouri, in the winter of 1837-1838
  • Approximately 10 letters between Margaretta and her husband, written when Lemuel traveled to London in the late 1830s. In these letters they discussed business and domestic life in Philadelphia.
  • Four letters written by Margaretta's daughter Margaret, during her travels to France and Germany in 1846
  • Six letters to Margaretta Lamb from her (former) pupils in 1851
  • Five letters by Margaretta's son Samuel, written from Panama, then San Francisco, in 1854. By the following year, he moved to St. Paul, Minnesota, where he wrote approximately 15 letters. In his letters from San Francisco, he described the quality of life in the West difficulties finding work, and the influx of people to the area.
  • Approximately 21 letters by Lemuel Lamb, Jr., in the mid-late 1850s from Detroit, Michigan; Superior, Wisconsin; St. Louis, Missouri; Chattanooga, Tennessee; New Orleans; Dubuque, Iowa; Pittsburgh; Marshall, Texas; and others. In letters to his mother and father, he remarked on his journey west, a cholera outbreak, his own good health, and his business affairs.
  • Twenty letters to Isaac Norris, Jr., from Jennie Carlile Boyd in Newport, Rhode Island, between April and July 1890. She wrote 15 of them on mourning stationery.
  • Approximately 27 letters from Harriet Lamb, Charles [Grugan?], and [Anne Grugan?] about their stay in Paris in 1851 and detailing the final illness and death of Margaret Lamb.

The Documents and Financial Records series consists of approximately 9 linear feet of financial, legal, and land documents of the Lamb and Sykes family. The series includes documents related to court cases; estate administration records for Margaretta Lamb, Franklin Wharton, Sarah Moore, and others; documents related to land holdings in Philadelphia, New Jersey, Delaware, and Rhode Island; and papers related to trade, investment, and banking.

The Photographs series includes 6 cased daguerreotypes. One postmortem portrait of Harriet Lamb in her coffin is accompanied by Philadelphia photographer Marcus Root's receipt of sale and the undertaker's bill for funeral expenses (1853). The other daguerreotypes are undated portraits of unidentified individuals and groups.

The Poetry, Recipes, Lists, and Fragments series contains 9 poems and writing fragments, 1 medicinal recipe, 1 recipe for cream pie, 1 book of lists, and 1 blank book. One poem, dated 1850 and titled "Fools and Their Money Parted," laments a decision to provide money to family members for the purposes of investment. The medicinal recipe is a "Cure for Cancer, Erysypelas, Humours, Diseases of the Liver, & Coughs" (undated). The book of lists is a volume of approximately 80 pages, which contains lists of books, Christmas gifts, prints, the contents of trunks, and other household objects (ca. 1880s).

The Printed Materials series consists of 2 circulars, 2 books, 16 stock reports, 23 issues of the serial Infant's Magazine, 2 pamphlets, approximately 60 newspaper clippings, and 2 engravings. See the box and folder listing below for more information about these items.

The Genealogy series consists of approximately 45 genealogical manuscripts pertaining to the Lamb, Norris, Pepper, Sykes, and Wharton families. One document regards Lemuel Lamb's immediate family, with birth and death dates for most of his siblings, and for some of his brothers-in-law. The Norris family genealogical materials include a 395-page family album with original and copied 18th- and 19th-century correspondence, photos and illustrations, newspaper clippings, and other items. A booklet printed by the "Provincial Councilors of Pennsylvania" includes a history of the Norris family. A similar booklet, prepared for an October 19, 1947, family reunion, describes the genealogy of the "Pepper Clan." The Sykes family materials are made up of copies of letters and writings documenting the early history of the family and their emigration to America. The Wharton family items include copied letters and writings, and an incomplete draft of the memoirs of Robert Wharton.

The Realia series includes 2 circular medals from the Bulldog Club of America, 1924 and 1925, and a metal nameplate from the urn of "Isacco Norris," Dr. Isaac Norris, who died in Italy.


Anthony Wayne family papers, 1681-1913

7 linear feet

The Anthony Wayne family papers contain correspondence, diaries, documents, and accounts relating to several generations of the Wayne family of Pennsylvania. Of particular note is material concerning Anthony Wayne's service in the American Revolution and the Northwest Indian War, and William Wayne's service with the 97th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment in the Civil War.

The Correspondence and Military Documents series (Volumes 1-17) contains approximately 1,450 items (3.5 linear feet), spanning 1756-1853, and arranged chronologically. The bulk of the series is correspondence, but it also contains various types of documents, including legal materials, military returns, land surveys, and lists.

Anthony Wayne

The 18th-century material in the collection (Volumes 1-10) relates primarily to the career of Anthony Wayne, including his surveying activities; acquisition and maintenance of a plantation near Savannah, Georgia, and the activities of Native Americans in its vicinity; service in the Revolutionary War; and leadership as commander-in-chief of the Legion of the United States during the Northwest Indian War. It includes incoming correspondence from numerous notable government and military officials, as well as a considerable amount of Wayne's outgoing correspondence and memoranda.

A portion of materials in the collection shed light on Wayne's activities and opinions during the American Revolutionary War, in which he served as a brigadier general. On November 22, 1777, Wayne wrote to Thomas Wharton, the "president" (i.e., governor) of Pennsylvania, on the subject of recruitment, arguing that allowing the hiring of substitutes and the paying of an "enormous bounty" would hinder efforts to attract soldiers. He also discussed the importance of uniforms to morale, arguing that they caused "a laudable pride which in a soldier is a substitute for almost every other virtue." Additionally, Wayne exchanged several letters with a friend, Colonel Sharp Delany, in which they discussed various war-related matters. On July 26, 1780, he provided a defense of his raid on Bull's Ferry, which failed and resulted in substantial American casualties. Other letters pertain to Wayne's injury from a musket-ball lodged in his thigh (November 12, 1781), his uniform (May 10, 1783), and the concerns of Savannah merchants who feared the loss of protection after the British evacuation (June 17, 1782). Also of interest is a memorandum spanning the dates June 20, 1777-October 21, 1780, in which Wayne gave his criticisms of the decisions of the Executive Council and of the Continental army in Pennsylvania, and complained of demoralization of the troops, especially the Pennsylvania Line.

A large number of letters and documents, particularly in the late 1780s, pertain to Wayne's rice plantation in the vicinity of Savannah, called Richmond and Kew, which was given to him by the state of Georgia for his wartime service there. Wayne took out large loans in order to revive the estate in 1785, two years after he left it "in a depreciating state" (June 29, 1783) to return to Pennsylvania. Wayne's letters describe his great difficulty in purchasing affordable slaves to work the land, his efforts to produce and sell rice and corn, and the scarcity of currency in Georgia, which compounded his troubles turning a profit. The papers also document Wayne's struggle to repay his loans and his dispute with his creditors, which became particularly intense in 1787, and resulted in his loss of the plantation in 1791. On that subject, he wrote, "I have been in treaty with my Persecutors" (March 1, 1791). His primary correspondents on these matters were William Penman, James Penman, Adam Tunno, Samuel Potts, Sharp Delany, and Richard Wayne.

Several items during this period also refer to the ongoing conflict between white settlers in Georgia and Native Americans there. One letter to Wayne from Benjamin Fishbourn concerns a Creek uprising in Georgia, during which the natives burned homes and absconded with corn and rice ([October 1786]). Although Wayne claimed that "the Indian depredations in this State have been so much exaggerated as to deter any purchasers" (February 20, 1788), he nonetheless kept track of many strife-filled incidents. On October 7, 1788, he wrote, "We are all confusion here on account of the Indians and Spaniards - the first carrying off our Negroes and other property - the latter Countenancing and protecting them!" He also described the imprisonment of his tenants by Native Americans (October 7, 1788), the abandonment of plantations by white settlers out of fear of "depredations" by natives (December 5, 1788), and the arrival of troops in the south to challenge the Creeks (December 5, 1791). On October 21, 1789, he wrote that he and his neighbors expected an "Indian war" at any time. After Wayne left the south permanently, he continued to receive periodic reports on conflicts between natives and white settlers, including an attack on Creeks at "Buzzard Town," during which whites killed and imprisoned many natives, as described in letters dated October 26 and December 17, 1793. Also of interest is a list of settlements in the Upper and Lower Creek Nation, including towns and villages called "The Buzzard Rost," "New Youga," "Swagelas," and "Cowetaws" (July 2, 1793).

The collection also documents several aspects of Anthony Wayne's political career, and includes his notes on the Constitutional Convention, including his assertion that "The Constitution is a Dangerous Machine in the hands of designing men" (filed at the end of 1788). Also of note are his several letters to President George Washington, requesting favors for himself and his friends, and a letter describing Washington's visit to Savannah, during which Wayne escorted him around the city (May 18, 1791). Well-represented is the conflict between Wayne and James Jackson over the election of 1791 for a seat in the 2nd United States Congress to represent the 1st District of Georgia.

A large portion of the collection concerns Wayne's prosecution of the Northwest Indian War as commander-in-chief of the newly created Legion of the United States between 1792 and 1796. Early letters and documents record the Legion's travel across Pennsylvania, gathering recruits en route (June 8, 1792); the smallpox inoculations for the soldiers (July 6, 1792); the arrangement of men into sublegions (July 13, 1792); Secretary of War Henry Knox's decision to delay operations until after the winter (August 7, 1792; August 10, 1792); and the foundation of Legionville, Pennsylvania, the first formal military basic training facility in the United States (November 23, 1792). Numerous letters concern military administration, including provisioning, appointments and promotions, furloughs, and other routine matters. Discipline of the troops was also a frequent concern, and Wayne and his correspondents frequently made references to desertion, disciplinary measures, the distribution of whiskey as a reward for successful target practice, and courts martial. Examples of the latter include the court martial of Captain William Preston, whom Wayne called "a very young Officer-with rather too high an idea of Equality" (June 25, 1795); the case of a private, Timothy Haley, who was convicted but released under pressure from the civil courts (July 1, 1795); and the proceedings against Lieutenant Peter Marks for "ungentleman and unofficer-like conduct" (July 20-21, 1794). A booklet covering July 19-August 2, 1793, contains a number of court martial proceedings, for such offenses as drunkenness while on guard duty and use of abusive language.

The correspondence and documents created during this period also shed some light on various Native American tribes in the Midwest and their encounters with Wayne's forces. In a letter to Wayne, Henry Knox frets over the yet-unknown fate of Colonel John Hardin, who died in an ambush by the Shawnee (August 7, 1792).

Also addressed are the following conflicts:
  • Attack on Fort Jefferson by a Potawatomi force (September 9, 1792)
  • Attack on a forage convoy near Fort Hamilton by Native Americans (September 23, 1792)
  • Attack on Fort Washington, resulting in the capture of three prisoners by native forces (October 2, 1792)
  • Attack on Fort St. Clair by 250 Native Americans under Little Turtle (November 6, 1792)
  • Skirmishes with Native Americans in southern Ohio (October 22, 1793) in which "the Indians killed & carried off about 70 officers leaving the waggons & stores standing"

Also of interest is a description by Israel Chapin of a Six Nations council at "Buffaloe Creek," which lists some of the attendants: "the Farmer's Brother, Red Jacket and Capt Billy of the Senkas; the Fish Carrier, head Chief of the Cayugas,; Great Sky head chief of the Onondagas; and Capt Brandt of the Mohawks; and great numbers of inferior Chiefs" (December 11, 1793). On January 21, 1794, Wayne voiced his suspicions concerning peace overtures from "Delaware, Shawanoes and Miami tribes" and accused them of buying time in order to "secure their provisions, and to remove their women and children from pending distruction." Jean-Francois (sometimes known as John Francis) Hamtramck, commandant of Fort Wayne, wrote very informative letters to Wayne, discussing the Native American traders in the area and the possibility of starting a trading house at Fort Wayne (February 3, 1795), the arrival of Potawatomi at the Fort (March 5, 1795), and a meeting with the Le Gris, chief of the Miamis, whom he called a "sensible old fellow, in no ways ignorant of the Cause of the war, for which he Blames the Americans, saying that they were too extravagant in their Demands in their first treaties" (March 27, 1795).

The Battle of Fallen Timbers receives only minor attention in the collection in the form of letters, expressing praise for Wayne's victory, from army paymaster Caleb Swan (October 19, 1794) and Francis Vigo (February 22, 1795). However, efforts to end hostilities are well documented with such items as a copy of the Treaty of Greenville (August 3, 1795), Wayne's account of the signing and its impact on various tribes and their leaders (August 14, 1795), and letters from several civilians requesting help in locating family members captured by Native Americans (June 1, 1795; July 27, 1795).

Isaac and William Wayne

After Anthony Wayne's death in December 1796, the focus of the series shifts to his son, Isaac Wayne, and then to Wayne's great-grandson, William Wayne (née William Wayne Evans); the activities of the two men occupy much of the material in Volumes 11-16. Early letters mainly pertain to the family matters and finances of Isaac Wayne, including the ongoing settlement of his father's estate and various claims against it. Several items relate to his career, including an acceptance of the resignation of a soldier from Erie Light Infantry Company during the War of 1812 (March 27, 1813), and a circular letter urging support for his candidacy for governor of Pennsylvania (October 3, 1814), which was ultimately unsuccessful. Other topics include his refusal of a nomination to Congress (February 1824); requests for information about his father by historians and biographers; the August 1828 death of his son Charles, who served in the navy; and other political and family matters discussed by Wayne. His primary correspondents include William Richardson Atlee, Charles Miner, Callender Irvine, Samuel Hayman, and various members of Evans family, to whom he was related through his sister Margaretta.

The bulk of the letters postdating 1850 relate to William Wayne. Early correspondence concerns his courtship with his future wife, Hannah Zook, in 1852, the death of Isaac Wayne on October 25, 1852, and various social visits and family concerns. On March 14 and 15, 1860, Wayne wrote to his wife about travel through Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and Erie to Meadville, Pennsylvania. Though he stayed in the prominent Monongahela House, he described Pittsburgh as a "dirty village," and unfavorably compared the "Western Penitentiary" to its counterpart in Philadelphia, "the Castle on Cherry Hill." He noted that Cleveland "is said to be the handsomest City in the Union," but reserved his opinion on this point.

The collection also contains six letters written by Wayne during his Civil War service with the 97th Pennsylvania Infantry. On June 27, 1862, he wrote to his wife from James Island, South Carolina, concerning his regiment's role in building fortifications and mounting guns. He also commented on General George McClellan and his cautious strategy. Wayne wrote the remainder of the letters from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. On October 13, 1862, three days after the Confederate raid on Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, Wayne wrote about rumors concerning "the movements of 'secesh' along our border" in what he suspected was an attempt to interfere with the election of 1862. In another letter, he expressed disappointment that he had arrived at camp too late to accompany a group of new recruits to Washington (November 3, 1862). Of interest are four letters from Wayne's friend, Joseph Lewis, which relate to Wayne's attempt to resign from the army, as well as five items relating to General Galusha Pennypacker. The Pennypacker correspondence includes a sketch of his service, written by Edward R. Eisenbeis (December 24, 1865), and letters concerning his recovery from severe wounds received at the Second Battle of Fort Fisher in 1865. Also of interest are several postwar letters to and from General George A. McCall concerning his meetings with Wayne.

The Manuscripts Division has created a list of the names of the letter-writers in the collection: Wayne Family Papers Contributor List.

The Letter Books series contains three volumes of Anthony Wayne's outgoing military correspondence. The periods covered are June 4, 1792-October 5, 1793 (Volume 30), April 12, 1792-June 21, 1794 (Volume 31), and October 23, 1793-September 20, 1794 (Volume 32). The letters are official and semi-official in nature and pertain to army administration, encounters with Native Americans, troop movements, provisioning, and other topics.

The Land Documents series (Volume 17) contains land indentures, surveys, and deeds relating to several generations of the Wayne family, 1681-1879. This includes numerous documents relating to the Waynesborough estate and illustrating its possession by various family members. The surveys pertain to such matters as the line between Easttown and Willistown in Pennsylvania, several surveys performed for James Claypool in Chester County, Pennsylvania, and a drawing (including several trees) of the land of James Rice. Also included is a vellum land indenture dated October 3, 1732, between Anthony Wayne's father, Isaac, and a widow named Mary Hutton.

For other land documents, see the following surveys by Anthony Wayne in the Correspondence and Documents series:
  • Land in Tredyffrin Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania (December 15, 1764)
  • Wayne property in Easttown and Willistown, Pennsylvania (January 12, 1767)
  • Newtown, Chester County, Pennsylvania (January 12, 1767)
  • Waynesborough, Chester County, Pennsylvania ([ca. 1784])
  • Survey notes on a tract of land reserved by Wayne on the Little Setilla River, Georgia (July 23, 1786)

The Other Legal Documents series (Volume 17) spans 1686-1868 and contains wills, inventories, certificates, financial agreements, and other document types. Included are several documents related to the death of Samuel K. Zook, brother-in-law of William Wayne, at the Battle of Gettysburg on July 2, 1863; certificates related to the Ancient York Masons, Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati, and the American Philosophical Society; and several articles of agreement concerning financial transactions between various members of the Wayne family. Also of note are the wills of Anthony Wayne, Mary (Penrose) Wayne, Elizabeth Wayne, William Richardson, and others.

The Diaries and Notebooks series (Volumes 17-20) contains 19 diaries and notebooks written by various members of the Wayne family between 1815 and 1913. Of these, Charles Wayne wrote one volume, an unknown author wrote one, William Wayne wrote ten, and William Wayne, Jr., wrote seven. The books have been assigned letters and arranged in chronological order. The Charles Wayne notebook, labeled "A," covers 1815-1816 and contains algebraic equations and notes from Charles' lessons at Norristown Academy in Pennsylvania. Volume "B," written by an unknown author, dates to about 1820 and contains a number of medicinal cures for ailments such as cholera, snakebite, consumption, jaundice, and dysentery, as well as notes on the weather and references to agriculture and a few daily events.

William Wayne, the great-grandson of Anthony Wayne, wrote volumes "C" through "L," documenting the years 1858 to 1872, with a gap from November 11, 1861-August 13, 1862. The volumes record Wayne's pre-Civil War agricultural pursuits, his service with the 97th Pennsylvania Infantry, and his postwar activities. Of particular interest are the entries that Wayne wrote while posted on Hilton Head Island in August 1862, as well as his brief descriptions of the arrival and processing of recruits at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in October of the same year. He also referenced Pennsylvania politics, the elections of 1863 and 1864, and the reaction of Philadelphians to the news of Lincoln's assassination. Also worth noting are Wayne's accounts of the Confederate cavalry raids on Chambersburg in November 1862, the Gettysburg campaign, and Wayne's attempts to recover the body of his brother-in-law after Gettysburg. Postwar, Wayne wrote on such topics as Reconstruction (August 14, 1866), a cholera outbreak in New York (November 4, 1865), and election fraud and rioting in Philadelphia (October 14, 1868).

William Wayne, Jr., wrote diaries "M" through "S," 1883-1913, with a gap between September 30, 1902, and April 19, 1911. These contain near-daily brief entries on weather, family life, health, and Wayne's interest in politics. Included is a description of an unveiling of a Sons of the Revolution monument (June 19, 1893), the illness of his wife, Mary (Fox) Wayne (February 28, 1884), and Wayne's work during an election (February 19, 1884).

The Account Books series contains 24 volumes, spanning 1769-1856. The earliest volume ("A") covers approximately 1769 to 1780, and contains accounts for unknown transactions, as well as scattered memoranda concerning travel between Ireland and North America and several references to schooling. Volume "B" is Anthony Wayne's military account book for 1793-1794, which lists monthly pay to various members of the Legion of the United States. Volumes "C" through "S" encompass a large amount of financial information for Anthony Wayne's son, Isaac, for the years 1794-1823. Volumes "T" through "X" are overlapping financial account books for William Wayne, covering 1854 through 1877. Also included is an account book recording tannery transactions and activities of the Wayne family in the 18th century (Volume 29), and a book of register warrants drawn by Anthony Wayne on the paymaster general in 1796 (Volume 34)

The Anthony Wayne Portait and Miscellaneous series contains an undated engraved portrait of Wayne by E. Prud'homme from a drawing by James Herring. Also included are various newspaper clippings, genealogical material, and printed matter representing the 19th and 20th centuries.


Josiah Harmar papers, 1681-1937

14 linear feet

The Josiah Harmar papers contain the official and personal correspondence, military records, and diaries of Harmar, with particular focus on his military leadership during the Northwest Indian War.

The Josiah Harmar papers contain 14 linear feet of material, spanning 1681 to 1937, with the bulk concentrated around 1775-1810. The collection includes a huge variety of document types, including correspondence and letter books, military documents, orderly books, financial and land documents, school notebooks, and diaries. It covers many aspects of Harmar's career, including his Revolutionary War service (1775-1783), duties in the Northwest Territory (1784-1791), and tenure with the Pennsylvania militia (1793-1799), with some documentation of the activities of his wife and four children and a few other descendants.

The Chronological Correspondence and Documents series (Volumes 1-24 and 45) makes up the largest part of the collection and primarily contains incoming letters and documents relating to Harmar's military career, and to a lesser extent, to his family and personal life. A few scattered, outgoing letters by Harmar are also present. The pre-1775 materials in the series are small in number and relate mainly to the land and property holdings of the Jenkins family, who were relatives of Harmar's wife, Sarah (Jenkins) Harmar. These include wills, inventories, sketches of property, and land indentures, several of which pertain to lands in Pennsylvania.

A few dozen items in the series relate to various aspects of the Revolutionary War and Harmar's service in it. These include muster rolls of Harmar's company in the Pennsylvania Line (February 19, 1776; June 22, 1776), an account of clothing delivered to the company (March 18, 1777), a copy of Baron Friedrich von Steuben's instructions to the American Army at Valley Forge (March 23, 1778) and a set of "Maneuvers" for April 13, 1782. Also present are incoming letters to Harmar from other Continental Army officers, including Major Thomas L. Moore, Brigadier General William Irvine, and Colonel Francis Johnston. In a letter of September 30, 1781, Moore expressed nervousness about a potential British attack on Philadelphia and concern about yellow fever, "which at present rages in New York." Other letters discuss the British interception and publication of American correspondence ([before September 10, 1781]) and provide updates on happenings in Philadelphia. An outgoing letter from Harmar to Irvine contains Harmar's reaction to the death of the aunt who raised him: "I have lost my best Friend" (October 6, 1780). Several additional incoming letters reference the negotiations to end the war, including the appointment of Richard Oswald as British peace commissioner (December 25, 1782). Another item mentions the logistics of bringing soldiers home from South Carolina (May 22, 1783). Also included are a letter by John Dickinson, praising the officers of the Pennsylvania Line (May 22, 1783), and Nathanael Greene's signed certification that Harmar acted as adjutant general to the Southern army (May 9, 1783). Although the series contains the certificate appointing Harmar as courier of the ratified Treaty of Paris (January 14, 1784) and several related documents, his journey to Paris is not otherwise referenced.

From 1784 to 1791, when Harmar acted as commander of the Army, the series contains ample detail on military activities, strategy, and logistics; encounters with Native Americans in present-day Ohio and Indiana; dealings with white settlers in the Northwest Territory; the construction of forts; and other topics. Several items cover the negotiations of the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in January 1785, including preparations for the meeting (December 17, 1784), Harmar's brief description of the progress made in negotiations (January 10, 1785), a copy of the treaty (January 21, 1785), and an inventory of United States property at the fort. A few letters mention the difficulties of leading a poorly paid and largely untrained force, including one by Captain Derick Lane, in which he lamented the poor pay of soldiers and noted that it was "impossible" to keep troops in service for any significant length of time (March 15, 1785).

Another theme of the series is the dealings between the army and the white settlers who attempted to settle on prohibited land. A series of letters in April 1785 between Harmar and a group of settlers west of the Beaver River (a tributary of the Ohio River near the present-day Pennsylvania-Ohio border) sheds light on this squatter settlement, and includes the pleas and signatures of several dozen men who claim to lack "homes or lands to move to" if evicted (April 15, 1785). Although the settlers admitted their mistake in a letter of April 8, 1785 ("We have erred in settling her without the advise [sic] and consent of government"), Harmar maintained his insistence that they remove themselves (April 21, 1785). Also included are the comments of Ensign John Armstrong, who wrote, "[I]f the Honorable Congress, don't fall on some speedy method to prevent people from settling on the Lands of the United States, West of the Ohio--that country will soon be inhabited by a banditi whose actions are a disgrace to human nature" (April 13, 1785). Letters in the series also refer to Native American responses to settlement; Captain David Luckett wrote on July 10, 1785, that two chiefs, "[Cayasutu] and the Corn Planter" had complained about the settlers' encroachment on native lands. In a copy of a speech written by Wyandot chiefs Abraham Coon and Massayeh Haire in Sandusky to Richard Butler, they warned him to "keep back your people from coming this Way" (October 28, 1786).

The collection also includes approximately 130 letters containing instructions to Harmar from Secretary of War Henry Knox, 1785-1791, setting forth many aspects of the government's policy for the Northwest Territory. His letters concern army administration, discipline, land policy, incidents involving Native Americans, the recruitment of troops, traders, settlers, supplies, and numerous other issues.

A few noteworthy examples of items by Knox include:
  • Knox's letter to Harmar concerning "Moravian Indians," whom Congress will allow to "return to their former settlement on the Muskingum" and will provide with corn (August 24, 1786).
  • A letter containing orders that the militia "be drawn from the nearest Counties of Kentuckey [sic] to rendezvous at Fort Washington" and noting that the "peace of the frontiers" is a "great object" (June 7, 1790).
  • Knox's letter suggesting that Colonel Benjamin Logan lead an expedition against Native Americans and noting his "powerful influence over the conduct of the militia" (September 3, 1790).

Many additional letters written to Harmar by various army officers and merchants relate incidents concerning Iroquois, Mohawk, Cherokee, Wyandot, Delaware, and other Native American groups.

A few items of particular interest include:
  • Merchant Obidiah Robin's description of relations between Wyandot Indians and whites near Tuscarawas, Ohio (May 17, 1785).
  • Colonel Richard Butler's address to Seneca chief Corn Planter, which references Joseph Brant and his recent return from England, as well as relations between the Shawnee and Six Nations (September 10, 1786).
  • The answer of the Wyandot and Delaware Indians to a speech by Richard Butler, which thanks the Americans for appointing him "to take Care of us" and states that the western Native American tribes "would Whip us Very Sorely" if given the chance (September 23, 1786).
  • An incident described in two letters by Captain William Ferguson (September 13-14, 1786) and Obidiah Robins (September 25, 1786), in which Cherokee warriors assembled at the "Shawana Towns" burned several white female prisoners to death.
  • A letter by Thomas Hutchins, which notes that unspecified Native Americans stole eight horses and "marked the figure of a Man, without the head, on the side of Tree…which indicates their having killed a Man and taken his Scalp" (November 6, 1786).

Letters and documents in the series also shed light on the Harmar Campaign in the fall of 1790. On October 1, 1790, Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory, discussed the "object" of such an expedition: "to chastise the Indian Nations who have of late been so troublesome to the Frontier, of Virginia, and upon the Ohio River; and to impress proper Notions upon the others with respect to the United States." Several letters by Jean Francois Hamtramck concern his expedition against Native American villages on the Vermilion, Eel, and Wabash Rivers, intended to distract native forces from Harmar's own operations. These include his discussion of his preparation and goals for the mission (September 21, 1790), as well as a lengthy account of his actions near the Vermilion River (November 2, 1790). One of the few references in the series to the events of Harmar's Defeat also comes from Hamtramck, in a letter requesting more information on rumors he heard from "two frenchmen who came from the Weiya" that Harmar's forces had suffered a major blow (November 28, 1790).

After the failure of his campaign, Harmar continued to receive letters concerning news of the frontier and requests for help from settlers. Among these are a petition from the inhabitants of Clarksville, Ohio, reporting problems with Native Americans and asking for protection (December 3, 1790), and a notification that the inhabitants of Dunlap's Station planned to abandon the settlement because of an attack on their livestock and grain by natives (January 16, 1791). In another letter, the inhabitants of Bethany, Ohio, requested army protection and reported the recent killing of Abel Cook by Native Americans (February 28, 1791). Other letters concern Harmar's culpability in Harmar's Defeat; one item from John Armstrong notes, "You are censured for making detachments and the loss of some men improperly attributed to this cause" (March 1, 1791). Another from Major William Ferguson states, "Some have reported that you was intoxicated the greater part of the time, and others that misconduct had marked the whole of your expedition" (March 28, 1791). Also included is the March 18, 1791, appointment of Arthur St. Clair to succeed Harmar.

Later items in the series illuminate Harmar's experiences as adjutant general of the Pennsylvania Militia (1793-1799), and his retirement at his estate, The Retreat, from 1799 until his death in 1813. They also document some aspects of his family life. Sarah Jenkins Harmar took charge of the finances and management of her husband’s Ohio and Pennsylvania lands after his death in 1813; approximately 15 letters to and from various agents (including John B. Alexander and John Reynolds) concern renters, taxes, and other administrative details. In the mid-1820s, Sarah’s sons, Josiah, Jr., and William, provided increasing assistance with land management responsibilities. The collection also contains correspondence between Sarah Harmar and sons during their residence in Ohio, regarding the business of her land holdings in the 1830s and 1840s.

Fourteen large deeds (1682-1786) pertain to lands in Pennsylvania. Additional items in this series are commissions, passports, newspapers and newspaper clippings. For a list of newspapers represented, see "Additional Descriptive Data."

The Diaries series (Volume 46) contains three volumes of diary entries and a set of loose diary pages by Josiah Harmar. Altogether, they span November 11, 1778-February 14, 1800, and provide an excellent record of his activities in both the Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. The Revolutionary War diary covers November 11, 1778-September 2, 1780, and contains Harmar's account of duties, troop movements, and major events during his military service in New York and New Jersey, including the Battle of Stony Point (July 16, 1779) and an attack on a blockhouse at Bull's Ferry (July 21, 1780). Of the latter event, he noted that several Americans "were kill'd inside the Abbatis" and that the British had the blockhouse "mann'd with about Seventy Negros, Tories & Vagabonds." He also wrote about the drunkenness of the Irish on St. Patrick's Day (March 18, 1780), sowing lettuce in his "Camp Garden" (April 6, 1780), and a quickly-quelled mutiny within the Connecticut Line (May 25, 1780). Of interest are Harmar's comments on Benedict Arnold, for whose 1779 court martial Harmar had been ordered to serve: "General Arnold objected against General Irvine, Colonel Butler and myself, at the same Time expressing great personal Regard for us, but without assigning his Reasons" (June 1, 1779). Two additional notebooks are "weather diaries" of meteorological conditions at Fort Washington, June 1, 1790-September 25, 1791.

Of particular importance are approximately 75 sheets containing brief diary entries for August 8, 1783, to February 14, 1800. Harmar folded the sheets into pocket-sized pages, on which he recorded observations on military actions, encounters with Native Americans, weather conditions, and other topics. The diary opens with his preparations for a journey to France as the courier of the ratified Treaty of Paris; entries for the summer of 1784 describe his travel across the Atlantic, a visit to the Palace of Versailles, and attendance of several theater performances. After Harmar became commander of the army, he primarily recorded activities around forts in Pennsylvania and Ohio, as well as information about his campaign against the Miami in the fall of 1790. He most commonly wrote about troop and Native American movements, hunting, crossing rivers, and the arrival of provisions and clothing. On March 31, 1785, he wrote that he had sent Ensign John Armstrong to dispossess squatters on land across the river from Wheeling [present day West Virginia].

A few other entries of note:
  • On May 13, 1785, Harmar noted the capture of a Delaware Indian who had stabbed four men (killing one) near Pittsburgh.
  • On March 7, 1787, he wrote that Cornplanter and three other chiefs had visited him at Fort Steuben before "setting out for the Six Nations."
  • On July 27, 1787, Harmar described a fatal attack on "Capt. Mason's boat" on the White River by Piankashaw Indians (July 27, 1787).
  • On March 31, 1788, he wrote "Old Captain Pipe with several of his Nation arrived this day--they are encamped about a mile from hence up the Muskingum."
  • On October 18, 1789, he noted that the state of Pennsylvania had appointed commissioners "to purchase from the Indians the triangular tract of Land adjoining Lake Erie."

The unbound diary pages also provide the collection's most complete description of Harmar's Campaign and Harmar's Defeat. On October 18, 1790, Harmar noted that two Native Americans had been killed and scalped by "the Cavalry" near Chillicothe, Ohio. Several days later, he wrote that his forces had "completed the destruction of the Maumee Towns," and he had detached Major John P. Wyllys with 60 federal and 300 militia troops "in hopes he may fall in with some of the Savages" (October 21, 1790). On October 22, 1790, he gave an account of the Battle of Pumpkin Fields, stating that the detachment under Wyllys and Colonel John Hardin "performed wonders altho' they were terribly cut up." He called the deaths of several officers, including Wyllys, a "heavy blow," but noted as a consolation that the men had "sold themselves very dear." On November 3, 1790, he further reflected on the losses suffered during the defeat. Later diary entries pertain mainly to the weather, activities such as fishing and hunting trips, and other routine pursuits.

The Letter Books series contains nine volumes of bound, outgoing correspondence, written by Harmar to various recipients. The volumes, which are lettered chronologically, A-I, span January 19, 1784, to January 7, 1797. The series opens with an account of Harmar's visit to France in 1784, as courier of the ratified Treaty of Paris, including his delay in sailing from New York, comments on the journey to Europe, and some references to the Treaty of Paris and British politics. Thereafter, the letters mainly concern official military matters and business; Harmar addressed most of them to other army officers, such as Secretary of War Henry Knox; Captains Walter Finney, David Zeigler, and John Francis Hamtramck; and Major John Hardin. Harmar also wrote occasionally to surveyors, merchants, and land speculators in present-day Ohio.

The letters concern a variety of topics, including military strategy, troop movements and distribution, provisioning, disagreements between military officers, and reports of intelligence. They also reference encounters with the Wyandot, Delaware, Mingo, Miami, and Chickasaw, and several unspecified groups of Native Americans. Two different accounts of Colonel Logan’s 1786 expedition mention the imprisonment of Native American women and children (December 7, 1786; December 16, 1786). Harmar variously discussed the make-up of his forces (October 11, 1786), the arrangement of his troops between Fort Vincennes and headquarters (August 18, 1790), strategies for dealing with old and unfit soldiers (August 27, 1790), and the importance of punctual payments in ensuring military discipline (September 2, 1790). The letter books contain a gap between September 29, 1790, and November 12, 1790, and thus do not directly mention the events of Harmar's Defeat. After Harmar's resignation from the service, the letters become much less frequent, but contain references to the death of John Hardin (September 6, 1792) and the printing of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben's "Manoeuvres" by "Mr. Cist" of Philadelphia (August 20, 1793).

The Bound Military Volumes series (Volumes 31-32) contains 12 books kept by Harmar between 1775 and 1788.

The muster rolls and letter book volume 31 (B) includes Harmar's letter to Anthony Wayne, dated January 20, 1778, in which he requested clothing for the men of his regiment, camped near Valley Forge, whom he described as "almost naked and in want of every necessary." The orderly books in Volume 31 contain orders at the regimental and battalion level for 1778-1783, and concern military discipline, placement of troops, courts martial, appointments, and routine matters.

All the books pertain to the First American Regiment, which Harmar commanded. Volume B primarily records garrison orders for Fort McIntosh, 1784-1786, while the other volumes include more general regimental orders.

The Financial Documents series (Volumes 25-27, 33-34, 38-42) contains bills, receipts, account books, bank books, ledgers, and other items relating to financial matters. Spanning 1742-1911 (bulk 1780-1840), the series brings together financial information on Josiah Harmar, as well as many other Harmar family members, including his wife, children, and grandchildren. Many of the volumes contain military spending, as well as more personal financial transactions. See "Detailed Box and Folder Listing" for more information.

The School Books series (Volumes 35-37) contains 35 exercise and drawing books kept by members of the Harmar family during their time as students. The books, which span ca. 1790s-1830s, cover many subjects, including arithmetic, history, art, English, French, and penmanship. Many of the volumes belonged to Harmar's sons, Charles and Josiah, Jr. One book, dated 1766, contains manuscript copies of stories from Roman history by Josiah Harmar.


Quaker Advices from Burlington (N.J.) and Philadelphia (Pa.), 1682-1762

1 volume

This volume contains "advices" from the annual meetings of the Society of Friends for Pennsylvania and New Jersey in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Most of the resolutions concern administrative and procedural matters. The volume also includes an essay about the history and beliefs of the Society of Friends.

This volume, entitled "A Collection of Christian & Brotherly Advices Given forth from Time to Time by the Yearly Meeting of Friends for Pennsylvania & New Jersey Held alternately at Burlington & Philadelphia," contains 171 pages of resolutions ("advices") adopted between 1682 and 1762, mostly in the early 1700s. The copied passages, which follow a brief introduction, are collected by subject and arranged alphabetically (see the complete list of subjects below). Most of the entries contain about a page of discussion dealing with administrative or procedural issues and Quaker beliefs. Advices about "Indians" largely concern the exchange of rum or other intoxicating liquors; those on "Negroes or Slaves" relate to the morality (and immorality) of the slave trade and slaveholding. Some entries are cross-referenced within the volume. The advices are followed by an address on Quaker history and beliefs entitled "The Ancient Testimony..." (pp. 174-191), delivered at the yearly meeting in 1722 by council member and former Philadelphia mayor Samuel Preston.


George Sackville Germain papers, 1683-1785

6 linear feet

The Lord George Sackville Germain papers contain the political and military correspondence of Germain, British military officer and secretary of state for North America during the American Revolution. In addition to official letters and reports, the collection comprises copies of secret military dispatches, reports and extracts detailing the activities of the commanders and colonial governors of North America, and a copybook of letters between American diplomat Benjamin Franklin, Massachusetts Governor Thomas Pownall, and Boston reverend Samuel Cooper.

The Lord George Sackville Germain papers (6 linear feet) contain the political and military correspondence of Germain, British military officer and secretary of state for North America from 1775 to 1782. Though the papers document Germain's entire public career, the bulk of the material relates to his role overseeing the military during the American Revolution. In addition to official letters and reports, the collection is also comprised of copies of secret military dispatches, reports and extracts detailing the activities of the commanders and colonial governors of North America, and a copy book of letters between American diplomat Benjamin Franklin, Massachusetts Governor Thomas Pownall, and Boston reverend Samuel Cooper.

The Correspondence and Documents series (4.5 linear feet) contains drafts and retained copies of letters from Germain and official incoming letters and documents sent to Germain during his years of military and public service. The collection includes little related to Germain's personal life.

The series holds some correspondence relating to Germain's early military career, including ten letters he wrote to his father while serving in the War of Austrian Succession. Though only a few items relate to Germain's service at Minden, present are several letters written and received by Germain in Germany in 1759, and French and Indian War-era letters from politicians and military leaders such as Pitt, Temple, Holland, Mansfield, Bute, Newcastle, Charles Townshend, Grenville, and Ligonier. Of special interest are the letters of Lord Jeffery Amherst and General Wolfe's account of the fall of Louisbourg and the military in Canada. Germain held no high office between the French and Indian war and the American Revolution but he kept in close contact with Sir John Irwin, with whom he discussed politics and current events.

The bulk of the collection covers Germain's tenure as secretary of state to the colonies (1775-1782), and provides a thorough account of his public policy decision-making process. As American secretary, Germain maintained voluminous correspondence with ministers and officials in England, particularly secretaries of state Lord Suffolk and Lord Stormont, Undersecretary William Eden, and Solicitor General Alexander Wedderburn. Germain also received regular updates from Richard Cumberland, whom Germain sent to Madrid to negotiate peace with Spain.

As a key overseer of the British war effort, Germain had direct communication with the commanders-in-chief in America and their immediate subordinates, as well as with the naval commanders. Included are letters from Thomas Gage, William Howe, Richard Howe, John Burgoyne, Henry Clinton, Charles Cornwallis, John Vaughan, Guy Carleton, and Frederick Haldimand. He communicated frequently with the British governors in Nova Scotia, Canada, and Florida, and with Governor Henry Hamilton at Detroit. As France, Spain, and the Netherlands entered the war, much of his attention turned to naval action and trade (sugar and slaves) in the West Indies. He also dealt with the Carlisle peace commissioners, various merchants, and loyalists, such as Jonathan Boucher, physicist-adventurer Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford. The series concludes with 58 undated letters, largely written during the Revolution.

Below is a list of notable items from this series:
  • 1757: "Considerations on the present State of the Military Operations in North America"
  • January 20, 1775: Thoughts on the Dispute between Great Britain and Her Colonies, by Brook Watson
  • July 29, 1775: Report on the occupation of Charlestown Heights, written by William Howe
  • August 20, 1775: Military report by General John Burgoyne
  • October 18, 1775: An early "Constitution" created by the Provincial Congress of North Carolina, declaring independence and laying out the groundwork for a cooperative government among the colonies, containing 13 articles
  • December 29, 1775: "Reflections on the Dispute with the Colonies by Apollos Morris," containing a history or empires and discussion of the problem
  • [1775]: Report by John Shuttleworth on the British and American forces throughout North America: artillery, arms, and navy
  • [1775]: "Advantages of lord Cornwallis's Expedition going rather to Chesapeake Bay than to the Carolinas," by Sir John Dalrymple
  • January 12, 1776: Letter from Lord Ellibank who proposed returning Canada to the French as the most effective means of reducing the rest of our colonies
  • January 17, 1776: Proposal for growing vegetables for the British troops in North America - radishes, red spinach, lettuce, cabbage, and potatoes etc.
  • July 4, 1776: Contemporary manuscript copy of the Declaration of Independence created for Germain
  • August 10, 13, 1776: Reports on the campaign in New York from William Howe, stationed at Staten Island
  • 1776: Peace commission instructions from Germain
  • February 28, 1777: "Thoughts for conducting the War from the Side of Canada"
  • March 18, 1777: "Political Remarks on the present state of affairs in respect to the Rebellion in America, and the danger of its involving us in a War in Europe"
  • April 2, 1777: William Howe's 3rd plan of military operations in North America
  • 1777: "A State of the Circumstances in Philadelphia"
  • March 8, 1778: A description of Germain's southern strategy sent to Henry Clinton
  • March 24, 1778: "Plan for taking of French and Spanish Islands," by John Drummond
  • May [26], 1778: Extract from Burgoyne's speech to the House of Commons concerning the Battle of Saratoga
  • August 24, 1778: British spy Dr. John Berkenhout's "Journal of an Excursion from New York to Philadelphia in the Year 1778," reporting on Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Rush, and others
  • February-July 1779: "A Short Journal and Remarks of Transactions, that happened at Grenada & other parts of the West Indies"
  • March 31, 1779: Two copies of letters from George Washington to Henry Clinton, enclosed in Clinton to Germain, no. 46, April 2, 1779
  • 1779: "Hints for the Management of an intended Enquiry: an assessment of the War with America," including reports on the state of the military and intelligence looking into Howe's decisions: such as "Why did he not attack Washington at Valley Forge" and "Why did he not pursue Washington's Army after the Defeat at Brandywine,” and General Grey's "evidence and opinions and extracts from Howe's letters used at the inquiry"
  • March 8, 1780: "Sketch of a System by which the rebellious Colonies in America might be reduced to Obedience in two Campaigns, which offers a strategic plan for engaging the rebels"
  • July 25, 1780: Extracts from General Horatio Gates' orderly book, headquarters at Buffalo Ford July 25-August 15, with details on divisions from Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia
  • August 10, 1780: Petition from Ethan Allen and others from Vermont, concerning their unhappiness with the Continental Congress and their desire to form an independent British province, by John Griffiths
  • August 21, 1780: Reports from General Charles Cornwallis on the victory at Charleston and the Battle of Hanging Rock
  • October 1780: Copy of a letter by Alexander Hamilton discussing and describing the capture and trial of John André, and Arnold and Washington's involvement in the incident
  • October 1781: Reports on the battle and surrender of Yorktown and the siege of Chesapeake Bay
  • January 13 and 15, 24, 1782: Letters from Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Thompson, A New Hampshire Loyalist in the British cavalry, stationed in South Carolina, describing fighting at the end of the war

The Secret Military Dispatches volume (429 pages) is comprised of 246 secret dispatches and orders sent by Germain to political and military leaders between 1775 and 1782. In these, Germain discussed military strategy for the British army and navy in America and the West Indies with Henry Clinton, John Dalling, John Grant, Frederick Haldimand, John Vaughan, and the Lords of the Admiralty, among other officers and governors. One letter is housed separately in Volume 23, a retained copy of George Germain's letter to William Howe, January 5, 1776.

The Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Pownall, and Samuel Cooper letter book (296 pages) contains copies of 68 letters from Benjamin Franklin, Governor of Massachusetts Thomas Pownall, and Reverend Samuel Cooper of Boston. These communicate both British and American points of view of the developing unrest in the colonies between 1769 and 1774. Throughout the volume, Franklin and Pownall wrote from London while Cooper wrote from Boston; each voiced their unique perspective on political and civil conflicts between England and America.

The Undated Reports series (39 items) consists of undated documents found in Germain's papers relating to trade, customs, government finances, Irish policies, military strategy proposals, assessments on the outcome of military engagements, conditions on the ground in various colonies, the state of West Indian islands, and the role of the French and Spanish in the American Revolution.

The Supplements series (40 items) is comprised of documents submitted to Germain to keep him informed about the conditions and developments of the American conflict. Many contain added commentary aimed to inform and influence his decision-making. The documents include reports and compiled summaries of correspondence and military dispatches related to operations throughout North America.

In addition to this finding aid, the Clements Library has created three other research aids: The Subject Index and Contributor List provides access to events, people, places, and topics discussed in the Correspondence and Documents series (Volumes 1-16). This index also contains a list of contributors. The Volume Guide includes notes on the contents for 22 volumes in the collection. The Guide to Volumes 17-21 provides lists of the documents in each of these volumes.


Holme family account book, 1684-1762

102 pages

Irish Quakers and compatriots of William Penn, the family of John Holme prospered in the new colony of Pennsylvania. The Holme family account book includes accounts of goods sold and services rendered to Philadelphia families in the 1680s and 1690s. Interspersed throughout are medicinal and food preparation receipts, mostly recorded in the 1740s, as well as copies of the laws of Pennsylvania, ca. 1685, the wills of Capt. Thomas Holme, 1695, and John Holme, Jr., and a poem and two religious songs.

The Holme account book is particularly heterogeneous in its construction. It includes accounts of goods sold and services rendered to Philadelphia families in the 1680s and 1690s. However, the accounts appear to have been kept by several different members of the family. These include records of the sale of shoes, gun powder, grain, cloth, nails, and many other goods. Interspersed throughout the accounts are pages of calculations, numerous medicinal receipts, and receipts for various food preparations (including a large number relating to wine), most of which appear to have been recorded in the 1740s, though some are earlier.

John Holme, Sr., also appears to have used the "account book" to copy the laws of Pennsylvania (copied ca.1685), and he or a later Holme recorded the wills of Capt. Thomas Holme (1695; William Penn's Surveyor General), and of one of the John Holmes, probably John Holme, Jr. Finally, a poem and two religious songs have been included, the former perhaps written by one of the Holmes. It is tempting to attribute the poem to John Holme, Sr., whose poetry is among the earliest recorded as having been written in the province (see Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vols. 3 and 20).

Medicinal receipts are indexed under the term "Receipts" while those for foods are indexed as "Cookery." Additional indexing (e.g. for type of food or medicine) is highly selective. Similarly, only the primary names are indexed for the accounts.


New York (State) 18th-century letters and documents, 1685-1790

63 items

The New York (State) 18th-century letters and documents consist primarily of manuscripts related to life and legal procedures in 18th-century New York.

The New York (State) 18th-century letters and documents (63 items) are made up of manuscripts related to life and legal procedures in 18th-century New York. Some of the items relate to civil and criminal legal cases tried in New York during the late 18th century. The collection also includes items concerning African Americans and Native Americans, as well as several items written in Dutch. The box and folder listing below is a complete inventory of the collection.


Alexander Dunlop memorandum book, 1686-1688, 1699

93 folios

Alexander Dunlop was a Scottish immigrant to South Carolina in 1685. His memorandum book contains a short narrative of his voyage to Antigua, entries concerning his financial affairs, a letter to his wife, and land rental entries from his son John.

The memorandum book of Alexander Dunlop is divided into three parts. The bulk of the book is written in Dunlop's hand between 1686 and 1688. Later additions were made by Dunlop's son John in 1699. Two additional entries are made in an unidentified hand.

The entries by Alexander Dunlop include a short narrative of the voyage of the vessel Richard and John of London from Kelburne (south of Largs, Ayrshire), in 1686 [folios 93-92, reversed at back of book]. Other entries related to this voyage include a note concerning £15 received from Lady Cardross, February 26, "to be delivered to My Lord Cardros when I shall come to portroyall in Carolina" and a note dated July 26 in Antigua that the money "was sent by me A D to Mylord Cardros with Tho: Steill some tyme my servitor according to his recept" [folio 2]. A copy of Steill's receipt, partly torn away, is on folio 4 the verso of folio 2 contains more accounts between Dunlop and Steill, particularly pay for the latter's service in the several weeks spent in Antigua. Folios 5 and 90b-89b contain accounts possibly related to this voyage.

The book also has a long letter from Alexander Dunlop to his wife Antonia [folios 7-13b]. Topics of the letter are money matters, sale of an estate to the Earl of Dundonald, the Earl's resignation in favor of the Dunlops' son John, their other children, and debts. This letter may have been Alexander's draft of intentions for care of his affairs after his death as he writes, "so you & freends may divyde among the childen as they deserve" [folio 9b:]. Other entries by Alexander also concern financial affairs and debts [folios 3, 5-6, and 89b-86b, folio 88 mentions "tutors" and "curators."]

The entries of John Dunlop all address the Dunlop's affairs in Scotland including financial notes and debts. Detailed descriptions, and tables titled "Rentall of the Lands of Dunlop," June 13, 1699 mentions a number of specific places, including the parks of Dunlop [folio 17], Auchentiber [folios 29b, 34], Stewarton [folio 34b], Mirrimouth [folio 20] and rents paid in money or in kind included meal, beer, hens, capons, coal, etc., some given with cash equivalents.

Additional notes in an unknown hand are made at the end of the rental accounts and with the letter of Alexander to his wife.


Native American collection, 1688-1921

0.25 linear feet

The Native American collection contains miscellaneous letters and documents concerning Native American Indians in the United States, Canada, and the West Indies, and their interactions with British and American settlers.

The Native American collection is comprised of approximately 125 miscellaneous letters and documents concerning Native American Indians in the United States, Canada, and the West Indies, and their interactions with British and American settlers (1689-1921). Topics range from land agreements, legal issues, treaties, descriptions of travel through Indian Territory, Indian uprisings and conflicts, Indian captivities, prisoners of war, Indian enslavement, and interactions with Quaker and Moravian missionaries. Tribes include the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cree, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Oneida, Ottawa, Kickapoo, Seneca, Shawnee, Sioux, among others, and concern activities in Canada, New England, the Midwest, the South, and the western frontier. Also present are items written in Cherokee, Mohawk, and Ojibwa.


Mifflin family papers, 1689-1877

196 items (0.5 linear feet)

In 1679, John Mifflin of Warrington, Wilts., became one of the first English emigrants to Pennsylvania. Like most of the first generation of Anglo-Philadelphians, the Mifflins were members of the Society of Friends, and over the course of the next few decades, his became one of Philadelphia's most prominent commercial families. The Mifflin family papers consist of a large family's business and personal correspondence over several generations. The bulk of the material concerns two branches of the Mifflin family, the children and grandchildren of George Mifflin, son of John (1661-1714) and the children of another of John's sons, John.

The Mifflin family papers consist of the scattered remains of a large family's business and personal correspondence over several generations. The bulk of the material concerns two branches of the Mifflin family, the children and grandchildren of George Mifflin, son of John (1661-1714) and the children of another of John's sons, John. Both branches were affluent, well-educated, and politically involved, and although the collection is somewhat scattered, it is a useful collection for the study of family relations in southeastern Pennsylvania during the late 18th and early 19th century and the history of the Society of Friends. The collection also includes miscellaneous deeds, wills, bills, and other sundry items relating to the Mifflins between their arrival in America in the 1680s and the mid-19th century.

The names George, John, Jonathan, and Joseph were repeatedly used by every branch of the family. As a result, in the cataloging of the Mifflin Family papers, birth and death dates have been applied only when identities seem reasonably certain, and even at that, these should be viewed with caution.

Among the most interesting letters from the descendents of George Mifflin are the several letters of and relating to Charles Mifflin. As a record of a young man struggling against adverse circumstances and seeking to establish himself in life, the letters provide excellent documentation of mid-18th century Quaker attitudes toward the maturation into adulthood, familial responsibilities, and parental expectations. But the highlight of Charles' letters is a fine description of a love feast at the Ephrata cloister, 1769, where Charles had gone to learn German and thereby improve his prospects in the business world.

Four letters include information on the Revolutionary War. Two of Joseph Mifflin's letters (1776 July 14 and 22) provide accounts on the early phases of the war in Reading, Pa., the popular reaction, and the mobilization of troops. In a letter to John Mifflin written on August 24, 1777, Joseph Mayo relays rumors that William Howe is intending to land at the head of the Chesapeake to wage a campaign on Philadelphia, and adds wryly, "I hope that British Savages will be glad to get off with themselves long before it is in their Power to throw once more the Philadelphia Ladies into a disagreeable anxiety about the Fate of their Place of Abode." John Weston's letter of July 7, 1780, includes news that the women of the Baltimore Friends Meeting had agreed to knit stockings for the Continental Army. The post-war attitudes of two old foes are outlined in two letters written in 1784 and 1785 by Richard Hergest, a former seaman in the Royal Navy, to Capt. Henry W. Archer. Hergest and Archer appear simply to have agreed not to discuss politics in order to rekindle their once close friendship.

The most important items in the Mifflin papers are the two letters from Warner Mifflin, which provide important glimpses into the moral universe of the idiosyncratic Delaware abolitionist and reformer. The first of these letters, written by Mifflin to Nicholas Waln in December, 1780, includes an extended account of a dream that Mifflin had in which he saw Waln's corpse rise from the dead to admit that Mifflin had been right after all in his refusal to accept Continental currency or to pay war taxes. Mifflin also expresses serious concern over Waln's spiritual state (a remarkable fact, considering Waln's spotless reputation in the Quaker community), and discusses his famous visit to George Washington's camp to try to dissuade the General from pursuing his war-like ways.

In his second letter, dated 1783 July 16, Mifflin considers the case of the notorious China Clows, condemned to be executed for murder. Although Mifflin considered Clows to be a "bad man," he remained rigidly true to his pacifism in opposing Clows' execution.

John Houston Mifflin's fourteen letters were mostly written while he was working as a semi-itinerant portrait painter in Augusta, Ga., 1835-1839. They provide details on the social and artistic life in Georgia, descriptions of Augusta itself, and a few brief discussions of John's aspirations as an artist and attempts to establish his reputation. The collection includes three rough pencil portraits by Mifflin of his recently deceased brother, James.

Finally, the collection includes one letter of the well-known woman physician, Susannah Wright (Houston), and one letter (from her granddaughter, Deborah Ann) about her. In the letter from Susannah Wright to her husband, John, she describes an ailment she has contracted from drinking warm water and her efforts to treat herself. Three medical receipts, included in a separate folder at the end of the collection, may also have been issued by Susannah Wright.


Jewett family account books, 1692-1736 (majority within 1692-1711)

2 volumes and 1 manuscript

This collection contains 2 account books kept by Abraham Jewett and his son, also named Abraham, as well as a fragment of an apprenticeship contract. The account books primarily record the Jewetts' income from making and repairing shoes for residents of Rowley and Ipswich, Massachusetts, between 1692 and 1711.

This collection contains 2 account books kept by Abraham Jewett and his son, also named Abraham, as well as a fragment of an apprenticeship contract. The account books primarily record the Jewetts' income from making and repairing shoes for residents of Rowley and Ipswich, Massachusetts, between 1692 and 1711.

The elder Abraham Jewett began his account book in 1692, and recorded his transactions with individuals in Rowley and Ipswich. The accounts relate to Jewett's work making and repairing shoes; he received payments in cash, foodstuffs, and other items. Notes throughout the volume provide the dates of financial reconcilement with debtors. Though the accounts in this volume cover the years 1692 to 1695, most date between 1692 and 1694.

The account book of Abraham's son is similar in format and also documents his work with shoes and hides. He, too, often received payments in corn, molasses, and other foodstuffs. Most accounts date between 1700 and 1711, though some are as late as 1720, with additional brief notes in a different hand dated as late as 1736. Both father and son recorded the names of persons for whom they made shoes, sometimes including the debtors' wives and children. One note in the second volume concerns a charge for a boarder, and the volume also has a 1-page prayer about death.

The account books are accompanied by a fragment of an undated indenture binding "Abraham Jewett" as an apprentice shoemaker in Essex County, Massachusetts.


Samuel and Joseph Mechlin collection, 1692-1784 (majority within 1764-1784)

10 items

The Samuel and Joseph Mechlin collection is made up of 10 legal documents, at least 9 of which pertain to the financial affairs of Samuel Mechlin of Germantown, Pennsylvania, and his nephew, Joseph Mechlin of Colebrookdale Township, Pennsylvania. The documents concern property in Germantown, Pennsylvania, and payments to the children and other heirs of Mathias Tuttrow of Colebrookdale, Pennsylvania.

The first 2 items, in German, are dated December 12, 1692, and 1755. The first document pertains to Germantown, Pennsylvania, and the second is signed by Jacob Mechlin. A group of 3 indentures between Samuel Mechlin and Daniel Endt, Catherine Zacharias Endt (daughter of John Zacharias), and Baltas Reser (exector of John Zacharias's estate) pertain to Mechlin's purchase of property in Germantown, Pennsylvania, in the summer of 1764.

A later series of documents releases Jacob Mechlin from financial obligations to Matthias Roth (also referred to as Matthias Roads), guardian of Maria "Esshenboch" [Eschenbach?] (1 item, August 10, 1771), and to the children of the late Mathias Tuttrow (also referred to as Mathias Tudrow) (3 items, January 12, 1778-December 1782). Mechlin held a sum of money in trust for Tuttrow, and distributed money to Tuttrow's children and other named heirs, including Phillip Tuttrow, Andrew Fetzer, and Solomon Tuttrow.

The final item is a mortgage between Samuel Mechlin and George Schneider of Bristol, Pennsylvania, pertaining to property that Mechlin purchased from the heirs and executors of John Zacharias (March 22, 1784). The mortgage specifies the method of payment as "Spanish milled Silver Dollars," therein described.


Dalton family papers, 1693-1876 (majority within 1761-1769, 1777-1779)

168 items

The Dalton family papers document three generations of the Dalton family of Boston, Massachusetts: Captain James Dalton, Peter Roe Dalton, and Peter Roe Dalton, Jr. This wealthy family was involved in transatlantic shipping and local Boston politics.

The Dalton family papers (168 items) contain 29 letters, 35 financial records, 30 receipts, 1 account book, 66 legal documents, 2 genealogical booklets, 2 genealogical essays, and an image of the Dalton house. These document three generations of the Dalton family of Boston, Massachusetts: Captain James Dalton, Peter Roe Dalton, and Peter Roe Dalton, Jr. See the Detailed Box and Folder Listing section for a list and description of each item in the collection.

The Documents, Letters and Receipts series contains commercial papers and letters, including business letters, contracts, insurance agreements, estate documents, deeds and leases, bills of lading, wage-payment receipts, customs house receipts, and army provision orders and receipts.

Of note are:
  • Records of transporting building material (boards, shingles, staves), and food (beef, herring, mackerel, molasses, sugar) between Boston and the West Indies.
  • Shipping records for the following ships: Abigail, Mauritius, Nancy, Packett, Polly, Resolution, Sarah, Swallow, Two Friends, and Willmill.
  • Documents detailing James Dalton's losses from the Great Boston Fire (March 20, 1760 and April 16, 1761)
  • A letter from Peter Roe Dalton to James Dalton (his father) discussing trading efforts in Charleston, South Carolina, and noting sickness in the area (November 27, 1766)
  • Documents concerning the Revolutionary War relating to supplying Boston troops (1777-1781)
  • Two letters about the Mexican War written on board the US Ship Lexington (March 15, 1847 and June 4, 1848)
  • A letter from N.J. Dalton, in which he described travels in California and an Indian hunt that killed 125 Indians for murdering a rancher and stealing 7 head of cattle.
  • Voucher for the Honorable William Stoughton Esquire, Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (April 26, 1693)

The Account Book series consists of a 44-page volume of accounts for the estates of Peter Roe Dalton (1743-1811) and his son Peter Roe Dalton, Jr. (1791-1861).

The Genealogy and Miscellaneous series (6 items) is comprised of two booklets with birth and death information on the Dalton Family and Simeon Skillin's ancestors; two essays on the lives of James Dalton and Peter Roe Dalton; a list of Dalton-owned church pews in King's Chapel in Boston (1754-1876); and an image of the Dalton house in Boston, on the corner of Water Street and Congress Street, which was occupied by James and Peter Roe Dalton.


Lindsley family papers, 1696-1832 (majority within 1796-1832)

68 items

The Lindsley Family papers consist primarily of letters from and relating to Eleazer Lindsley, Jr., and his son-in-law, James Ford, early settlers of Lindley, NY and local politicians.

The Lindsley Family papers consist primarily of letters from and relating to Eleazer Lindsley, Jr., and his son-in-law, James Ford, with much of the collection relating to local politics. Of particular interest are five letters written to Ford by Samuel Wells Morris (1786-1847), who later served in the 25th and 26th congress as a Democrat from Pennsylvania. In these letters Ford discusses the political, social and economic benefits of internal improvement schemes (primarily canals), and includes some interesting comments on the election of 1824 and the strong political tensions between the adjacent counties in New York and Pennsylvania. A few letters contain information on the early political life of Lindley, however these are comparatively scant and do not cover the earliest years of the settlement.

Among other aspects of the collection, the following may be of some interest:
  • Five documents relating to Eleazer Lindsley, Jr.'s appointment as post master, including the certificate of appointment (1804). The certificate of appointment and two letters bearing early post marks from Lindsleytown have been transferred to the Postal History Collection.
  • Six letters written to Eleazer Lindsley's daughters while they were resident at Miss Pierce's School. These contain some information on the education of girls during the period and on family relationships.
  • Two items relating to slavery in New York: a letter from Stephen Ross to Eleazer Lindsley, Jr., 1798 May 7, requesting assistance with a troublesome slave he wishes to sell, and a manumission contract dated 1808 August 1 from Lois Lindsley for her slave, Jack.
  • Six items relating to religious life and revivals. Two of Eleazer Jr.'s daughters, Maria and Jerusha, appear to have been very pious. During the upsurge in revival activity in the 1830's, the family helped form a Bible Study class and the women formed a prayer circle.

George Clinton papers, 1697-1760 (majority within 1745-1753)

2.5 linear feet

This collection contains the letters, documents, and accounts of George Clinton, colonial governor of New York. The bulk of the collection is comprised of drafts of Clinton's letters, incoming official letters, Clinton's letter book for 1752-1753, military memoranda, documents related to Indian affairs, and personal, government, and military accounts during King George's War.

The George Clinton papers (985 items) contain the letters, documents, and accounts of George Clinton, colonial governor of New York. The bulk of the collection documents the years 1744 through 1753, and is comprised of drafts of Clinton's letters and speeches, incoming letters, Clinton's letter book for 1752-1753, military memoranda, and personal, public, and military accounts. The collection is rich in correspondence concerning Indian relations and the political history of New York, along with records concerning Clinton's troubled personal finances.

The Correspondence and Documents series (699 items) consists Clinton's outgoing letters and speeches, as well as incoming letters, military and government reports, instructions from Whitehall, intelligence on French and Indian activities, memoranda, legal papers, and court documents. Included are 191 items written by Clinton, of which many are draft dispatches that contain material omitted in the official copies sent to London. The papers largely concern New York politics, including political sparring with James DeLancey and the Assembly, as well as military activities and affairs with Native Americans. Clinton maintained correspondence with Massachusetts Bay Lieutenant Governor Spencer Phips concerning frontier conflicts with Indians, communicated with General Peter Warren concerning the siege at Louisbourg, and discussed allying with the Six Nation Indians against the French during King George's War with George Thomas and Sir William Johnson.

Notable items include:
  • July 2, 1741: George II to Benning Wentworth detailing the boundaries of New Hampshire, certified by Theo. Atkinson
  • June 25, 1742: George II to Clinton discussing a conspiracy and attack on Fort George by "Blacks and Others" during which buildings and stores were burnt, an incident that resulted in 30 executions
  • June 1744: Michael Houden to Clinton concerning "Observations…touching the method of succeeding in the intended expedition agt. Canada"
  • [1744]: John Lydius' account describing the state of the French military at Crown Point
  • August 19, 1745: Spencer Phips to Clinton requesting a quota of troops in aid of Massachusetts troops on the frontier near Fort George, in case of a war with the Indians
  • September 12, 1745: George Thomas of the Philadelphia Assembly to Clinton supporting a treaty with the Six Nation Indians at Albany
  • September 14, 1745: Peter Warren to Clinton listing the French ships bound for Louisbourg
  • April 9, 1746: Newcastle to Clinton instructing the raising of a body of regular troops from New York for a land expedition against Montreal
  • June 1746: James Livingston's account of French defense on the St. Lawrence River near Quebec
  • July 19, 1746: Stephen Bayard to Clinton concerning British and Dutch prize ships and a demand for the return of "the free Negros which Capt. Denas took and sold at Rhode Island"
  • September 11, 1746: Intelligence on the French fleet from a French sailor cast away
  • January 22, 1747: Clinton's reasons against attacking Crown Point
  • April 22, 1747: Clinton to Knowles giving an account of his and his family's attendance at a country dance where they were treated rudely
  • October 20, 1747: John Roberts to Clinton concerning an Indian spy pretending to be a Seneca
  • October 25, 1747: Sir Charles Knowles to Clinton discussing his views on trading with the enemy during a time of war
  • November 1747: Massachusetts General Court's amendments to the agreement of September 8, 1747, between Massachusetts, New York, and Connecticut, concerning their mutual defense and security
  • October 6, 1748: "The information of Thomas Williams who went with the Flag of Truce to Canada," which included intelligence from a black prisoner captured by the French, information on French-Indian relations on the Mississippi River, and the difference in prices of beaver pelts purchased by British and French traders
  • October 28-November 10, 1748: Benjamin Stoddert journal containing descriptions of Crown Point, Montreal, and Québec
  • September 24, 1749: Clinton to Newcastle describing the "State of the present disloyal Situation of Affairs in New York…" and concerning conflicts between the governorship and assembly
  • October 3, 1750: Spencer Phips to Clinton concerning the French instigating the Indians to attack British settlers on the eastern frontier of Massachusetts
  • May 18-30, 1751: George Croghan's journal of his trip to Ohio, in which he reported that the French were keeping the Indian women and children naked and not letting the tribes trade with the British
  • [July 2, 1751]: List of condolence gifts for the loss of Onondaga Indians who died in Canada, and notes on Indian rituals of condolence as said by Mohawk chief Hendrick
  • July 1751: Clinton's "Reasons for the Suspending of James Delancey Esqr from the Execution of the office of Lieutenant Governour…"
  • January 25, 1753: Lewis Morris to Clinton concerning purchasing a slave in New York
  • April 20, 1753: Sir William Johnson to Clinton concerning the mobilization of military forces by the French and Indians
  • August 20, 1753: Bill of exchange of two Negro women from Anne Clinton to Elizabeth Williams
  • August 4-14, 1757: Copies of 10 letters concerning the French and Indian capture of Fort William Henry, describing the murder and scalping of women, children, "Negroes, Mollatoes & soldiers"
  • June 1758: Clinton's will dividing his meager estate among his family

The Letter Book series (1 volume) is a 175-page copybook covering Clinton's final year as New York governor from January 3, 1752, to February 23, 1753. Entries are primarily drafts of letters from Clinton, as well as copies of letters from prominent New York lawyer James Alexander and other New York officials. Recipients include Sir William Johnson, Cadwallader Colden, John Catherwood, George Clarke, and Benjamin Stoddert, among others. Topics covered include New York politics (concerning the council, assembly, and James DeLancey), military matters (concerning troops at Fort Frederick, Oswego, and Fort George), relations with the Six Nations and Catawba Indians, and British relations with Spain.

Entries of note include:
  • February-March 1752: Letters discussing the January 11, 1752, mutiny at Oswego under Captain John Mills
  • September 20, 1752: Letter concerning a widow's military pension
  • October 25, 1752: Letter concerning Clinton's membership in a missionary society promoting the Gospel at Staten Island
  • December 5, 1752: Letter to Governor of St. Augustine Fulgencio Garcia de Solis discussing British-Spanish relations, governmental issues in East Florida, and efforts to emancipate enslaved people "that could prove [their] right to it." December 6, 1752 letter to Francisco Caxigal de la Vega, Spanish governor of Cuba, referencing previous communications with Garcia de Solis.

The Indian Speeches and Councils series (38 items) consists of copies of official treaties, deeds of surrender, proclamations, conference and speech transcriptions, petitions, responses from sachems, and other official interactions between the British colonial government and the Six Nation tribes. Documented are activities at Albany, Annapolis Royal, Cape Breton, Mount Johnson, Fort George, Oghguago (Tuscarora Village on the Susquehanna), Lake Ontario, Niagara, and Quebec. Of interest is material related to expeditions against the French in Canada, conferences at Philadelphia and Albany, and items from important figures such as Sir William Johnson and Mohawk chief Hendrick Theyanoguin (1692-1755).

Items of note include:
  • December 13, 1726: Deed of surrender from the Cayuga, Onondaga, and Seneca Indians with the Sachem's marks
  • May 21, 1744: Paul Mascarene to William Shirley reporting on letting women and children into the garrison after a rumor of approaching French and Indian forces created panic in the region
  • December 4, 1750: Speech from Cayuga Sachem and a reply from William Johnson concerning a Five Nations and British alliance
  • August 8, 1751: Colden's State of Indian Affairs
  • November 11, 1752: Letter from South Carolina Governor James Glen to the Six Nation confederation concerning friendships between northern and southern tribes (Creeks, Cherokee, and Chickasaw)
  • June 16, 1753: Response to the "Mohawk Indians complaining of Encroachments on their Lands and Frauds in the purchase of them--Fort George in New York"

The Accounts series is organized into three subseries: Personal Accounts, Indian Accounts, and Government and Military Accounts.

The Personal Accounts subseries (114 items) documents George Clinton's finances, particularly his and his family's personal expenses in New York, and records of his debts in his final years. Items include receipts for goods and services, records of paid and outstanding bills, stocks purchased, two financial memo books (1745 and 1750-1754), and a cash book (1748).

The Indian Accounts subseries (20 items) contains colonial government accounts for Indian presents, disbursements paid to Indians for military expeditions, and payments to British officers for Indian prisoners and scalps. These primarily document interactions with the Six Nation tribes.

The Governmental and Military Accounts subseries (113 items) contains paymaster records for troops, laborers, and government officials; accounts for troop provisions, stores, medicine, and supplies; levy and customs accounts; payments for transportation of goods and mail; and other financial records related to New York's colonial administration. Included are the expenses for the aborted British and Indian expedition into Canada against the French (March 1747 and November 1, 1748), and the expenses for John Young "entertaining the French Embassy for Exchange of Prisoners" (October 17, 1748).


West family papers, 1697-1880

2.25 linear feet

The West family papers are comprised of approximately 1,400 letters, letter books, documents, and financial records pertaining to Reverend Samuel West and his two sons, Benjamin and Nathan P., of Boston. The bulk of the collection (approximately 900 items) relates to business concerns, particularly to Benjamin West's sugar refining firm.

The West family papers are comprised of approximately 1,400 letters, letter books, documents, and financial records pertaining to Reverend Samuel West and his two sons, Benjamin and Nathan P., of Boston. The bulk of the collection (approximately 900 items) relates to business concerns, particularly to Benjamin West's sugar refining firm.

The Correspondence and documents series consists of approximately 150 items, dating from 1679 to 1880; the bulk of these are dated between 1759 and 1826. Though the majority of the material within the series pertains to business affairs, several groups of letters relate to other topics. One early group of letters concerns Samuel West's move from Needham, Massachusetts, to Boston's Hollis Street Church, and another group to a Boston committee's proposal to alter the municipal government in 1815, which includes its lengthy report [September 25, 1815]. In addition, the series contains personal and family correspondence, though to a lesser extent. Primary correspondents within the series include Caleb and Joshua Davis, Benjamin West, Enoch H. West, Samuel West, Richards Child, Mills Olcott, Samuel and Ephraim May, Sarah Plimpton, George Cheyne Shattuck, and Elisha and Elizabeth Ticknor.

The collection's two Letter books belonged to Benjamin West, and hold copies of 166 outgoing letters, dated 1803-1827, related to his various business affairs and the settlement of his uncle's estate, as well as personal matters.

The Financial records series contains three subseries: Bills and receipts, Sugarhouse accounts, and Account and expense books. The series contains approximately 300 bills and receipts dating from 1748 to 1824, primarily pertaining to labor, repairs, and donations to various Boston societies and institutions. About 600 sugarhouse accounts (1796-1823) record financial transactions associated with Benjamin West's sugar refining business, and include accounts, bills, and receipts. The four books cover Benjamin's West's personal accounts and expenses between 1797-1799 and 1811-1827; the first of these concerns West's service in a local militia, as well as his other financial matters, including numerous accounts for clothing, tobacco, and trips to the theater.

Legal documents within the collection are divided into two subseries, covering Land and real estate (1707-1824) and other Legal documents (1738-1834). The first subseries consists of approximately 60 items, which relate to mortgages, indentures, and other agreements about land around Boston and in Charlestown, New Hampshire. The West family frequently dealt with the Wheelock and Metcalf families when purchasing land. The second subseries is comprised of approximately 75 miscellaneous documents, including material related to Samuel West's interests in Needham, Massachusetts; bills from Nathan P. West's time at Harvard College (1788-1792); and the family's additional business and legal concerns.

The Printed and miscellaneous items series consists of approximately 20 items, dated 1714 to 1825. Among these are broadsides, including programs for Samuel West's internment services and various anniversaries, and partially printed school reports. Miscellaneous manuscript items are 13 statements of Christian faith; manuscript music for several hymns; two books kept by Nathan P. West, including a copybook of mathematical problems and exercises (1792-1807) and a commonplace book (1798-1813) with medicinal recipes West used in his drugstore; and scattered quotations. The copybook also includes a small drawing of a skull next to a bottle of borax on its inside cover.


Massachusetts Bay (Colony) Treasury accounts, 1699

1 volume

The Massachusetts Bay (Colony) Treasury accounts contain records of expenditures by the Colony between May 1698 and May 1699.

James Taylor, Treasurer and Receiver General, recorded the Massachusetts Bay Colony Treasury accounts, which contain 36 pages of the colony's financial transactions between May 1698 and May 1699. The first few pages are composed of tax records for towns and counties in the colonies. This is followed by a list of payments to individuals for duties performed, which makes up the remainder of the volume. Many of the payments are to soldiers, judges, messengers, keepers of "French and Indian Prisoners of War" (p. 13), and providers of transportation. Also of interest is a payment of £50 to Increase Mather for his responsibilities as President of Harvard (p. 24). In addition, the accounts contain numerous references to Native Americans, who were regularly paid for their service in fighting other tribes. The accounts provide a thorough record of the Colony's many services and expenses for 1698-1699.


Great Britain. Army collection, 1699-1850 (majority within 1800-1819)

1.75 linear feet

The Great Britain Army collection (1,369 items) is a miscellaneous collection of letters and documents related to the administration and operation of the British Army. The collection relates primarily to the quartermaster general's office, and deals with military matters in Great Britain, Europe, India, the West Indies, and various outposts of the British Empire. Document types include official letters written by officers and British government officials, pay records, military returns, requests for troop movements and secret service payments, and miscellaneous orders and accounts.

The Great Britain Army collection (1,369 items) is a miscellaneous collection of letters and documents related to the administration and operation of the British Army. The bulk of the material covers 1800 to 1819, with a few outlier items from as early as 1699 and as late as 1850. The collection relates primarily to the quartermaster general's office, and deals with military matters in Great Britain, Europe, India, the West Indies, and various outposts of the British Empire. Document types include official letters written by officers and British government officials, pay records, military returns, requests for troop movements and secret service payments, and miscellaneous orders and accounts.

The Correspondence series (588 items) contains letters from various British Army officers and government officials concerning administrative duties, interactions with private merchants, soldiers’ requests for transfers and promotions, regimental inspection reports, and disciplinary actions. Of note are 11 requests from Sir George Murray in Paris to Sir James Willoughby Gordon, quartermaster general of the Forces of the Horse Guards, concerning personal effects transported from England to France (April 1817-February 1818). See additional descriptive data for a list of letter writers.

The Documents series is comprised of five subseries:

The Pay Records subseries (378 items) contains proofs of payment for individual soldiers and pay accounts for regiments and groups of recruits. Included are War Office pay warrants for service members in Great Britain, the West Indies, the Mediterranean, and India, among other locations (1699-1819). Of note is a March 1699 regimental account for four companies stationed in New York under the Earl of Bellomont.

The Returns subseries (77 items) consists of detailed regimental lists; hospital returns; returns of arms and food (occasionally documenting weekly rations for men, women, and children); and lists of men employed victualing stores, repairing garrisons, and building forts and roads (1801-1819). Locations documented include the Northern District in England, London, Shelburne Castle, Canterbury, Oxfordshire, Hartfordshire, Dover, the Isle of Wight, Sussex, France, and Bermuda.

The Requests for Routes for Troop Movements subseries (231 items) is comprised of letters between officers concerning troop assignments, marching instructions, and the transportation of regiments (1802-1819). Also discussed are the movement of sick troops and the reassignment of individual service members.

The Secret Service Payments subseries (23 items) consists of receipts of payment from Lord Viscount Castlereagh (Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry) to either Henry Wellesley in Madrid or Charles Stuart in Paris, spanning July 1812 to December 1819.

The Miscellaneous Documents subseries (72 items) contains various military documents (1770-1816), such as receipts for goods and services, accounts for military expenses, various signed oaths, paymasters orders, and courts martial warrants.. Of note is an account of "Bonded Debt due by the East India Company at the Presidencies of Fort William, Fort St. George, & Bombay" (December 31, 1784). Also present are several lifetime annuities records, including one dated 1746 that contains an attached engraving of Peter Lord King, printed in 1832.


Edward Hutchinson journal, 1700-1701

1 volume

This volume (22 pages) contains Edward Hutchinson's sporadic diary entries about his travels around Europe, including visits to modern-day France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and England. He provided his impressions of the scenery he encountered during his trip, such as churches, palaces, and military installations.

This volume (22 pages) contains Edward Hutchinson's sporadic diary entries about his travels around Europe, including visits to modern-day France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and England. He provided his impressions of the scenery he encountered during his trip, such as churches, palaces, and military installations.

Hutchinson left Marblehead, Massachusetts, on June 29, 1700, and wrote his next entry from Bilbao, Spain, on August 4. Each entry summarizes a lengthy period of the author's travels, often a month or more. He visited many prominent cities throughout France, Flanders, the Spanish Netherlands, and the Dutch Republic. In March 1701, he sailed from Rotterdam to London, and he remained in England until September, when he sailed for New England. He arrived in Boston on December 13, 1701. Hutchinson described many of the cities, buildings, and gardens he visited, and saw several royal palaces, including the Palace of Versailles and a palace at The Hague. On one occasion, he saw King Louis IV of France and the French dauphin (October 28, 1700). While in England, Hutchinson traveled around London, to "the Downs," and to Canterbury. Though his transatlantic journeys took one to three months, he made only brief notes about each passage.


Rooke-Blathwayt letter book, 1700-1702

1 volume

The Rooke-Blathwayt letter book contains letters that Admiral Sir George Rooke wrote in the early 18th century, as well as documents regarding the English Navy's actions in the English Channel and in the West Indies.

The Rooke-Blathwayt letter book contains 18 letters that Admiral Sir George Rooke wrote in the early 18th century, as well as documents regarding the English Navy's actions in the English Channel and in the West Indies.

Rooke composed much of the correspondence while onboard the Triumph at Spithead, off the Isle of Wight. He addressed several different English officials, and the material in this volume was compiled by William Blathwayt, acting secretary of state. In his letters, Rooke confirmed the receipt of various orders and discussed developments around Brest, France, and other news of the fleet. An item entitled "A List of his Matys. Ships design'd on Service with Sr. George Rooke" provides the locations of English ships (July 10, 1701). The book has two sets of official instructions from King William about naval actions in the West Indies during the War of the Spanish Succession (August 12, 1701, and [September] 10, 1701). Two letters are in French: a letter from Count Wachtmeister, who was awaiting a rendezvous with George Rooke and the English fleet (June 19, 1700), and a letter about King William's confidence in George Rooke's military abilities (August 12, 1701).


Excise Tax Income Book, 1700-1774

1 volume

This volume records annual excise duties collected by the British government between 1700 and 1774. The excise tax income book records the net excise income for every year during this period, as well as income for individual goods or products for every year starting with 1745.

This 18-page volume, entitled "Gross and Net Produce of Excise from 1700 to 1774," provides the annual amount of excise duties collected by the British government between 1700 and 1774. From 1700 to 1744, the book records the total annual gross and net income earned from excise taxes, as well as management costs accrued from salaries and other taxes. Between 1745 and 1774, the volume also documents the amount of excise paid on individual goods and services, including malt, candles, hops, "sope," paper, "callicoes &c.," wire, starch, hides, plate, coffee, tea, chocolate, "licences," glass, and coaches. After 1755, the "plate" category was sometimes broken down into "plate licences" and "plate duty." "Cyder" was included after 1765. This volume bears the bookplate of James Brindley.


Quaker collection, 1700-1888

113 items

The Quaker Collection consists of miscellaneous letters, diaries, and documents relating to the religious and social history of the Society of Friends in America during the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Quaker collection consists of miscellaneous letters, diaries, and documents related to the religious and social history of the Society of Friends in America during the 18th and 19th centuries. These items offer insights into Quaker's daily activities and concerns, such as family life, education, and attending meetings, as well as their participation in various social reform movements, such as abolition, treatment of Native Americans, prison improvements, temperance, and pacifism. The collection also documents internal divergences of American Quakerism in the 19th century, particularly the social and doctrinal disputes that culminated in the Hicksite and Wilburite schisms.

Among the collection's notable items:
  • 1707: A manuscript copy of the death warrant of William Leddra, the last of four Quakers (including Mary Dyer) executed in Massachusetts Bay colony for their religious beliefs
  • July 26, 1755: A letter from Alexander Colden to Sir William Johnson voicing frustration with Quakers who refuse to support the war effort in Pennsylvania, and an announcement of General Braddock's defeat
  • August 4-12 and 17, 1761: Two accounts, one by an anonymous woman, of Quaker presence at Treaty negotiations held at Easton, Pennsylvania, between the government of Pennsylvania and the Six Nations tribes. Discussed are the negotiations, Quaker-Indian interactions, and the role of Quaker women in the Society
  • [After 1770]: An account by an anonymous author of a conference with Native Americans, mostly of the Minnisink Tribe
  • October 13, 1829: A letter from Phoebe Post Willis of Jericho, New York, to Isaac Post on the death of John Hicks and strife between Orthodox and Hicksite Quakers
  • March 10, 1843: A letter from Ethan Foster of Westerly, Rhode Island, to Thomas B. Gould on Wilburite-Gurneyite strife in his local meeting, and the disownment of Wilbur
  • [After 1863 July]: A letter describing a meeting between Abraham Lincoln and five Quaker prisoners of war, who had been forced into the Confederate army, captured by the Union, and held at Fort Delaware
  • Various dates: Reports, minutes, and epistles from yearly friends meetings in America and Great Britain

Practical Mathematics manuscript, 1700s

1 volume

The Practical Mathematics manuscript contains definitions and problems related to algebra, geometry, trigonometry, navigation, and surveying. Many of the problems are accompanied by illustrated figures and/or practical examples.

The Practical Mathematics manuscript contains definitions and problems related to algebra, geometry, trigonometry, navigation, and surveying. These categories are divided into specific applications; the section on algebra deals with topics such as basic algebraic statements, algebraic fractions, simple and quadratic equations, and arithmetical and geometrical progressions. Most of the problems are accompanied by illustrated figures and/or examples of concepts' practical applications. A section concerning globes pertains to both terrestrial and celestial globes, and includes a list of the signs of the zodiac, as well as descriptions of navigational methods, accompanied by a compass rose and charts, including "Mercator's Charts."

The manuscript also explains methods for determining location and time by observing celestial objects, and contains instructions for keeping ships' logs and surveying notes. A section on navigation includes a copied log from the voyage of the Pegasus from England to Barbados (January 31, 1737-March 22, 1737), as well as a map showing the coasts of France and Spain and the islands around Barbados. Some of the surveying problems are illustrated with a sailing ship, a tree, and a turret.

Partial List of Subjects
  • Algebra
    • Simple Equations
    • Quadratic Equations
    • Arithmetic Progressions
    • Geometric Progressions
  • The Use of Globes
    • Terrestrial Globe
    • Celestial Globe
  • Spherical Geometry
  • Spherical Trigonometry
    • [Acute] Angled
    • Right Angled
    • Oblique Angled
  • "To Find the Prime or Golden Number"
  • Geometry
  • Trigonometry
    • Plain Trigonometry
    • Spherical Trigonometry
  • Navigation
    • Latitude
    • Longitude
    • Sailing
      • Plain Sailing
      • Traverse Sailing
      • Mercator's Sailing
      • Parallel Sailing
      • Oblique Sailing
      • Plain Sailing by Arithmetic
  • Observation by the Meridian Altitude or Zenith Distance of the Sun or Stars
  • Rules for Keeping a Journal [Ship's Log]
  • Astronomy
  • Dialing
  • Surveying
  • Mensuration
    • Mensuration of Superficies
    • Mensuration of Solids
    • Measuring of Timber

Architecture Militaire, [1700s?]

1 volume

The Architecture Militaire is a single manuscript volume that provides instructions for the construction of a fortified building in the shape of a star. The volume consists primarily of prose description, but also includes a series of 16 illustrative plates showcasing detailed architectural drawings.

The Architecture Militaire is a single manuscript volume that provides instructions for the construction of a fortified building in the shape of a star. The volume consists primarily of prose description, but also includes a series of 16 illustrative plates showcasing detailed architectural drawings. The drawings are signed "A Toulouse chez Baour." The book has 12 chapters about construction methods, including lists of potential problems with suggested remedies. The volume includes discussions and critiques of existing construction methods, including those of the ancient French, the Dutch, the Comte de Pagan, Vauban, and others (chapter 11). The final chapter, entitled "Idee generalle de l'attaque d'une place et de la maniere de fortifier un camp," contains equations relevant to fort construction. The final section of the book consists of detailed ink drawings similar, but not identical to, those found in Samuel Marolois's Fortification ou Architecture Militaire Tant Offensive que Deffensive. These show different aspects of construction relevant to the text and include one page illustrating various military paraphernalia.


James Spelman collection, 1701-[1724]

23 items

The James Spelman collection contains correspondence and documents related to the career and finances of Royal Navy officer James Spelman, who served onboard the HMS Ruby and HMS Monmouth during the early 18th century. Spelman corresponded with John Vanden Bempde, a wealthy relative who promoted Spelman's naval career and provided financial assistance. Later material concerns the Spelman family's debts and financial difficulties.

This collection is made up of 16 letters, 2 manuscript financial documents, 4 official documents, and 1 personal inventory related to Royal Navy officer James Spelman, who served onboard the HMS Ruby and HMS Monmouth during the early 18th century. The material concerns his early naval career, his financial affairs, and his family's later debts.

James Spelman wrote 7 letters to James Vanden Bempde, a wealthy relative in London, while serving onboard the Ruby along the English coast and in the Caribbean between 1701 and 1703. He described aspects of seafaring life such as his upcoming assignments, his attempts to study navigation, his opinion of his captain, and news of recent deaths, and also requested assistance in receiving a discharge or a transfer to a different vessel. Vanden Bempde received an additional letter from John Lucie Blackman, who thanked Vanden Bempde for recent assistance and agreed to look after Spelman (November 16, 1701). Other items related to Spelman's naval career from 1704-1710 include a form in which he requested a discharge, partially printed documents regarding the disbursement of his salary to James Vanden Bempde, and an inventory of Spelman's belongings in Portsmouth, England. Vanden Bempde also wrote to a patron about Spelman's salary and naval service. The printed documents bear seals and illustrations of the royal coat of arms and two additional crests.

Later items include correspondence concerning the Spelman family's debts and financial difficulties in 1723 and 1724. John Spelman wrote 3 letters in which he sought to uphold his brother's character, and E. Spelman sent 2 letters to John Vanden Bempde about the family's recent misfortunes.


Lee family papers, 1701-1936 (majority within 1728-1871)

1.75 linear feet

This collection is made up of correspondence, legal and financial documents, and other items concerning several generations of the Lee family of New York and New Jersey from the early 18th century to the late 19th century.

This collection is made up of correspondence, legal and financial documents, and other items concerning several generations of the Lee family of New York and New Jersey from the early 18th century to the late 19th century.

The earliest items (1701-1840) largely consist of legal and financial documents, receipts, accounts, and other financial records related to Thomas Lee, his nephew Thomas (ca. 1728-1804), his grandnephew William (1763-1839), and, to a lesser extent, other members of the Lee family. Many pertain to land ownership in New York and New Jersey. Some legal documents, such as Thomas Lee's will (May 16, 1767), concern decedents' estates. In the 1820s and 1830s, the Lee siblings, including Henry, William, Cyrus, and Phebe, began writing personal letters to one another. Cyrus Lee and his wife Emily Fisher received letters from her mother, E. Fisher of Humphreysville, Connecticut. One letter contains teacher Samuel Squier's response to accusations of drunkenness and inappropriate behavior (February 25, 1774). Additional early materials include a contract related to the establishment of a singing school in Boston, Massachusetts (ca. 1745), medicinal recipes (October 31, 1789), poetry (undated), articles of apprenticeship (February 25, 1796), a daybook reflecting construction costs for a school house in Littleton, New Jersey (October 2, 1797-May 1, 1799), records of William and Isaac Lee's labor at a forge (September 5, 1809-October 24, 1914), and a manuscript copy of an act to incorporate part of Derby, Connecticut, as Humphreysville (May [4], 1836).

After 1840, the bulk of the collection is made up of personal letters between members of the Lee family. Incoming correspondence to Cyrus and Emily Fisher Lee makes up the largest portion of these letters. Emily's mother wrote about life in Humphreysville, Connecticut, frequently discussing her health and that of other family members. Emily's sister Elizabeth discussed her travels in Indiana and Ohio and her life in Ogden, Indiana. After the mid-1850s, many of the letters pertain to Cyrus and Emily's son Robert. He received letters from his grandmother, aunt, and cousins. He sent letters to his sister Emily while he lived in Ogden, Indiana, in the late 1850s and early 1860s. A cousin, also named Emily, wrote to Robert about African-American and white churches in Princeton, New Jersey, and her work as a schoolteacher (February 15, 1858).

Robert Lee wrote one letter about camp life and his poor dental health while serving in the 3rd Indiana Cavalry Regiment (October 3, 1861), and Emily shared news of Littleton, New Jersey, while he was away. Cyrus's sister Phebe wrote to her brother's family during this period. After the war, Cyrus and Emily Fisher Lee continued to receive letters from Emily's mother and sister. Elizabeth Benjamin, living in Lecompton, Kansas, sent letters on January 22, 1871, and March 13, 1871, discussing the death of her son Theodore, who died of a gunshot wound. The final letters, dated as late as 1903, are addressed to Elizabeth M. Lee, likely Cyrus and Emily's daughter. Later items also include a calling cards and a lock of hair.

The collection includes five photographs of unidentified individuals, including cased tintypes of a man and a young child, each with an ornate oval matte and preserver, as well as a third similar tintype portrait of a young boy which no longer has a case. A photograph of a United States soldier is housed in a hard metal frame that includes a fold-out stand; the frame bears the insignia of the United States Army infantry. The final item is a photographic print of a man, woman, and young child posing beside a house.

The collection contains a group of 13 printed and ephemeral items, including sections of the New-Jersey Journal and Political Intelligencer (April 21, 1790), True Democratic Banner (October 9, 1850), and New York Sun (May 9, 1936). Other items of note are a colored drawing of a house (1861 or 1867), printed poems ("Napoleon Is Coming" and "The Lass of Richmond Hill," undated), a price list for the works of Emanuel Swedenborg, a Hungarian Fund bond, and an advertisement for men's shirts and shorts with attached fabric samples. Three additional items pertain to births, deaths, and marriages in the Lee family.


Science and Medicine collection, 1702-1897

Approximately 150 items (0.5 linear feet)

The Science and Medicine collection consists of miscellaneous items that document various aspects of science and medicine in the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Science and Medicine collection contains miscellaneous items that document various aspects of science and medicine in the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries. Fields covered include anatomy, astrology, astronomy, botany, dentistry, geography, medicine, paleontology, physics, and physiology.

Discussed are:
  • Agriculture, plants, and seeds
  • Communication and travel
  • Collecting specimens for natural history museums
  • Epidemics (influenza, cholera, yellow fever)
  • Higher education and honorary degrees
  • Inoculations
  • Land surveying
  • Mathematics and navigation
  • Medical techniques and treatments for diseases, wounds, and afflictions
  • Medicinal recipes
  • Mental health
  • Quackery
  • Scientific and medical texts and lectures
  • Technological developments and experiments in machinery, and architectural projects
  • Venereal diseases
Below are some highlights from the collection:
  • April 19, 1788: Description of riot set off by alleged body snatching by medical students in New York
  • August 31, 1792: Order for an inoculation
  • June 30, 1796: Request to Charles Wilson Peale from members of a Paris museum to exchange specimens, including mastodon and opossums
  • January 15, 1826: Thomas Nuttall to a bookseller named Mr. Brown concerning 10 boxes of natural history specimens he is sending from Oahu, Hawaii
  • August 7, 1832: Account of the course and spread of Cholera in Albany, and fears that southern slaves will suffer the most from Cholera
  • September 13, 1833: Description of bright flashing lights appearing in the sky
  • August 24, 1835: Recommendation of a physician of the 'new school' of medicine who does not utilize bleeding, blistering, or calomelization (mercury cure)
  • December 15, 1840: Description of eye surgery performed on a patient at the Medical College of Geneva, New York
  • January 12, 1842: Discussion of constructing a microscope to view bacillaria
  • May 8, 1844: Astrological reading that predicts the recipient will marry a man from the north with light brown hair
  • September 19, 1848: Rules and customs of telegraphing
  • [1895]: Request for a list of names of locals with eye problems on letterhead for Narcissa Waterman, Eye Doctress

Wilson family papers, 1704-1884

16.25 linear feet

The Wilson papers contain letters and documents relating to the lives and careers of three generations of the family of William Wilson, residents of Clermont, N.Y. in the mid-Hudson River Valley.

The Wilson family papers contains over 4,000 letters relating to the lives and fortunes of three generations of the family of William Wilson, residents of Clermont, N.Y, in the mid-Hudson River Valley. Virtually all of the letters in the collection were received by members of the Wilson family, with only a very few out-going drafts. Together, these present an impressively detailed perspective on many aspects of family life, political culture, agriculture, commerce, and the economy of Columbia and Dutchess County, N.Y., in the fifty years following the end of the American Revolution. As well being educated, energetic members of the social elite, the Wilsons engaged in a variety of pursuits, from the legal and medical professions, to land proprietorship, farming, and politics, and they commented extensively at every turn. A genealogical chart of the Wilson family, detailing the relationships of all those mentioned in the collection can be found in box 42:11.

The core of the Wilson papers consists of the letters received by William Wilson, who shouldered a wide variety of responsibilities in Columbia and Dutchess counties and knew their residents intimately. The breadth of his interests brought him into contact with many of the state's leading citizens, but also with the tenant farmers, medical patients, merchants and clerks. William's major pursuit in life was medicine, and his surviving papers contain seven medical daybooks (40:3; 47:9-14), providing a chronological record of his visits, diagnoses and prescriptions, as well as his fees. He also kept two notebooks dealing with the causes and symptoms of various diseases (47:15, 16), and scattered throughout his papers are letters from patients discussing their illnesses. Of particular importance are the letters relative to the deaths of Chancellor Robert R. Livingston and his wife, for whom Wilson was the attending physician (18:6-10; 19:15, 21, 23). Wilson was also a founding member of the Medical Society of Dutchess and Columbia Counties in 1796, and was associated with the founding of the New York Medical Society, as well as with the effort to establish a medical college (15:69; 16:17, 24, 44, 46, 52, 66, 70, 76, 80; 17:3, 13, 17, 23, 29; 45:19).

William Wilson was also employed as an administrator of landed property, usually for members of the Livingston family, and particularly Henry Livingston (1752/53-1823). The wide-spread unrest among "General Livingston's" tenants is discussed in many of the letters, along with more general discussions of land tenure, proprietary power, and tenant satisfaction. Wilson also served as administrator for the property of Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, especially during the latter's appointment to France, for two absentee landlords from New York City, Walter Rutherford and J. Stark Robinson (41:1, 2); and he was an executor or administrator for the estates of Robert Cambridge Livingston (1742-1794) (42:1), Peter Robert Livingston (1737-1794) (42:7), and the Chancellor (42:3-6). The materials relating to Livingston rental properties consists largely of receipts for rents received, but also include lease agreements, about twenty account books relative to the Chancellor's lands, and negotiations for the sale of land, especially the Chancellor's property in New Jersey after his death. A section of the estate documents for Robert R. Livingston relate to payment of medical, boarding, and clothing bills for Isabella and her son, Stephen, who were enslaved by Livingston (42:4). Some of the documents refer to her as Isabella Bond.

In 1791, Wilson added the office of Deputy Postmaster to his collection of responsibilities, becoming the first such agent for the town of Clermont. He was reappointed in 1803, and continued at his lucrative post until surrendering it to his son in 1825. As with everything else, Wilson saved all of his papers (42:12-15), and this the collection includes Wilson's original appointment commissions, signed by Post Master General Timothy Pickering (1:46 and 12:72), as well as the postal accounts and other records, which are generally of an administrative and bureaucratic nature. There are a few scattered items from correspondents critical of the speed and unreliability of the mails.

William Wilson also filled various political appointments in the county, and was active in state politics. As a Jeffersonian-Republican, befitting a friend of Chancellor Livingston, he played an important local role as judge of the county court, yet while many of his letters are addressed to "Judge" Wilson, virtually nothing pertaining to his official judicial activities survives in the collection apart from a series of receipts from various sheriffs and a few examinations of a woman for illegitimacy (43:44; 41:19). However Wilson corresponded with other judges and lawyers in the region, a fair amount of which has been preserved, especially from Peter Van Schaack and members of the prominent Van Ness family. Wilson's role as one of the first school supervisors in the area is represented by some scant records (41:22), as is his position as a commissioner for the granting of tavern licenses (41:23).

Wilson was involved in two other county-wide projects that had an important impact on Columbia County, and for which there is excellent material. One of these was the construction of the Highland Turnpike, which ran from Westchester County to near Albany, with gates in Columbia County. Wilson sat on its Board of Directors, and was a frequent and regular correspondent with its president, Joseph Howland (43:1, 2). Howland's are among the few letters that bear on broader national issues, and are in many ways the most interesting series of letters in the collection (see especially 17:87). Secondly, Wilson was instrumental in the establishment of the Agricultural Society of Dutchess and Columbia Counties, or the "Farm Club," as it was usually called. As (variously) president, vice president, secretary, or treasurer, Wilson was intimately involved in the operation of the organization. Of particular interest is the material relative to the annual county fairs held by the club, and the notifications from potential participants, the standards for awards, and the lists of winners (41:3-11). These records, together with the information to be gathered from the receipts from merchants, presents a detailed picture of agricultural life in the rural Hudson Valley.

In sum, those portions of the Wilson Papers that deal directly with William Wilson and his many activities provides a comprehensive picture of rural life in Columbia County and the state of New York in the forty years after the American Revolution.

The letters from Wilson's children offer insights into other aspects of life in early nineteenth-century New York. Alexander Wilson wrote many letters to his father while a student, and it is from his papers that one gets a good idea of the nature of legal education at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Alexander's early death means there is little material relating to his career as a practicing attorney, but what is lacking from Alexander is more than made up for by the papers of his younger brother, Robert. Robert kept extensive records of his practice, including a register of cases covering the entire period of his independent practice in New York, 1823-1830 (46:17), and his day books and account books, which list his professional duties preformed on behalf of clients, and his expenses, fees, and collections (40:1; 46:15,16). The Wilson Papers also includes file papers for many of the cases in which Robert participated (43:5-30), providing a broad, and occasionally deep insight into one man's legal practice in the early 19th century.

The letters of Wilson's other sons are less numerous than those of Alexander and Robert. William H. spent most of his life in Clermont, and so wrote less often, and Stephen B. was a secretive man, who simply did not write many letters. William H. wrote several letters during his tour of duty on the Lake Champlain frontier during the War of 1812 (18:43, 52; 19:18, 26, 36, 47, 56, 60, 68; 20:16, 18), but these are preoccupied with descriptions of camp life and military "politics" rather than strategy or the social impact of the war. William succeeded his father as Deputy Postmaster in 1825, and kept the same copious records as his father (42:12-15). He was not, however, as active in politics as his father, and except for a few letters relating to his run for a seat in the state senate in 1839, and some candidate lists and election return broadsides (41:25-27), there is little of political interest in William's papers. Stephen's letters are the more interesting for their rarity. When he does write, it is well worth the reading.

In addition to the letters written and collected by William, William H., and Robert L. Wilson, the Wilson Papers contain a vast quantity of documents. The largest category of this material contains an enormous number of accounts and receipts from merchants with whom the Wilsons did business. In terms of the number of items, fully half of the Wilson Papers is comprised of these accounts. Approximately 800 individual laborers, craftsmen, merchants, and business firms are represented as having done business with one or another member of the Wilson family, and the collection includes accounts for nearly every kind of household goods, from furniture to food to building materials, agricultural supplies, from seeds to fruit trees to sheep, and personal goods, from cheap "segars" to an "invalid chair" for Robert L., to wine.

The accounts (box 44 and 45:1-16) are arranged alphabetically by creditor. A complete list of merchants and firms represented in the collection is included under "Merchants" in the subject index. The accounts are a particularly valuable resource for social historians. For example the accounts of Samuel Haner (44:12) document aspects of blacksmithing; those of the Clermont grocers Bonesteel and Broadhead (44:4) reveal aspects of diet and nutrition; those of Thomas Beekman (44:2) document medicine and medical supplies; and those of Peter Outwater (45:6) provide information on transportation and commerce on the Hudson River. Receipts for payment that do not include goods or services are filed by surname (45:20-23). The collection also includes a number of the Wilsons' account books, especially William's and Robert's, which offer a view of the other side of the ledger (40:5; 46:18; 47:1, 2).

A second subdivision of the collection, and one closely related to the merchant accounts, deals with land administration. In addition to the correspondence of Henry Livingston with William Wilson mentioned above, the collection contains several subject files related to this important issue in Hudson River Valley history. Most important are the folders containing information on absentee landlords (41:1, 2); deeds (41:4); land grants (43:4); leases (43:31, 32); mortgages (45:17); various rental accounts (46:1-7); surveys and surveying (46:8); as well as William Wilson's rental account books (46:17-20).

Finally the collection contains a small body of material of an essentially genealogical or local history value, and a wide, if not very deep, collection of letters of the Livingston family. William Wilson was an executor for some of the Livingston family estates, most notably for Robert Cambridge Livingston (42:1, 2) and Robert R. Livingston (42:3-6), as well as for other estates (41:29; 42:7-10). The information included in the "genealogy" folder (42:11) is particularly helpful in interpreting the material relating to estate settlement and administration.

The local history of the town of Clermont and Columbia County appears throughout the collection, ranging from arrest warrants to local taxes, and including a very important group of papers relating to the establishment of Clermont Academy (41:16-23). As for the Livingstons, while the famous Chancellor does not overpower the collection, the Livingston family does play an important part. Over sixty members of the family are mentioned in some significant way in the Wilson Papers. Some -- like "General" Henry with his tenant problems, the administration of the estates of Walter T. Livingston (1772-1827) and the Chancellor (42:3-7), or the letters of Edward Philip Livingston (1779-1843) concerning his trip to France -- are meaningful parts of the collection (9:78, 86, 98; 10:8, 64). Other Livingstons are merely the signers of documents or letters, such as Janet Livingston Montgomery's (1743-1828) announcement that she plans to enter the Farm Club fair, a request from Mary Thong Livingston Wilson for financial assistance after the birth of Wilson's grandson, or the Chancellor's grandson, Clermont Livingston, who signed a quit claim deed for the benefit of Clermont Academy.

In sum, the Wilson papers are primarily a collection of family papers. While some members of the family participated in significant activities, and while the letters relating to those activities are important, there is a strongly personal aspect about them, and whatever broader historical significance that can be gotten from them must be gotten in the mass.


Woods family papers, 1704-1994

140 items (0.5 linear feet)

The Woods family papers chronicle the establishment of an important family in western Virginia during the 18th and early 19th centuries. While the bulk of the collection pertains to Archibald Woods' (1764-1846) activities as a surveyor and land speculator in Ohio County, the collection also contains several letters from later generations of the family, and documents relating to military and public affairs, including the War of 1812.

The Woods family papers chronicle the establishment of an important family in western Virginia during the 18th and early 19th centuries. While the bulk of the collection pertains to Archibald Woods' (1764-1846) activities as a surveyor and land speculator in Ohio County, the collection also contains several letters from later generations of the family, and documents relating to military and public affairs. A series of land surveys of the Ohio Valley, prepared by Archibald Woods, has been arranged and placed at the end of the collection.

The collection includes a petition relating to the Alien and Sedition Act of 1798. Addressed to the Senate and House of Representatives of Virginia from the citizens of Ohio County, the petition includes thirty nine signatures protesting the Acts. The signers expressed their concern regarding what they saw as a violation of the Constitution, and asserted that the acts were a "serious cause of alarm" for the citizens of Ohio County, whom, they noted, continued to adhere to the Democratic principles of the American Revolution.

During the time that Andrew Woods served as sheriff of Botetourt County, 1777-1780, he kept a small, deerskin-bound notebook of his activities including receipts and notes on the collection of taxes and fees. There are also sporadic family business records. Included are an agreement for disposition of property including land, livestock, and enslaved persons (named Herod [Bin?], Sip, Ceasar, and Nanas). A copy of a contract between siblings Andrew, Martha, and Archibald (likely Andrew Woods' children) for the care of Martha Poage Woods and arrangements for the purchase of an enslaved person for Elijah Woods is also present. The contract provided for clothing, food, and shelter and, if Martha chose "to go back over the mountains," to provide an enslaved person to care for her.

Over fifty surveys and treasury warrants document Archibald Woods' importance as a surveyor and land speculator in the Ohio River Valley. Many of these can be positively traced to land that today lies in the state of West Virginia, mostly in the panhandle, but, Woods owned property throughout Ohio County, which then included parts of Ohio and a corner of Pennsylvania. A contemporary range and township map assists in situating Woods' land holdings.

Seven printed orders, each unique, or nearly unique, include information about troop recruitment and deployment during the War of 1812, and about demobilization at the end of the war. Among other documents in the collection are Archibald Woods' commissions and resignations.

There is little true correspondence in the Woods family papers, although one item, a letter from Joe Woods, is of some interest. In this letter written to his mother, Woods summarizes his reasons for transferring to Princeton, assuring her of his sound character and his decision.

Finally, the collection contains useful information about the Woods family estate, Woodsdale. Three documents from 1815-1816 provide floor plans and a record of construction costs, and there are two copy photographs of the house as it stood before its demolition in 1949. In 1976-77, Ruth Moss described the physical layout of the home and grounds as she recalled them, as well as her memories of life at Woodsdale in the early part of the century.


Philadelphia (Pa.) Mayors collection, 1705-1976

52 items

This collection contains letters, legal documents, receipts, and printed images related to mayors of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 1705-1976. The content pertains to Philadelphia commerce and politics, as well as to mayors' personal affairs.

This collection contains 52 individual letters, legal documents, receipts, and printed images related to 25 mayors of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The content pertains to Philadelphia commerce and politics, as well as to mayors' personal affairs.

Notable items include the following:
  • Four 18th-century documents, bearing the Philadelphia city seal and ordering the sheriff to assemble 24-person juries. Joseph Willcox (March 13, 1705), Nathan Stanbury (December 18, 1706), Richard Hill (June 17, 1715), and Thomas Lawrence (December 18, 1764)
  • A letter from John Inskeep to the Common Council, discussing administrative issues and forwarding "a copy of a letter…from Thomas Howell at New York containing propositions to furnish the Corporation of this city with three engines of a peculiar kind which he imported from England for the Corporation of New York" (December 4, 1800)
  • A partially printed order to apprehend Francis Barrett for being "an idle drunk or vagrant following no legal visible means for a support," signed by Robert Wharton (November 16, 1815)
  • A letter to Joseph Watson from Benneville Keim, president of the Farmer's Bank of Reading, regarding counterfeiting issues (May 16, 1827)
  • A letter from John M. Scott respecting his fire insurance policy and investments (July 11, 1827)
  • A letter of recommendation for "William Magill, late proprietor and Editor of the 'Daily Keystone,' for a Situation in the Customs. He has been an efficient co. laborer in the Democratic ranks, battled faithfully and long to maintain the continued supremacy of the Party, and is in our opinion highly entitled to a position commensurate with his services and merits," signed by Richard Vaux and others (November 1846)
  • Appointment of Addison B. Burk as Philadelphia's official delegate to the 1911 National Rivers and Harbors Congress, by John E. Reyburn (November 10, 1911)
  • 11 partially printed receipts from the Department of Receiver of Taxes for "city and school taxes" paid by Margaret B. Stewart, George F. Caldwell, and Elsie M. Caldwell (1919-1929)
  • Brief notes from 20th-century mayors responding to requests for autographs

Thomas Amory collection, 1709-1730

11 items

The Thomas Amory collection is comprised of letters, legal documents, and financial records related to the sugar and wine merchant's business affairs throughout the early 1700s.

The Thomas Amory collection is comprised of letters, legal documents, and financial records related to the sugar and wine merchant's business affairs throughout the early 1700s. Three early items relate to Amory's interests in the sugar and wine trade in Brazil, including a receipt written at Angra dos Reis in 1709, a business letter from 1720, and a document entitled "An Answer to the Objections of each Article that Mr. George Jaffrey makes to my accts.," respecting disputed accounts associated with shipping voyages of the Pinke Bachus ([1719]). Amory received business correspondence from contacts in North America and Great Britain, often related to the shipment of wine and the settling of financial accounts. The collection also holds a contract between Amory and Benjamin Eddy, whom Amory hired to ship "Indian corn" between North Carolina and Boston (April 14, 1726), and a receipt related to the late merchant's estate (July 13, 1730).


James Moncrieff papers, 1710-1894 (majority within 1780-1804)

403 items (1.5 linear feet)

The James Moncrieff papers are made up of letters, documents, and reports partially documenting the military career of Moncrieff, a British engineer. In particular, the papers regard Moncrieff’s engineering work following the siege of Charlestown, South Carolina (1780 ff.), and in the West Indies in the early 1790s.

The James Moncrieff papers consist of 403 items, dated from August 2, 1710, to June 15, 1894 (the bulk dating between August 28, 1780, and April 4, 1804). The collection contains seven bound letter and account books, 38 pieces of correspondence, 244 documents pertaining to Works and Services for the Engineers Dept. of the British military, six military reports, 43 miscellaneous military documents, 10 documents pertaining to land holdings, 41 personal and financial documents, and 14 miscellaneous items.

The letterbooks and 38 individual letters pertain to the military career of James Moncrieff and regard military orders, personal purchases of Moncrieff, military purchases, military fortifications and other matters pertaining to the Engineer Corps. The 244 documents are numbered payment orders for Works Services in the Engineers Department of the British military. They include detailed lists of services and materials purchased for the operation of the Department. Each document is authorized and signed by the Commanding Engineer, James Moncrieff, by the sellers after payment, by the Paymaster, and by witnesses to the financial transactions. The 6 Military Reports (1791), initialed by G.B., G.D., B.P. and J.M., contain material regarding military engineering in the West Indies. Four of the reports contain James Moncrieff’s reports on military fortifications on Barbados, Dominica, St. Christopher’s and St. Vincent’s. The remaining reports are investigations into account fraud by bookkeepers on Barbados and St. Christopher’s.

The 43 miscellaneous military documents regard the Royal Engineer Corps. 10 documents pertain to land in Great Britain, several of which relate to the estate of George Moncrieff. The most extensive of the land documents is 13 pages in length and is titled “Search of Incumbrances on the Lands of Kingsbarns” (November 11 to November 20, 1887). The 41 documents related to personal affairs are almost exclusively accounts and receipts of James Moncrieff.

The 14 miscellaneous items include four bound volumes, including a manuscript book of poetry and notes by Moncrieff on the principles of war and on water drainage. The remaining 10 items are all undated and consist of: one printed fragment, one manuscript fragment, six unlabeled maps, one broadside and a print labeled “THE CASINO Promenade Concert Rooms.”


Colonial Parson's notebook, 1713-1741 (majority within 1713-1714, 1741)

1 volume

The Colonial Parson's notebook is a small bound volume of sermon and prayer notes kept by a New England minister from 1713 to 1714 and in 1741.

The Colonial Parson's notebook is a small bound volume (approximately 3.5"x4", 62 pages) of sermon and prayer notes kept by a New England minister from 1713 to 1714 and in 1741. Several of the notes were written in "East Windsor," [Connecticut]. The volume opens with thoughts about Thanksgiving Day 1713, and continues with a large number of short reflections, often accompanied by relevant Biblical verses. One of the notes is addressed "To young persons" [1741], and another is about church news. A later note mentions several people who wished to "Joyn with this Church," including an African American named "Job Elswth" [1741].


Henri César, marquis de Castellane Majastre papers, 1713-1828

14 items

The papers of the Marquis de Castellane include brief, but significant, documentation of French naval and military activity during the American Revolution.

The papers of the Marquis de Castellane include brief, but significant documentation of French naval and military activity during the American Revolution. The manuscripts are comprised of miscellaneous items extracted from the papers of the Castellane family in France by a bookdealer.

Authorship of the Castellane documents has not been positively determined, however it is likely that they can be safely attributed to Henri César, marquis de Castellane Majastre. Castellane Majastre commanded the Marseillais in de Grasse's squadron in 1781 and 1782, and the collection includes commissions and legal documents relating to Castellane Majastre and his family. He may have kept some of these journals, or may have copied them from his fellow officers.

The collection includes two cahiers dealing with the siege of Yorktown (61 pp.); a description of the Battle of Saints' Passage (Battle of Îles des Saintes), April 9-12, 1782, (5 pp.); a notebook on route the French army took in traveling from Rhode Island to Yorktown and during their return to France (7 pp.); and a journal of the siege of Yorktown with brief descriptions of De Grasse's naval campaigns (41 pp.). While these are not extensive, they include some fine descriptions of the engagements, leavened on occasion with observations on the people and scenery.


Joshua Benjamin journal, 1716-1734

1 volume

The Joshua Benjamin journal contains notes and navigational logs on the various crews and voyages of the Brigantine Sarah, Brigantine Young Henry, Ship Lufilania, Brigantine Dolphin, Sloop Tryall, Brigantine Sea Flower, Sloop Experiment, Sloop Endeavor, Sloop Abigail, Brigantine Willam & Mary, Brigantine Union, Ship Samuell, Ship John and Cranwell, and the Ship Welcome, all sailing between 1713 and 1734.

The journal has 303 total pages, including the small pages bound together with the volume. Of these, approximately 258 are devoted to ships' logs. The book contains 60 pencil and ink coastal profiles.

The Joshua Benjamin journal contains notes on the various crews of the Brigantine Sarah and Brigantine Young Henry, as well as navigational logs and notes for various voyages of these ships as well as for the Ship Lufilania, Brigantine Dolphin, Sloop Tryall, Brigantine Sea Flower, Sloop Experiment, Sloop Endeavor, Sloop Abigail, Brigantine Willam & Mary, Brigantine Union, ship Samuell, Ship John and Cranwell, and the Ship Welcome, between 1713-1734. These voyages typically begin or end in Boston, bringing cargo to and from various ports along the Eastern Seaboard, Caribbean, and London.

The volume opens with the following inscription:

Joshua Benjamin Book[:] taken on board the Hardie Brilhae a french Ship of About 400 Tuns 32 guns Mounted x175 men in the year 1710[.] I then belonging to Her Majesty Queen Anne[']s Service in Her Ship the Kent of 70 Guns x 440 men[.]

However, none of the book's entries document the voyages of these ships. The first few pages consist of charts for the crew of the Brigantine Sarah and Young Henry with notes on crew names and positions, their wages, and time served on the ship for that voyage. After these entries is a description of a religious service at the Cathedral of San Salvador in Oviedo, Spain, accompanied by an inventory of holy relics housed there (page 9). The inventory claims 21 relics from various saints and religious figures, including one of the 30 pieces of silver received by Judas, 8 thorns from the crown Jesus wore at his crucifixion, and clothes worn by Jesus.

The next set of entries consists of the logs of the various voyages of Benjamin. He keeps track of the ships'; daily longitude and latitude positions, records the day's wind, weather, and sea conditions, and makes brief notes of daily events (setting off, docking, repairs, meeting other ships and sailors, exchanging goods, etc.). In general, the descriptions provide general information on the experiences of eighteenth-century seamen and speak to the ways in which they handled challenges at sea.

Occasionally, Benjamin describes encounters with other ships, which indicate that the crew felt keenly that the waters were dangerous. For example, on December 27, 1733, he mentions that they spotted two sails giving chase. "We feeling they were Enemies prepared to receive them by fitting the vessels for close fight" (p.141). The ships passed without incident. In one of the longer entries of the journal, Benjamin describes the unfortunate fate of the Brigantine Sarah, which on November 1, 1730, struck a rock that severely damaged the ship five leagues from Bermuda. Eventually, all crew abandoned ship and took refuge on a nearby Island. They were rescued by a passing sloop within 4 days and taken to South Carolina.

Many of the entries include rough pencil sketches of coastal profiles, indicating the basic vertical outline of approaching land. In addition to these profiles is a pen drawing of several fish (p.26) and a map of Martha's Vineyard (p.47). This hand-drawn and well labeled map of Martha's Vineyard is one of the earliest known charts of this passage.

See the "Detailed Box and Folder Listing" section for a complete document summary with voyage and illustration listed with their corresponding page numbers.


Humphrey Morrey collection, 1717-1769 (majority within 1717-1735)

11 items

This collection is made up of correspondence, legal documents, and financial records pertaining to Humphrey Morrey of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most items concern Morrey's financial ventures, his land ownership, and estates of deceased persons.

This collection is made up of 11 letters, legal documents, and financial records pertaining to Humphrey Morrey of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The family name is spelled Morrey, Murray, Murry, and Murrey within the collection. The items concern Morrey's financial ventures, his land ownership, and estates of deceased persons.

Two items concern a land transaction between Morrey's uncle, John Budd, and John Willmer (or Wilmer), a resident of London who worked in the silk industry. Budd wrote to Morrey about his financial obligations to Willmer (February 15, 1716/17), and the collection contains a deed regarding the transfer (January 16, 1719/20). A set of accounts and 2 letters pertain to Morrey's financial relationship with the merchant Robert Lidderdale (or Lidderdaill), and to the shipment of goods between London and North America in the early 1720s.

The collection contains a signed statement of debt to Humphrey Morrey (April 6, 1725) and a written record of Morrey's agreement to sell a parcel of land in Philadelphia to Lewis Zircle, a laborer (August 20, 1725). Three inventories and accounts pertain to the estates of Sarah Morrey (July 26, 1720) and Humphrey Morrey (October 12, 1734-August 7, 1735, and August 18, 1735). The final item is a record of expenses related to the burial of "Sipio," a slave formerly owned by the deceased Humphrey Morrey (February 10, 1769).


Hair documents, ephemera, and prints collection, 1717-ca. 1990 (majority within ca. 1770-1890)

2 boxes

The Hair documents, ephemera, and prints collection is comprised of 103 items, mostly printed materials related to hair, shaving, and wigs. Included are ephemeral advertisements, trade cards and price lists, government acts relating to hair and wigs, manuscript letters and indentures, caricatures and cartoons, broadsides, sheet music, other miscellaneous prints, and one braided lock of hair.

The Hair Documents, Ephemera, and Prints collection is comprised of 103 items, mostly printed materials related to hair, shaving, and wigs. Included are ephemeral advertisements, trade cards and price lists, government acts from British monarchs George II and George III relating to hair and wigs, manuscript letters and indentures, caricatures and cartoons, broadsides, sheet music, other miscellaneous prints, and one braided lock of hair. The material spans from 1717 to the late 1980s, with the bulk of materials dating from the late eighteenth century to the end of the nineteenth century. A majority of the materials are from England, although some are from Belgium, France, Switzerland, and Scotland. Many of the items are satirical and are commentary on fashion and the idea that the local barber was the "jack of all trades." Two similar items, a comical manuscript resume of "Isaac Morgan" and a fictitious advertisement for the varied services of "Isaac Factotum" offer exaggerated illustrations of how a barber did more than cut hair. Of interest is a series of mid-nineteenth century Valentines which center around the love-lives of barbers. Also included is a letter from Alex Campbell to his relative John Campbell, the Cashier of the Royal Bank of Scotland during the Jacobite rising of 1745. There is also sheet music from the composer (Franz) Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), A Pastoral Song, better known as My Mother bids me bind my hair. Of note are prints by British satirists William Hogarth, Isaac and George Cruikshank, and Thomas Rowlandson.


Antigua collection, 1719-1749

19 items

The Antigua collection consists of miscellaneous official papers relating to the island of Antigua which appear to have come from the office of Joshua Sharpe, solicitor to the Privy Council from 1719 to 1749.

The Antigua collection consists of miscellaneous official papers relating to the island of Antigua, much of which appears to have come from the office of Joshua Sharpe, solicitor to the Privy Council.


William Potts student notebook, 1720-1819 (majority within 1720)

1 volume

This student notebook contains Latin-language treatises on logic, metaphysics, and related subjects, composed around 1720. The book also includes a few pages of sermon notes, an example of a Porphyrian Tree, and additional notes by later owners.

The bulk of this volume is comprised of Latin-language treatises about logic, metaphysics, and related concepts, written or copied around 1720. Each section is broken into multiple chapters, some with appendices. The volume also includes small groups of shorter writings in Latin and an example of the Porphyrian Tree. The Latin writings are infrequently interrupted by additional entries, such as a few pages of English-language notes from an August 1761 sermon based on a verse from 2nd Corinthians. Notations throughout the volume refer to William Potts, Georgius M. Conchie, George Potts, and William McCauly (with several variations on the spelling of the surname).


Robert Challe, Journal d'un Voyage fait aux Indes Orientales English translation, [1720s-1730s?]

3 volumes

These 3 volumes are an English translation of Robert Challe's Journal d'un Voyage fait aux Indes Orientales, which chronicles his journey to India as purser on the French East India Company's ship Ecueil between 1690 and 1691. Challe described scenery, wildlife, and culture in Africa, India, and the Caribbean.

These 3 volumes are an English translation of Robert Challe's Journal d'un Voyage fait aux Indes Orientales, which chronicles his journey to India as purser on the French East India Company's ship Ecueil between 1690 and 1691. The first volume opens with a brief introduction to the work, translated by "[I.?] R." for J. Boulter, a friend of Challe's. The volumes, which cover the entirety of Challe's travels on the Ecueil and contain many revisions and corrections, are accompanied by a two-page letter by Sir David Dundas concerning the manuscript's translation and contents, the background of the author, and the reasons why Dundas does not believe that the Hakluyt Society would be interested in publishing the text. Each of the 3 volumes bears the bookplate of Sir Thomas Baring, Baronet.

Challe began his narrative on February 24, 1690, when six ships under the command of Abraham Du Quesne departed from Port Louis, France, for the East Indies. He recorded his observations in daily entries, which vary in length between single sentences and descriptive passages of 30 pages or more. Challe recorded the ship's course and location, though he noted the unreliability of longitude measurements and remarked on the inaccuracy of contemporary maps (Vol. 1, pp. 67-68). After heading south along the coasts of France and Spain, the Ecueil made stops in the Canary and Cape Verde Islands, and Challe reflected on the history of Spanish conquests in the New World, as well as on predestination and other topics related to Christianity. Challe also described daily events onboard the ship and marine life he observed. The first volume concludes on May 30, 1690, with the ship's arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, which occasioned a discussion of Dutch trade.

The narrative resumed on June 1, 1690, as the Ecueil headed for Madagascar; the second volume includes a lengthy essay on the history, people, flora, and other aspects of the island of Moaly (Mohilla/Mwali) (pp. 30-63). The volume also contains a description of the ship's encounter with the British Philip Herbert, which ended when the trapped British captain set his own boat on fire, resulting in the death of most of his crew (Vol. 2, pp. 64-76). Challe composed entries as he traveled around the Maldives and Ceylon, and temporarily ceased writing after his arrival in Pontincheri (Pondicherry), India, on August 12, 1790. His next entry, dated August 24, 1690 (Vol. 2, pp. 116-158), describes the area, including observations on local slaves (Vol. 2, p. 137). After traveling along the eastern coast of India and down the western coast of Burma, the ship sailed to Bengal, where it remained at the close of Volume 2 on December 31, 1690. Volume 3 opens on January 1, 1691, shortly before the Ecueil began its return journey to France, a voyage covered in daily entries that often concern the wind speed and the author's increasing boredom. The Ecueil traced its earlier route around the Cape of Good Hope before crossing the Atlantic Ocean for a journey to Martinique and other Caribbean islands. After leaving the Americas on July 9, 1691, the Ecueil returned to Port Louis on August 20, the final date recorded in the journal.


Humphry and Moses Marshall papers, 1721-1863

1.25 linear feet

The Humphry and Moses Marshall papers primarily document the careers of botanist Humphry Marshall and his nephew and business associate, Moses Marshall.

The Humphry and Moses Marshall papers consist of 233 items: 181 letters (including drafts), 15 legal documents, 11 manuscripts, 10 poems, 4 account books, and several each of books, letter books, arithmetic notebooks, and broadsides. The materials span from 1721-1863.

The first series contains correspondence and a few legal documents and writings, arranged chronologically. The correspondence dates from 1733 to 1863 and is predominantly incoming. Humphry Marshall is the recipient of the bulk of the material (approximately 40%), followed by Moses Marshall (approx. 30%). The majority of the outgoing correspondence comes from the two "letterbooks" kept by Moses Marshall in 1791 and 1793. These books contain correspondence from a couple of days each, but provide a record of Marshall's response to inquiries from clients.

The bulk of correspondence prior to 1800 relates to Marshall's horticultural and botanical operations. Substantial numbers of orders are for plants and seeds from clients in other parts of the United States, England, Ireland, France, and Germany, and communications with middle men in the operation detail methods of packaging and shipping. Also of botanical interest is the correspondence with Marshall's "agents" in the field, including Moses Mendenhall, John and James Watson, Matthias King, Samuel Kramsh, and James Kenny. These men were admirers and friends of Humphry Marshall, and provided him with specimens collected from various regions of the country. The unsuccessful search for wild Franklinia alatamaha is mentioned in several letters (April 8, 1788: "There is not a plant of the Franklinia to be found"), and other letters include discussions of scientific expeditions either actualized or planned, mostly involving the participation of Moses Marshall. On November 14, 1786, Humphry described the logistics of tracking down ginseng, providing insight into the duties of plant collectors: "both of you being obliged to…encamp in the mountains strike up a fire & lie by it all night in the morning…climb up the sides of the mountains and dig towards evening…about 20 days in Going and Coming home again & digging the roots packing up &c." The content of the letters does not indicate the Marshalls' scientific interests or abilities, but this correspondence provides documentation for the complex network used by the Marshalls to collect, sell and distribute plants.

Approximately 18 letters relate to the Revolutionary War (see "Subject Index" under "Additional Descriptive Data"). These include letters that indicate Marshall's support for the nonimportation agreements (January 6, 1775), second hand reports of the Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 25, 1775) and of Yorktown (August 24, 1781), and an important series of correspondence from Samuel Preston Moore relating to the resignation of the trustees of the General Loan Office when American revolutionaries seized control (June 17 and 21, 1777). Also significant are two letters from Quaker conscientious objectors on the morality of paying taxes to support military activities (undated c. 1780 letter; July 14, 1781), a letter relating to the North Carolina Regulator insurrection (March 3, 1771), and one concerning the arrest by American forces of Quakers suspected of Loyalist sympathies (September 6, 1777). Finally, in the pre-Revolutionary period, the letters of James Kenny provide excellent descriptions of plant collecting and the area around Fort Pitt in 1759-60.

The items from 1840-1863 mainly relate to Moses Marshall, Jr. Most notable in among them are several letters from William Darlington written as he was preparing his Memorial to Humphry and Moses Marshall in 1848 and 1849. Moses, Jr's pro-Confederacy political views are clearly expressed in the series of three speeches written during the Civil War, also included in the series.

The Poetry series includes 10 undated poems. The Bound Materials series comprises the arithmetic notebooks of Jacob Martin, whose relationship to the Marshalls is unclear; Darlington’s manuscript, Historical Introduction to Bartram & Marshall, Marshall's copy of Dover's Useful Miscellanies; and nine uncut and unfolded sets of signatures from Arbustrum Americanum.


Quail family papers, 1722, 1791-1906 (majority within 1814-1861)

0.5 linear feet

This collection is made up of correspondence, financial records, and documents related to members of the Quail family of Washington County, Pennsylvania.

This collection is made up of correspondence, financial records, and documents related to various members of the Quail family of Washington County, Pennsylvania.

The Correspondence series (135 items) consists of personal letters written and received by members of the Quail family, particularly David Quail, Robert Quail, and two men named William Quail. Several of the earliest items, written in the late-18th and early 19th centuries, are addressed to John Hoge of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Quail family correspondence regards family news and health, travel, finances, business affairs, and other subjects.

Robert and John H. Quail often wrote to Willliam Quail about life in Hillsborough and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. One of William's letters concerns his meeting with United States Secretary of War William Learned Marcy about his offer to serve in Mexico (April 19, 1848). Mary Quail wrote to family members about her life in "Missouri City" in the late 1850s and early 1860s, occasionally mentioning the war. The bulk of the correspondence ends in 1891; later items include 5 letters from "Blaine" to "Anna" about Blaine's life in Philadelphia in 1890 and 1891, and a letter from a man to his uncle about life in Rangoon (March 18, 1899). Death notices for Catherine G. Quail (June 23, 1833), James Quail (August 7, 1834), and William Quail (June 5, 1837) are located at the end of the series.

The Writings series is comprised of 3 items: a poem by Robert Quail, a poem entitled "Ode to a Woman," and a partial essay about the ecliptic and astronomy.

Most items in the Receipts and Accounts series (156 items) pertain to the personal finances of Robert Quail. They regard his accounts with individuals and firms in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Items concerning William Quail and David Quail are also present. Three receipts for tuition payments for the education of Ann Moreland (paid by David Quail, 1826-1828), and 2 promissory notes (1722, 1819) are located at the end of the series. The series includes a daybook containing an unknown author's finances from January 29, 1849, to June 1856. The author lived in Washington, Pennsylvania, during this period.

The Documents series (62 items) contains legal records and agreements pertaining to land ownership, rent, and similar subjects. Also included are a will, a printed copy of the Pension Act of 1832, and Anna Grizella Quail's application to become a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution. A group of 34 court summonses and subpoenas signed by David Quail, 1822-1846, is located at the end of the series. A second subseries of 10 items, including letters patent, legal documents, and diagrams, concerns John Ferrel's patent for vehicle brakes, 1900-1906.

The 4 Miscellaneous items are fragments with brief calculations.


Charles-Eugène-Gabriel, maréchal de Castries papers, 1722-1814

86 items (0.5 linear feet)

The Castries papers include four major areas of interest: The civil and military administration of French Caribbean colonies; French participation in the American Revolution; the 1784 trial to fix blame for the defeat of the French Navy at the Battle of Saints Passage, 1782; and Royalist conspiracies against the French Republic during the 1790s.

The Castries papers represents only a small portion of the original "archives" of the Maréchal. The core of the Castries Papers includes four major areas of interest:

1. The civil and military administration of French Caribbean colonies;

2. French participation in the American Revolution;

3. The 1784 trial to fix blame for the devastating defeat of the French Navy and the capture of Admiral de Grasse at the Battle of Saints Passage, 1782, and;

4. Royalist conspiracies against the French Republic during the 1790s.

The materials relating to French Caribbean colonies were collected by Castries in his capacity as Ministre de la Marine, a position that gave him some oversight of colonial affairs. Though undated, many of these documents appear to have been prepared in about 1783, and are perhaps related to negotiations at the Treaty of Paris or to the immediate outcome of that treaty. These documents include detailed descriptions of the French colonies in the Isles du Vent and Isles sous le Vent, with notes on administration, police, religious advancement, agriculture, trade, and defense.

Among the items from the period of the American revolution is an important document titled "Memoire en forme de Plan de la Campagne en Amerique dans l'année 1783 redigée par la Compte d'Estaing..." in which the author lays out a plan for global imperial conquest, beginning with the defeat of the British in North America. Also of great interest is the "Order à prendre du Roi, relativement à l'amérique Septentrionale," which contains an analysis of French military strategy in the Americas following Yorktown. A "Projet d'Arrêt du Conseil" of January, 1782, relates to reparations to the residents of Saint Eustatius for depredations committed there during its capture by British forces. Also present is the 1782 appointment of François Barbé de Marbois as consul in the United States.

The de Grasse trial materials contain an extensive body of records of the Conseil de Guerre Extraordinaire held at L'Orient, France, in 1784. These include a minute-by-minute reconstruction of the action at the Battle of Saints Passage (including manuscript maps, housed in the Map Division), interviews with French naval officers, manuscript and printed version of the findings of the Conseil with judgments against the naval officers (most were acquitted of any misconduct), and defenses written by the baron d'Arros d'Argelos and Pontèves-Gien to justify their conduct. All together, these comprise a thorough, though not quite complete documentation of the official inquiry into a major French naval defeat.

The 14 items relating to counterrevolutionary activity in the 1790s present a somewhat less complete picture than that for the de Grasse trial, but serve to indicate the breadth and depth of Castries' involvement in Royalist circles. These include letters from Royalists seeking assistance, documents outlining plans for a proposed invasion of the west coast of France, discussions of the possibility of Royalist forces capturing the colony of Saint Domingue and reestablishing it as a monarchy under Louis XVIII, and analyses of the potential for support among other European powers. Perhaps the most intriguing item in this part of the collection is a lengthy report from a British spy containing information on influential members of the French Directory with notes on whether they can be made useful to the Royalist cause.

The Castries papers are arranged chronologically. Eight maps entered as evidence at the Conseil de Guerre held at L'Orient have been transferred to the Maps Division.


Lawrence-Bass family papers, 1725-1904 (majority within 1800-1862)

0.25 linear feet

The Lawrence-Bass family papers contain correspondence, writings, documents, and other items related to William Lawrence of Lincoln, Massachusetts; his grandson, Jonathan Bass of Randolph and Braintree, Vermont; and the Bass family. The material concerns family relationships and news, land ownership, and religion.

This collection contains correspondence, writings, documents, and other items related to William Lawrence of Lincoln, Massachusetts; to his grandson, Jonathan Bass of Randolph and Braintree, Vermont; and to the Bass family.

The Correspondence series (65 items) is made up of incoming and outgoing letters related to the Bass family in the early 19th century. Early items include a Revolution-era love letter by Phebe Hammond, who shared her negative opinion of soldiers' behavior (August 29, 1778), and letters that members of the Lawrence and Bass families received during the late 18th century. The bulk of the series is comprised of incoming letters to Jonathan Bass from his siblings, parents, and friends in Randolph, Vermont, while he studied in Cambridge, Massachusetts, between 1800 and 1805, and after he moved to Braintree, Vermont, in 1805. Jonathan's correspondents shared social and personal news and occasionally commented on political issues. Around 1810, he and his family members discussed the life and death of his brother William, who died on September 25, 1810. Later items include letters from Caleb Butler of Groton, Massachusetts, to Henry Bass about the Lawrence family genealogy, written in 1846, and additional Bass family letters.

The Writings series contains essays and other pieces about religion, friendship, love, and other topics. One unattributed 25-page document, written around September 1766, concerns religious issues. The remaining essays and poems are grouped into four bundles, some of which are attributed to William Lawrence during his time at Harvard College around 1740. One of these items is William Lawrence's copy of Ovid's Amores I.5, "Corinnae concubitus."

The Financial Records series contains 3 items. Two accounts pertain to Boston resident Edward Bromfield's financial affairs (November 16, 1754). The third item is a list of subscribers who contributed money to purchase a cloak for "Reverend Mr. Strong" in Randolph, Vermont (March 24, 1812).

Legal and Military Documents (15 items) relate to the Lawrence and Bass families. Indentures concern the Lawrences' land holdings in Massachusetts in the 1700s and the execution of various wills; the earliest item is the will of Jonathan Lawrence, dated 1725. Also included is a set of military orders directed to Lieutenant Henry Bass, who served with the Massachusetts Militia's 1st Division (July 28, 1821).

The Photograph is a portrait of Sarah Bass Putnam. Genealogical Materials (12 items) include copied epitaphs and other notes related to the genealogy of the Lawrence and Bass families. A Diagram shows the layout of pews in an unidentified church. Printed Items are booklets about the history of Randolph and Braintree, Vermont, and about early battles in Massachusetts during the Revolutionary War, as well as 2 printed poems. One poem is decorated with pictures of daisies, and the other is dedicated to the memory of Mary Harvey Buel.


Turner-Harlan family papers, 1725-1924 (majority within 1799-1924)

3.5 linear feet

The Turner-Harlan family papers are made up of correspondence, legal and financial documents, photographs, scrapbooks, genealogical information, and other materials spanning multiple generations of the Turner and Harlan families of Newport, Rhode Island, and Maryland. The collection particularly regards US Navy Surgeon Dr. William Turner (1775-1837), Commodore Peter Turner (1803-1871), Hettie Foster Harlan née Turner (1850-1937), and their relations.

Collection Scope and Content Note:

The Turner-Harlan family papers are made up of correspondence, legal and financial documents, photographs, scrapbooks, genealogical information, and other materials spanning multiple generations of the Turner and Harlan families of Newport, Rhode Island, and Maryland. The collection particularly regards US Navy Surgeon Dr. William Turner (1775-1837), Commodore Peter Turner (1803-1871), Hettie Foster Harlan née Turner (1850-1937), and their relations. The papers are arranged into five series: Turner Family Papers, Harlan Family Papers, Photographs, Printed Materials, and Turner-Harlan genealogical papers

The Turner Family Papers seriesconsists of 112 letters to and from members of the Turner family and their associates, five log books, and assorted ephemera, with most items dating between 1790 and 1860.

The Turner family Correspondence and Documents subseries contains 112 incoming and outgoing letters and documents of members of the Turner family between 1749 and 1871 (bulk 1799-1840s).

The largest coherent groups within this subseries are 40 letters and documents of Dr. William Turner (1775-1837), revolving largely around his military and medical careers between 1799 and 1837; and 49 letters and documents of Peter Turner (1803-1871), most of them letters to his parents while in naval training and service, 1820-1844. Selected examples from William Turner's manuscripts include:

  • August 2 and 13, 1752, letter by William Turner (1712/13-1754) to his father, written with mirrored lettering. He discussed his fears of small pox in Newark; the tremor in his right hand, which forces him to write with his left; and a 30-pound debt.
  • Christopher R. Perry's appointment of William Turner (1775-1837) as chief surgeon of the frigate General Greene, August 31, 1799.
  • An October 10, 1799, letter by Dr. William Turner from Cap François, Saint-Domingue, in which he relates Captain Perry's description of Toussaint Louverture.
  • A September 20, 1800, letter by Dr. Turner defending his assessment and actions relating to a yellow fever outbreak originating from the General Greene on its arrival in Newport, Rhode Island.
  • Oliver Hazard Perry ALS to his mother, ca. 1807-1808, informing her of the death of Benjamin Turner, who was killed in a duel over an argument about Shakespeare's plays.
  • A letter from Henry Fry respecting the personal effects of Dr. Peter Turner, who died of wounds sustained at Plattsburgh (October 17, 1813).
  • Three letters to Hettie Foster Turner from siblings Lillie and George Turner relate information about the health of family members in E. Greenwich, Rhode Island. One of these letters is dated October 18, 1813, the others are undated.
  • William Turner's December 23, 1814, letter to General Thomas Cushing, explaining that one condition of his current appointment must be permission to continue his private practice while also tending to garrison duty.
  • Three manuscript Portsmouth Marine Barracks countersign-watchword documents from August 22 and 24, and October 31, 1849. The August 24, 1849, countersign "Revolution" matched watchword "Cuba."
  • Family letters of Henry E. Turner, William C. Turner, George Turner, and others

The 49 letters and documents of Peter Turner are largely comprised of correspondence with his parents. Turner wrote as a midshipman aboard vessels in the West Indian and Mediterranean squadrons during the 1820s. He sent his most robust letters from Rio de Janeiro on July 10, 1826, and aboard the US Ship Falmouth on a voyage to Vera Cruz in 1828. Turner met the Erie at Vera Cruz, expecting to find his brother William C. Turner aboard, but the sibling had been left at Pensacola for unspecified reasons. Peter Turner received the disconcerting news of the death of a family member and wrote about his distress at not being able to return home. He updated his parents as he traveled to Pensacola and then the Navy Yard at Charleston, South Carolina. Later in 1828, he joined the US Ship Hornet on a voyage to Brooklyn; yellow fever took the lives of three midshipmen on the trip (November 19, 1828).

From 1828 to 1829, Peter Turner wrote from Brooklyn, where he became an officer in March 1829. The remainder of Peter Turner's correspondence and documents are scattered, including for example:

  • A May 4, 1828, letter respecting the estate of Dr. William Turner of Newport, Rhode Island.
  • A May 11, 1844, letter by Peter Turner from Rio de Janeiro on stationery bearing an engraved view of the "Praca do Commercio" [Praça do Comércio] by Friedrich Pustkow.
  • A letter to Turner respecting a check for $25, which was bequeathed to Turner from commodore Uriah P. Levy, December 1862.
  • Three letters and documents respecting the transfer of ownership for pew 83 in Trinity Church, Newport, Rhode Island, in January 1862.
  • Two documents regarding $1,387 owed to the estate of William Mathews by the US Naval Asylum in June 1863.

The Turner family Logbooks subseries includes five log books from three different United States Navy vessels:

  • US Schooner Nonsuch, August 8, 1821-May 19, 1823. Daniel Turner commanded this vessel on its voyage from the New York Navy Yard to Port Mahon [Minorca] and subsequent service in the Mediterranean. The volume includes five watercolor coastal profiles or views (Corsica, Cape St. Vincent, Milo, and Corvo).
  • US Schooner Nonsuch, September 9, 1824-December 14, 1824. Daniel Turner, commanded this ship from Palermo Bay, south along the African coastline, past the Canary Islands, and to the Navy Yard at New York.
  • US Schooner Nonsuch, November 1, 1824-December 3, 1824; December 11, 1826-December 31, 1826. The remainder of the volume contains illustrated mathematical propositions related to conic sections and spherical geometry.
  • US Schooner Shark, August 5, 1827-October 24, 1827. Isaac McKeever served as commander of the Shark during this voyage from the coast of Nova Scotia to the United States Naval Seminary at the New York Navy Yard. The remainder of the book, beginning at the opposite cover, is comprised of question and answer format essays on aspects of seamanship. The author was an unidentified individual at the Naval Seminary. The essays are followed by a celestial map.
  • US Ship Southampton, December 15, 1850-October 31, 1851. Lieutenant Peter Turner commanded the Southampton during the ship's December 30, 1850-October 31, 1851, voyage. The ship set sail from the Brooklyn Navy Yard, traveled around Cape Horn, and arrived at San Francisco harbor.

The remainder of the Turner family series includes miscellaneous writings and cards. The three pieces of writing include a recipe for "Dr. King's Diarrhoea Mixture" (undated); a note from "Daughter" to her mother, secretly pleading with her to change the daughter's teacher (undated), and "Lines on the Death of Miss Martha Turner" (September 17, 1870). Five calling and visiting cards date from the 1850s to the late 19th century.

The Harlan Family Papers series includes approximately 250 items relating to the lives of the Harlan family. The series includes correspondence, legal and financial papers, and scrapbooks.

The Harlan family Correspondence subseries contains 45 letters to and from members of the Harlan family, 1846-1925, with the bulk of the materials falling between the 1880s and the 1910s. A majority concerns the everyday lives of the Henry and Hettie (Turner) Harlan family, including their siblings and children. The most prevalent writers and recipients include Hettie's brother James Turner Harlan of Philadelphia; William H. Harlan of the law firm of Harlan & Webster in Bel Air, Maryland; and Hettie's aunt Ada H. Turner.

One item of particular interest is a letter from "David" [Harlan?] to Henry Harlan, dated August 12-14, [1846], and written aboard the US Steamship Princeton (during the US-Mexico War). David summarized and speculated about current political matters, including tensions relating to the ousting of President Salinas, the assumption of the presidency by Paredes, and the anticipation of the return of Santa Anna. He also provided a lengthy anecdote about the laborious process of loading sheep and cattle from the shores of Sacrificios onto the Princeton.

The Harlan family Legal and Financial documents subseries contains 165 items, dating primarily between 1815 and 1924, and consisting of land deeds and contracts, estate-related materials, and assorted receipts, accounts, checks, and other financial materials. The bulk of the real property referred to in the documentation was in Harford County, Maryland.

One bundle of 21 telegrams, manuscript notes, and newspaper clippings trace the April 1902 Disappearance and Suicide of James V. P. Turner, a prominent Philadelphia lawyer and son of Commodore Peter Turner.

A group of 12 miscellaneous Writings, Cards, and Invitations date from the 1870s to the 20th century. These include 1877 New Year's resolutions by Hettie F. Turner; an 1886 "Journal of Jimmie & Pansie Harlan's Doings and sayings" [By Hettie Foster Turner Harlan?]; a handwritten program for Darlington Academy commencement entertainments, June 18, 1897; and a typed graduation speech titled "We Launch To-night! Where Shall We Anchor?" ([James T. Harlan?], Darlington Academy, class of 1899).

The Photographs series includes six cyanotypes, three cartes-de-visite, four snapshots and paper prints, and three negatives depicting members of the Turner and Harlan families. The CDVs are portraits of Commodore Peter Turner (unidentified photographer), a 16 year-old Henry Harlan (by Richard Walzl of Baltimore), and Hettie Foster Turner Harlan in secondary mourning attire (by Philadelphia photographers Broadbent & Phillips). The cyanotypes, prints, and negatives include 1890s-1910s images of the family's Strawberry Hill estate, Henry and Hettie Harlan, "Pansy" (Hettie F. Harlan), and other family members.

The Scrapbook subseries is comprised of six scrapbooks relating to different elements of the Harlan family.

  • "Old Harlan Papers" scrapbook, 1750-late 19th century, bulk 1810s-1840s. Includes 19th century copies of 18th century land documents. Land documents, property maps, and other legal documentation largely respecting Harford County, Maryland, lands. The real property includes "Durbin's Chance," "Betty's Lot," "Stump's Chance," and other properties. The original and copied manuscripts are pasted or laid into a picture cut-out scrapbook belonging to Peter Smith, ca. 1960s (Smith may or may not have been the compiler of the "Old Harlan Papers").
  • Harlan Family scrapbook, March 21, 1793-[20th century]. This volume includes land deeds, contracts, documents, letters, printed items, and genealogical materials related to multiple generations of the Harlan family, particularly in Maryland. Of note is a March 6, 1835, legal agreement respecting the sale of Emory, a 17-year old slave, by Anne Page to Dr. David Harlan, Kent County, Maryland.
  • Harlan Family scrapbook, "Furniture References," 1860s-1960s, bulk 1890s-1920s. This volume contains interior and exterior photographs of the Harlans' "Strawberry Hill" farm near Stafford, Maryland. Some of these photographs include notes about the furniture depicted in them. Other significant materials include approximately 15 letters by Hettie F. Harlan, James V. P. Harlan, and others, 1898-1902.; and an 1864 "Great Central Fair" committee ticket for Hettie F. Turner (a "Lady's Ticket"), accompanied by a tintype portrait of two women.
  • James T. Harlan, "Photographs" album, 1906-1913, 1948-1949. Harford and Baltimore County, Maryland. Interiors and Exteriors of Harlan and Stump family homes; travel photos to Perry Point (Perryville), Maryland, in 1910. 1909/1910 motorcycles, 1906, 1909, and 1910 snapshots from the Baltimore Automobile Show; a 1911 trip to Newport, Rhode Island; ca. 1905-1907 trip to Druid Hill Park; snapshots of James T. Harlan's Baltimore office, National Surety Company of New York.
  • Cleveland Commission for the celebration of the Centennial of Perry's Victory on Lake Erie (Perry Centennial Committee of Cleveland, Ohio) scrapbook, 1913. Newspaper clippings, correspondence, real photo and picture postcards, a printed program "The Progress of Woman" (September 16, 1913); printed invitation card for a reception held by the "Committee on Women's Organizations of the Cleveland Commission Perry's Victory Centennial" September 15, 1913); mounted paper portrait photograph of William G. Turner, 1902.
  • Handmade album titled "Harford" by an unidentified compiler. Through pasted-in postcards, snapshots, verses from newspaper clippings, and plant matter, the unidentified compiler documented their sentimental attachment for scenes and people in Harford County, Maryland (particularly Stafford and Darlington).

The Printed Materials series includes:

  • Approximately 20 newspaper clippings (19th-early 20th century) and a single copy of the newspaper Public Ledger (v. 1, no. 1; Philadelphia, Friday Morning, March 25, 1836).
  • In Memory of Elizabeth Dale, Widow of Admiral George C. Read, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, 1863).
  • Henry E. Turner, M.D., Greenes of Warwick in Colonial History. Read Before the Rhode Island Historical Society, February 27, 1877 (Newport, RI, 1877).
  • [The Quaker Calendar], Westtown 1907 (Philadelphia: Printed by Leeds & Biddle Co. [incomplete]).
  • University of Maryland Annual Commencement. Academy of Music. Monday Afternoon, May Thirty-First at Four O'Clock (1909)
  • William Jarboe Grove, Carrollton Manor Frederick Country Maryland. By William Jarboe Grove, Lime Kiln, Maryland., March 29th, 1921 (198 pages [incomplete]).
  • Charles D. Holland, Some Landmarks of Colonial History in Harford County, Maryland (Baltimore, 1933).
  • "Commodores Belt of Blue Cloth and Gold Embroidery." Addressed to Commodore Peter Turner from the Navy Department. One page, showing design for a commodore's belt and sword sling, and including a manuscript notation "This is correct" (undated).
  • One page "prayer."

The Turner-Harlan Genealogy series consists of a wide array of materials relating to genealogical research of the Turner-Harlan families. Items include handwritten family trees, familial biographies, and professionally-produced genealogical items. Also included are 20th century Harlan family newsletters.


Newell family papers, 1726-1900

58 items

The Newell family papers show what life was like in a small New York town in the mid-1860s and detail Albert Newell's entrepreneurial ventures into the oil and cotton trades. The heart of the Newell family papers consists of 41 letters written by Arthur W. and Cornelia E. Newell to their son George Newell during his first two years at Yale.

The Newell family papers show what life was like in a small New York town in the mid-1860s and detail Albert Newell's entrepreneurial ventures into the oil and cotton trades. The heart of the Newell family papers consists of 41 letters written by Arthur W. and Cornelia E. Newell to their son George Newell during his first two years at Yale. Most were written from the family home in Medina, New York. Both Arthur and Cornelia included news of local people's movements and sicknesses, of events, and the effects of the weather on the crops. They frequently mentioned trips to nearby Lockport, Middleport and Ridgeway, often for cultural or religious activities. The Newells' letters also recounted longer trips to Chicago for the nomination of Lincoln on the Republican ticket in 1860, to the Armory in Springfield, Mass., and to the Grand Review of the Army of the Potomac in Washington in May 1865.

There are no letters from George to his parents, but some information about his university years can be inferred from the letters they wrote to him. They both lectured him about being an upstanding young gentleman, exhorting him to "choose virtue as your Goddess..." and to "beware of all evil". As a freshman he joined a fraternity without having to undergo too many trials. During the winter of 1865-66 he hurt his ankle severely enough to necessitate the use of a crutch for several months. He first lived in a private home at 30 High Street but moved to college rooms his sophomore year. Arthur's investments meant that the Newells were often cash poor, however, they were still able to send George over $970.00 during his first two years of college. Yale tuition at the time was less than $25.00 per term. Almost all of George's tuition bills are included in this collection, along with a "promise to pay" signed by his father.

There are five letters written to George Newell in the 1880s and 1900. As an older man, he evidently developed an interest in his family history, and there are two letters from a second cousin concerning their great grandfather Thomas Steadman. Colonel Edwin Franklin Brown of the 28th New York Infantry wrote George a marvelous letter recounting the involvement of his father, Jeremiah Brown, in the "Morgan Affair". In 1826 the Masons of the Batavia Lodge were accused of murdering Capt. William A. Morgan for divulging secrets of the society. Jeremiah Brown was charged with complicity in the abduction of Morgan, went into hiding, was tried at Lockport and acquitted by Judge William S. Marcy (who went on to serve as governor 1833-1838). This event catalyzed the Anti-Masonic movement, led by Thurlow Weed, and Brown related some of the repercussions felt by his family.

The collection also includes three earlier Newell family documents. The oldest is a small copybook, inscribed, "Samuel Newell his book 1734". It evidently passed from generation to generation of Newells and contains genealogical information and some accounts; dates span from 1726 to 1823. According to the copybook, Solomon Newell married Sally Steadman in 1807. The two letters from George's second cousin G. W. Pierce suggest that her father was Thomas Steadman, a Revolutionary War soldier from Connecticut. Pierce refers to Thomas Steadman as "your [George's] Grandmother's Father", offering further evidence that Arthur was the son of Solomon and Sally (Steadman) Newell. The other two documents are early nineteenth century deeds. One, from Damaris Newell, gave his son Solomon Newell land on Center Hill in Barkhamsted, Litchfield County, Conn. The second, signed by Grandison Newell, gave Solomon a portion of a house and barn, also on Center Hill. The rest of the collection is comprised of a variety of miscellaneous documents relating to the life of George Newell, including Yale tuition bills, a bill from the photographer, George K. Warren, a stock certificate issued by the Medina & Alabama Plank Road Company, a mortgage, two checks drawn from a Union Bank of Medina account and a clipping from the Medina Tribune.


Pitt family papers, 1728-1830 (majority within 1757-1805)

1 linear foot

This collection primarily contains outgoing letters by William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; Hester Pitt, Countess of Chatham; William Pitt the Younger; and John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham. Most of the letters are addressed to influential political figures such as Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney; Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville; and Count Semen Romanovich Vorontsov. The letters pertain to domestic and international political issues in Great Britain, including military conflicts in North America and Europe.

This collection is primarily made up of outgoing letters by William Pitt, 1st earl of Chatham; Hester Pitt, countess of Chatham; William Pitt the Younger; and John Pitt, 2nd earl of Chatham. Most of the letters are addressed to influential political figures such as Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney; Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville; and Count Semen Romanovich Vorontsov. The letters pertain to domestic and international political issues in Great Britain, including military conflicts in North America and Europe.

The earliest items relate to William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, and his involvement in British politics in the mid-18th century. In letters to various political figures, he discussed military conflicts in Europe and North America during the Seven Years' War and other issues related to the North American colonies, such as illegal trade with French territories. Also present are 2 commissions that Pitt signed in 1760, notes on Parliamentary speeches by several politicians, and a brief poem by Pitt. In a series of letters written shortly after Pitt's death in 1778, his wife Hester Grenville Pitt and others reacted to his death. During her widowhood, Hester Grenville Pitt often wrote to banker Thomas Coutts about her sons and about other personal subjects. Letters from John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham, to various recipients frequently concern his involvement in naval and other military affairs.

The outgoing letters of William Pitt the Younger comprise the bulk of the collection. He most frequently wrote to William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne; Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney; Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville; Count Semen Romanovich Vorontsov of Russia; and George Rose, secretary to the Treasury under Lord Shelburne and William Pitt. Pitt discussed a multitude of subjects pertaining to Great Britain's domestic political affairs and international relations; he mentioned domestic taxation, political appointments and officeholders, legislation, the "East Indies business," and the personal affairs of the Prince of Wales. His letters also concern the Irish uprising of 1798, the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and foreign relations with Russia. In his letter to John Fane, 10th Earl of Westmoreland, on February 7, 1801, Pitt briefly described his reasons for resigning as prime minister. Small groups of Pitt's letters to Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville; Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley; and George Rose are housed in bound volumes. The book of letters to Wellesley contains the bookplate of Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian.


Benezet family papers, 1729-1839

19 items

The Benezet family papers consist of scattered documents and letters from the family of Claude Benezet (b. 1737) including items from trips to India and China.

The Benezet family papers consist of scattered documents and letters from the family of Claude Benezet (b. 1737). Among the few items present in this collection are an elaborately detailed marriage contract between James Benezet and Elizabeth Fonnereau, the wills of James and Elizabeth, two letters from Claude's daughter Maria, and two letters from Claude written while in India during the Mysore War. There is also a small series of documents relating to the financial problems of the former British diplomat, Edward Allen, who was seeking a pension from the government. Noteworthy in the collection are three slender volumes of a diary kept by one of the Benezets, probably one of Claude's sons, during a trip to China between March and September, 1780. Though the entries are brief, the journal does give an impression of the emotions and hardships endured in a long ocean voyage.

The most important item is a letter from Claude's first cousin, Anthony Benezet. Anthony, having joined the Society of Friends and emigrated to Philadelphia many years previously, sought to reinitiate correspondence with Claude's family in the hopes of perpetuating the amicable feelings his father felt toward Claude. Benezet continues beyond family matters into a lengthy and powerfully worded argument for the abolition of slavery and the reform of British colonial law relating to slaves.


Whittemore-Low family papers, 1729-1955 (majority within 1840-1939)

7.5 linear feet

The papers of the Whittemore, Low, Peck, Parmelee, and Bonticou, families, primarily of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. The collection concerns the families' military service, genealogy, travel, and social activities.

The Correspondence series contains approximately 1.5 linear feet of letters, spanning 1776-1939, with the bulk concentrated around 1840-1939. It documents many branches of the family.

William Whittemore (b. 1761) of Boston, Massachusetts, wrote several of the earliest letters to his brother Amos in London, England, in the late 1790s. These letters primarily pertain to their business producing wool and cotton cards, and address such topics as business difficulties and market conditions in Massachusetts. Other items mention family matters and news, such as the death of their father, Thomas Whittemore (October 10, 1799). Also present are several letters concerning the Hubbard family of New Haven, Connecticut. In a letter to his parents, Thomas Hubbard shared his impressions of Georgetown, South Carolina, which he called a "wicked part" of the world (December 9, 1798). He described his living situation in a "bachelor hall," and referenced his wish to "make a fortune" in the South.

In the late 1830s, the focus of the correspondence series shifts to William Whittemore Low (1823-1877), the grandson of William Whittemore. The series, which includes both incoming and outgoing letters, documents many aspects of Low's career with the navy. In several early letters, his relatives strongly discouraged him from enlisting: His mother requested that he remain near her (August 9, 1839), and his grandfather wrote, "You will rue the day, should you enter either the Navy or Merchant Service," recommending instead that he become a shopkeeper or lawyer (December 1, 1839). Accompanying these are several recommendations from friends of Low's character and fitness for service. For the period of the 1840s and 1850s, many of the items are orders transferring Low between ships or addressing the logistics of his service. Included is a response to Low's request for detachment from the schooner Graham, signed by Jefferson Davis in his role as U.S. Secretary of War (June 8, 1853).

Of particular interest are the letters that Low wrote during his Civil War service as commander of the gunboat Octorara from September 1863 to the end of the war. They include a large number of long letters home, some giving excellent descriptions of Low's activities in the West Gulf Blockading Squadron. In a letter dated October 30, 1863, written to his brother Henry, Low anticipated his duties at Mobile but worried, "I am very much afraid that we shall break down before operations commence." In a letter to his father several days later, he gave a good description of the features of the Octorara and noted the repairs made on it (November 11, 1863).

A few letters during the Civil War period describe engagements and dangers faced onboard the Octorara. These include an account of an engagement on Mobile Bay on the morning of August 5, 1864, in which the Octorara fired on a Confederate ship "at anchor on the West side of the Bay in 2 fathoms water" (August 29, 1864). In an additional letter, Low described an incident in which he and his men mistook a ship for the CSS Nashville but quickly realized their error (September 14, 1864). Incoming letters to Low also shed light on the naval threat of the Confederacy. They include a copy of a letter by Edward La Croix, warning that a torpedo boat "propelled by a small engine" had just been built by Confederates at Selma, Alabama (November 20, 1864), and two letters by naval officer Edward Simpson, conveying intelligence concerning the blockade runner Heroine (March 23, 1865) and discussing the aftermath of the torpedoing of the USS Osage (March 29, 1865). In the latter, Simpson wrote, "I feel deeply for those poor fellows from the Osage and had already resolved on appropriating…one of the tin clads for hospital purposes." He also expressed hope that surgeons could transport the injured without inflicting further harm on them.

Also included are several letters to Low from inhabitants of Alabama, which include:
  • A letter from James M. Dabney, in which he explained, "I am the owner of the Plantation nearest your present anchorage," and inquired whether he and his neighbors could return to their "homes & families, unmolested." (April 17, 1865)
  • A letter from Ben Lane Posey, captain in the 38th Alabama Regiment, in which he admitted to being a Confederate States Army officer, but claimed, "I have had no connection with the army since Oct 6 1864." He also offered to surrender and requested to be returned to Mobile (April 20, 1864).
  • A letter from J.B. Mendenhall of Buford's Landing, Alabama, which notes that a neighboring woman, "Mrs. Cleland," wishes to take an oath of allegiance to the United States. The letter also describes the response of slaves to the end of the war: "Her negroes have become defiant insulting, and she thinks dangerous….It is believed by some of the neighbours that their intention is to rob and plunder us perhaps murder before they leave. I know that mine are preparing to leave & wish they were gone." Mendenhall also expressed worry that his slaves would bring their friends and return to plunder his plantation (April 20, 1865).

A few letters also discuss the logistics of administering oaths of allegiance to southerners.

Also addressed in Low's Civil War correspondence are fairly routine matters, such as leaves of absences (July 2, 1864), complaints about the system of promotions (July 30, 1864), and a letter relating to the court martial of John Kennedy of the USS Oneida, who was found guilty of treating a superior officer with contempt (June 16, 1864). The series also includes official navy correspondence. Circular letters and orders address such topics as the use of alcohol onboard ships (September 16, 1862), appropriate actions in neutral waters (June 20, 1863), and the retrieval of supplies from Key West, Florida (September 11, 1863). Letters concerning Low's postwar career are much scarcer, but of particular interest is an 11-page description by Fred Patter of the capture of the pirate ship Forward (June 19, 1870).

From the 1870s on, the focus of the collection shifts to William W. Low's daughter, Grace Bonticou Low, and several other family members. Incoming letters to Grace Low begin in 1873, and her uncle, Henry Whittemore Low, and mother, Evelina P. Low, wrote much of the earliest correspondence of this period. Grace’s outgoing correspondence began in 1880 with letters to her family in New Haven about her time in Washington, D.C., where she attended a co-educational school and participated in ice skating, a tour and reception at the White House (Jan. 4, 1881), a reception of the First Lady Lucy Webb Hayes (Jan. 15, 1881), and visits to the Smithsonian Institution. Among her female acquaintances was Frances ("Fanny") Hayes, the daughter of President and Mrs. Hayes. In the mid-1880s, Low attended school in Watervliet, New York, and wrote of her social life and classes there. Her outgoing correspondence ends in 1891. Approximately 100 letters to Grace Low from her brother, Theodore H. Low, date from the mid-1890s to 1939. These regard his time at various naval hospitals in South Carolina, Rhode Island, and Washington D.C. Grace also received around 20 letters from another brother, William Low (1912-1916). Also of interest are letters written to Henry Low, mostly by his nephews, William and Theodore Low. Their correspondence with him includes accounts of their service with the Marines during the Boxer rebellion, Philippine insurrection, and the invasion of several Caribbean countries in 1907-1908. Theodore's later letters provide details of his work as an inventor, including applying for and receiving a patent for a bottle opener.

Several additional sets of letters provide insights into various female members of the Whittemore, Low, and Parmelee families. Geraldine Whittemore Low wrote a handful of letters to her uncle, Henry W. Low, from New Haven about her recreational activities and social gatherings with friends during the 1880s. They concern Valentine’s Day, her whist club, weddings, balls, and other social events. A set of 30 letters from Julie Parmelee Marston and Mary Parmelee Low, the widow of William Whittemore Low, Jr., to their cousin, Mary E. Redfield in New Haven, relate to their trip to Switzerland between September 1923 and August, 1926. They traveled on the American Line, SS Mongolia, and after their arrival, explored Switzerland, France, and Italy. Both Mary and Julie described their surroundings, cultural events they attended, and the people that they met in Europe. Mary also wrote about her two children, Charlotte and Billy; the expenses of the trip; and several aspects of the children’s education while in Switzerland.

The Letter Books series contains four letter books by William Whittemore Low, Sr., between 1840 and 1875, and two kept by Elisha Peck, 1843-1863. The earliest William W. Low letter book spans July 25, 1840-March 19, 1867 and contains 415 letters in its 466 pages. It comprises copies and originals of both incoming and outgoing letters that document much of Low's naval career. Early letters shed light on Low's time onboard the Missouri and the Saratoga and his education at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. Many pertain to transfers, ship inventories, orders, and the enlistment of crews. Of particular interest are letters from the period of Low's service with the Union Navy during the Civil War onboard the St. Louis, Constellation, andOctorara. Both official and personal in nature, they shed light on naval policies, personnel, and Low's wartime experiences.

For example:
  • A navy circular signed by Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles concerning the blockade and capture of Confederate vessels (August 18, 1862)
  • A printed note containing intelligence that "the Oreto Gunboat is intended for the Southern Confederacy" (February 27, 1862)
  • Low's orders to proceed to New Orleans and join the Octorara (September 22, 1863)
  • A substantial amount of correspondence related to the Battle of Mobile Bay in early August 1864
  • Numerous manuscript orders by Admiral Henry K. Thatcher tipped into the volume. They include one from March 31, 1865: "Open fire on the fort. Aim well to the left."

A significant part of the postwar correspondence relates to a bureaucratic error which resulted in the delay of a promotion for Low from the Board of Admirals. An index appears at the end of the volume.

The second William W. Low, Sr., letter book spans 1865-1875, and contains 212 pages of copied incoming and outgoing letters as well as copied passages from books concerning military science and ordnance, and copies of general orders. The materials pertain to the transportation of supplies, Low's knowledge of ordnance, a proposed article concerning Low for the Army & Navy Journal, Low's recommendations for various navy colleagues, and other subjects.

The third William W. Low, Sr., letter book spans 1870-1871, and consists of 335 letters within 263 pages. It comprises writer-retained copies of outgoing letters to correspondents in the U.S. Navy. Low wrote the letters while onboard the steam sloop-of-war USS Mohican. His primary correspondents were Rear Admiral John A. Winslow, S.W. Gordon, Rear Admiral Thomas Turner, Commodore William Rogers Taylor, and George M. Robeson. Topics of the correspondence include health and sanitation, supplies, the condition of the ship, the ventilation of the berth deck, and navy financial matters. Low also included in his letters summaries of courts martial for theft, intoxication, and the escape of prisoners, as well as information on casualties, training, and transfers. A series of significant letters in June 1870 record a conflict between San Salvador and Mexico, as well as the capture of the pirate ship Forward.

Also included is a volume of compiled circular letters from the U.S. Navy Department, 1870-1875. Likely kept by William W. Low, Sr., the item contains printed and manuscript letters concerning such topics as courts martial, recordkeeping, uniform regulations, and rank. The book also includes an index of topics in the front.

The first Elisha Peck letter book covers 1843-1863 and contains 30 letters by Peck, most of which he wrote to his wife Grace and children, Evelina ("Eva"), Henry, and Joanna ("Anna"). Peck wrote 11 of the letters while onboard the U.S. sloop of war Portsmouth from 1849-1851; during this time, Peck commanded the ship as part of an effort to stop the illicit slave trade from West Africa. In his letters home, he described terrain that he saw from the ship, expressed his sorrow over being separated from his family, and gave accounts of his experiences. On January 1, 1850, he wrote a letter from Cape Verde, noting that most American and British ships of war took "on board 20 or 30 African Negroes" to row in the "extreme heat of the African sun." He also gave details on the evasive movements of slave traders. In other letters, Low discussed Ghezo, the King of Dahomey and the kingdom's corps of female soldiers (April 20, 1850); the transportation of beeswax and ivory to the coast of present-day Angola (September 1, 1850); and drinking 100-year old wine on Christmas Day (January 2, 1851). Peck wrote most of the remainder of the letters while onboard the Carolina off the Brooklyn Navy Yard, discussing naval happenings and social visits and expressing affection for his children.

The second Elisha Peck letter book contains writer-retained copies of official naval correspondence written by Peck to various correspondents. The volume spans June 12, 1849-September 1, 1851, and covers the period of Peck's service with the Portsmouth. Letters concern personnel matters, the compiling of returns, disciplinary matters, and other topics. Major recipients include Francis Gregory, William B. Preston, William Craig, and William A. Graham.

Note: Two additional letter books by Thomas J. Whittemore are located in the Genealogy series because they contain correspondence related only to family research.

The Reminiscences, Essays, and Miscellaneous Writings series contains various materials written by members of the Whittemore-Low family, including poems; accounts of the military service of William W. Low, Sr., and Theodore Low; short fiction; religious writings; and fragments. Much of the writing is undated and unsigned, but several pieces concerning military duties in China and at the U.S. Naval Academy are attributed to Theodore Low.

The Diaries, Commonplace Books, and Logbook series contains 12 volumes kept by various family members between 1820 and 1886. The series consists of two volumes by Grace Bonticou Peck (1820 and 1827), two by William W. Low, Sr. (1844-1845 and [1848-1849]), one by Evelina Peck (1852-1853), one by Henry S. Parmelee (1865), one by Grace B. Low (1886), and five unattributed volumes.

Grace B. Peck's two volumes contain poems and quotations selected for or dedicated to her by various friends. The entries address subjects such as religion, hope, death, friendship, love, solitude, and the qualities of women. Most of the entries are signed, although few are dated or indicate location. The books kept by William W. Low, Sr., include an early commonplace book and a logbook for the USS Mohican. The latter volume comprises daily entries recording weather, barometer readings, sails set, the use of steam power, and the ship's longitude and latitude. The entries also contain records of minor transgressions, desertions, courts martial, and punishments. Detailed descriptions of the geography of Mazatlan, Altata, Pichilingue Bay, and San Blas, Mexico, are present on pages 35-41. The logbook also records the arrivals and departures of foreign ships and shore parties, the receipt of food and supplies, and the transfer of sailors between ships and to hospitals. Of particular interest is the description of the Mohican's engagement with the pirate ship Forward on June 16-19, 1870 (pages 58-61). The Evelina Peck volume is an album of messages from various friends and acquaintances, including quotations and several original poems. Most of the entries are reminiscences about friendship or expressions of sorrow over an imminent departure. The majority of entries are signed and dated; many mark "New Haven" as their location. The last entry is an ink drawing of a harp and pipe with no date or signature. The entries are in no particular order. Henry S. Parmelee's diary records very brief entries for eight days of Civil War service with the 1st Connecticut Cavalry Regiment in March and April 1865. Grace Bonticou Low’s diary dates from January to June 1886, and describes her life as a 21-year old woman staying with her aunt Anna and uncle James in Washington, D.C. Her entries reflect almost entirely on social events, dances, masquerades, visits, theater performances, and church attendance. She often wrote of particular female friends and of the military men she encountered in Washington.

The Documents and Receipts series contains several subseries based on the original bundles in which the family papers arrived. The subseries are as follows: Elisha Peck Bundle, which spans 1831-1875; Bonticou Bundle (1778-1837); Low Bundle (1895; undated); Washington, D.C. Property Bundle (1880-1883); Property and Pension Bundle (1880-1909); Theodore Low Naval Bundle (1906-1907); Other Documents and Receipts (1729-19[02?]). The bundles contain a wide variety of document types, including military and legal documents, wills, land indentures, pension papers, receipts, and petitions. These shed light on the careers, finances, and transactions of many members of the Whittemore-Low family.

The Graphics series contains 10 photograph albums, 2 scrapbooks, and approximately 100 cased and paper photographs, totaling approximately 1000 photographs of various kinds. The albums and scrapbooks date from the late-19th and early-20th centuries.

Short descriptions of them follow:
  • Asian Travel photograph album, 1875-1877: The album contains albumen print views and portraits from Aden; Nagasaki, Kyoto and Hakodate, Japan; and Singapore. In addition to images of ports and group portraits of Japanese women, the album has several early photographs of the Ainu that offer an impression of their mode of dress and style of living. The series of photographs taken in Singapore show native theatre and homes, as well as a Hindu temple and a European style church under construction (in the background of one image). The album also includes a portrait of the King of Siam (Chulalongkorn or Rama V).
  • Friendship album, 1879-1883: The album contains signatures, quotations, and eight chromolithographs of floral images. The creator of the album is unknown.
  • Parmelee family album, ca. 1890: The album contains 137 silver gelatin photoprints showing the Parmelee family yachting, relaxing on the beach, and socializing at home.
  • Henry S. Parmelee family Newport and Yale photograph album, 1901: The album contains gelatin silver prints of the Parmelee family and friends in a series of outdoor activities throughout southern New England. A series of photographs taken in the harbor of Newport, Rhode Island, features the yacht Speranza with women, children, and a dog among its passengers, as well as a number of candid portraits of a swimming party in Newport. Photographs taken in New Haven show an outing to the New Haven Country Club, as well as an image of decorations for the Yale Bicentennial. Also present are some faint but interesting images of tobogganing.
  • Parmelee family Schooner Alert and Nassau photograph album, 1902: This album, which contains 92 gelatin silver prints, documents the Parmelee family vacationing and yachting in the Bahamas. The images are a combination of professional souvenir and amateur candid photographs. Many photographs show Nassau's Colonial Hotel: its exterior, interiors, tennis courts, and swimming pool. Other images from Nassau show natives near their homes, at market, and diving. Several photographs feature varied foliage, such as palms, banana plants, ciba trees, and cacti. Nearly half of the album focuses on Henry S. Parmelee's Schooner Alert, including numerous group photographs of the men and women on board, as well as several images of people reading and resting on deck.
  • Julie F. Parmelee obituary scrapbook, 1902: The scrapbook contains newspaper clippings and articles on the death of Henry S. Parmelee and his wife, Mary F. Parmelee. Also included is a clipping on the death of William Whittemore, Jr., and an article on the reception hosted by the Parmelee family. The compiler of the scrapbook is Julie F. Parmelee, daughter of Henry and Mary Parmelee.
  • William W. Low, Jr., Puerto Rico and Hawaii photograph album, ca. 1901-1902: The album contains photographs of Hawaii and of Puerto Rico after the Spanish-American War. Images depict navy officers as well as navy vessels, including the Arethusa. Several photographs document bridge-building and the Puerto Rican countryside. Also included are a fine early view of Honolulu, an image of a polo game, and portraits of an Asian child and an Asian woman.
  • William W. Low, Jr., Puerto Rico photograph album, ca. 1902: The album contains 28 silver developing-out prints of Puerto Rico after the Spanish-American War. Several images show men in military uniform (mostly American army and navy, but also some Spanish or local militia). Additional images feature groups of American men and women and local women and children, along with several views of architecture.
  • [William W. Low, Jr.] Travel photograph album, 1897-1909: The album contains 121 silver gelatin photoprints of Connecticut, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. It includes a series of images of navy officers and vessels such as the New York and Columbia, as well as numerous images of family and friends aboard a sailboat. Also present are a handful of photographs of East Rock Park in New Haven, Connecticut, in the winter.
  • [William W. Low, Jr.] Puerto Rico, U.S., and Hawaii photograph album, 1911: The album contains 268 silver gelatin photoprints of locations in Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Connecticut, and South Carolina. Images of Puerto Rico include various buildings, dwellings, harbors, a naval station, and views of the countryside. In addition are images of street scenes with Puerto Ricans, many of them children. Several photographs of the Lows on vacation in Charleston, South Carolina, are also present, as are several images of the Low home in Connecticut.
  • Charlotte Low Baby photograph album, 1910-1922: The album contains 94 albumen prints and silver gelatin photoprints of Charlotte Low as an infant and young child. It includes numerous portraits of Charlotte posed with toys, other children, and family members.
  • Charlotte Low photograph album, 1921-1922: The album contains 110 silver gelatin photoprints of Charlotte Low and friends at home in New Haven, Connecticut, and at Camp Broadview for girls. It includes amateur portraits as well as photographs depicting girls engaged in swimming, canoeing, and hiking. Also present are several photographs of family pets and of Charlotte Low riding a bicycle.

The individual photographs date from the 1840s to the 1890s and depict members of the Low, Whittemore, and Parmelee families, in groups and individually. Subjects of portraits include Theodore Low, Geraldine Low, Henry Wentworth Low, Evelina (Peck) Low, William W. Low, Sr., Mary Frances Parmelee, Eliza Parmelee, Lewis C. Parmelee, Henry Parmelee, Elizabeth Parmelee, Fanny Whittemore, Anna Whittemore, and James M. Whittemore. A wide array of formats, such as daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, crystoleums, and cabinet cards, are present.

The Ephemera and Realia series contains a variety of items, including invitations, calling cards, fliers, locks of hair from various family members, cloth, and the artificial orange blossoms used to decorate Evelina Peck Low's wedding dress. The items mainly date to the mid- to-late-19th century.

The Genealogical Materials series contains approximately two linear feet of materials related to the history of the Whittemore-Low family. Items pertain to various lines of the family, including the Whittemores, Lows, Pecks, Bonticous, and Parmelees. Included are newspaper clippings, pamphlets, manuscript records of birth and death dates for various family members, and miscellaneous material giving biographical information. Also present are two letterbooks kept by Thomas J. Whittemore on genealogical matters and inquiries.

The Miscellaneous series contains a few scattered notes and envelopes from the late-19th and early 20th-centuries.


African American and African Diaspora collection, 1729-1970 (majority within 1781-1865)

0.75 linear feet

The African American and African Diaspora Collection is comprised largely of individual letters, documents, and other manuscript items relating to slavery, abolition movements, and aspects of African American life, largely dating between 1781 and 1865.

The African American and African Diaspora Collection is comprised largely of individual letters, documents, and other manuscript items relating to slavery, abolition movements, and aspects of African American life, largely dating between 1781 and 1865. Topics addressed in the letters and documents include the experiences and work of enslaved persons in the North and South; the buying and selling of enslaved men, women, and children; participation in the French and Indian War, American Revolution, and Civil War of African descended persons; abolitionists and abolition societies; the American Colonization Society; the lives of formerly enslaved persons; African American education; and many other subjects. For details on each document, see the inventory located under "Detailed Box and Folder Listing"


Thomas Smith papers, 1730-1762

160 items (0.5 linear feet)

The Thomas Smith papers primarily contain the incoming correspondence of Admiral Thomas Smith, concerning naval patronage, foreign engagements, and Smith's service with the Royal Navy.

The Thomas Smith papers contain 159 letters and 1 financial document relating to Admiral Thomas Smith. The materials span 1730-1762, with the bulk covering the period between 1748 and 1755. Smith wrote three of the letters in the collection to various recipients; the remainder is his incoming correspondence.

The letters document many aspects of Smith's service in the Royal Navy between 1734 and his 1758 retirement. Much of the correspondence concerns the patronage and assistance that Smith extended to promising young officers, including Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood; John Amherst; brothers Michael and John Becher; and Benjamin Moodie. Hood wrote 21 letters in the collection, beginning in 1748, when he was just 23 years old. His correspondence relates to the development of his naval career, his personality, and his relationship with Smith. On May 8, 1753, Hood described spending a week attending to the wreck of the HMS Assurance off the Isle of Wight, during which time he was denied a government-funded servant, about which he wrote, "choler still up." In other letters, Hood mentioned gifts of prawns and wine that he had secured for Smith. Hood wrote his final two letters in the collection from North America. On August 5, 1754, he wrote about his enjoyment of Charleston, South Carolina, and his desire to command the HMS Jamaica. On May 5, 1755, while in Hampton Roads, Virginia, he anticipated General Edward Braddock's expedition against the French and their Indian allies, and worried that the French would "quit all the Forts…before any of them can be knock'd in the head." Smith's other protégés wrote to express their gratitude at his continuing assistance and to provide news on their families and careers.

Several of the letters in the collection relate to naval engagements and foreign affairs. On April 1, 1741, William Frederick Huxley wrote details about the taking of Boca Chica during the Battle of Cartagena de Indios in present-day Colombia, including travel through "Fire & Smoke" and the death of 20 sailors. On September 8, 1745, George Anson, 1st Baron Anson, requested that Smith "hasten" several ships in order to prevent communications between France and Scotland, stating that the safety of England "depends in a great measure upon our Cruizers." In a retained copy of a letter to Tyringham Stephens, dated September 14, 1755, Smith ordered that captured French ships be sent to a convenient English port and guarded to prevent theft. A letter from an informant who called himself "Tel Truth," warned Smith about the trade encroachments of foreign ships piloted by the English and the Irish, and gave a list of names of the traitors (June 10, 1756).

Although nothing in the collection relates to John Byng's trial, it does contain an affectionate earlier letter from Byng to Smith, thanking him for his good wishes on his promotion and looking forward to sailing together on the Royal Sovereign (August 25, 1746).


William Henry Lyttelton papers, 1730-1806, 1755-1761

5 linear feet.

The William Henry Lyttelton papers document Lyttelton's career as governor of South Carolina and governor of Jamaica. These items primarily relate to colonial administration of South Carolina and Jamaica, and military engagements with Native Americans on the South Carolina frontier and against the French in the West Indies.

The William Henry Lyttelton papers (1217 items) document Lyttelton's service as governor of South Carolina and governor of Jamaica. The collection consists of 864 letters (including 26 letters from Lyttelton), 316 documents, 37 financial records, four letter books, and one personal account book. These items primarily relate to colonial administration of South Carolina and Jamaica, and military engagements with Native Americans on the frontier and against the French in the West Indies. Document types include intelligence reports, orders, treaties, drafts of acts, pardons, and speeches; financial documents consist of disbursements, payment and supply receipts, and government and military expenses.

The bulk of the collection documents Lyttelton's governorship in South Carolina. Lyttelton received communications and reports from officials in London, southern governors, the Superintendent for Indian Affairs in the Southern Colonies John Stuart, Indian Agent Edmond Atkin, military commanders, and members of the South Carolina Commons House of Assembly, the Council, and courts. Some of the most important items are 37 letters, reports, and enclosures from Agent Edmond Atkin on Indian relations, and 21 letters from Jeffery Amherst that describe his activities against the French at Fort Carillon (Ticonderoga) and Crown Point.

Topics of note include:
  • Construction of new forts and reports on the condition of forts and other defense efforts
  • Taxes, trade, tariffs, and embargoes concerning South Carolina
  • Relations and conflicts with various tribes, including the Catawba, Chautauqua, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Coweta, Creek, Shawnee, and Savannah tribes
  • The escalating Anglo-Cherokee war (Cherokee Rebellion) and French efforts to ally with the Cherokee during the French and Indian War
  • The postage system connecting the southern provinces
  • Smallpox and diseases among settlers, troops, and Native American populations
  • Intelligence on French military activities, including many intercepted French letters

In addition to communications between colonial officials regarding trade policies, peace treaties, boundary agreements, and military conflicts, the collection also contains letters and speeches from various Native American leaders including: Attakullakulla (Little Carpenter), Black Dog, King Hagler, Long Dog, Ohatchie [Wohatchee], Oconostota [Ouconnostotah], Old Hop, Standing Turkey, Tistoe of Keowee, Usteneka (Judge's friend), Willinawa, The Wolf, and Young Warrior of Estatoe. (See Additional Descriptive Data for a list of items written by Native Americans.)

Highlights of the South Carolina material include:
  • September 7, 1730: Copy of "Articles of Friendship & Commerce proposed by the Lords Commissioners for trade and plantations to the Deputies of the Cherokee Nation in South Carolina"
  • July 18, 1755-April 23, 1756: Jerome Courtonne's journal of his time with the Chickasaw Nation in Georgia
  • August 3-September 1755: Lyttelton's account of his capture by the French on his way to South Carolina, his imprisonment in France, and his return to England
  • July 5, 1756: Instructions to end communications with the French in South Carolina and to stop supplying them with provisions or arms
  • September 15, 1756: Conflicts between the Upper Creek and the colonial settlements at Ogeechee
  • November 8 and 12, 1756: Directions from William De Brahm to Raymond Demere concerning the operations of Fort Septentrional on the Tennessee River
  • [1756]: Daniel Pepper to Lyttelton with remarks on the Creek Nation
  • [1756]: "Short observations upon several points relative to the present constitution of the province of South Carolina"
  • March 4, 1757: Proposal to improve fortifications at Charleston and Fort Johnson
  • April 24, 1757: Minutes of a meeting of governors from Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia concerning southern defenses
  • May 1757: Proposed Asylum Act for the settlement of Georgia
  • September 12, 1757: Letter from Thomas Wigg to Lyttelton concerning the construction of Fort Lyttelton
  • [1757]: Catawba leader King Hagler to Cherokee leader Old Hop concerning the Catawba joining the British against the French and their Indian allies
  • June 24, 1758: Intelligence from three French deserters from forts in French Louisiana
  • July 27, 1758: Copy of article of capitulation between Generals Amherst, Admiral Boscowen, and Drucour at Louisbourg
  • September 8, 1758: Joseph Wright’s journal of negotiations with the Lower Creeks (July 20-August 7, 1758)
  • December 23, 1758: Letter from John Murray to Lyttelton which includes a list of acts to be reviewed by the South Carolina Assembly
  • May 5, 1759: Intelligence from Samuel Wyly on a Cherokee attack on colonial settlers
  • May 17, 1759: Advertisement warning against illegal trading with Native Americans
  • July 27, 1759: Letter from Jeffrey Amherst to Lyttelton describing the taking Ticonderoga and Crown Point from the French
  • August 1, 1759: Intelligence from Cherokee Indian Buffalo Skin to Paul Demere
  • August 18, 1759: Copy of a treaty between Great Britain and the Choctaw Nation with a list of Choctaw towns and prices for trade goods
  • September 4, 1759: Letter from James Wright to Lyttelton enclosing copies of two letters from Benjamin Franklin concerning the postal system
  • October 12, 1759: South Carolina Assembly to Lyttelton regarding resolutions on the Cherokee Expedition
  • October 19, 1759: List of Cherokee living in Charleston
  • [October 1759]: A letter from King Hagler and other Catawba leaders voicing their friendship with the colonists and describing an outbreak of smallpox in their community (with signatures from chiefs)
  • November 30, 1759: Edmond Atkin letter with enclosures regarding negotiations with Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee tribes, as well as intelligence
  • [1759]: Lyttelton's declaration of war against the Cherokee
  • January 29, February 12, 1760: Extracts of letters concerning murders and outrages committed by Cherokees
  • February 7, 1760: Journal kept at Fort Prince George during an attack by the Cherokee signed by R. Coytmer, Alexander Miln, and John Bell (January 13-February 7, 1760)

The collection contains 162 items that document Lyttelton's service in Jamaica (1761-1766). These consist primarily of letters from various naval officers, army officers, and British agents serving in the West Indies. Lyttelton also received letters from the Jamaica Committee of Correspondence, and local planters. Of note is material on the Coromantee slave rebellion (Tacky's Rebellion), a violent slave insurrection at St. Mary Parish in Jamaica in 1765.

Other topics include:
  • Relations with other European properties in the West Indies and conflicts with Spain and France
  • The British capture of the Morro Fortress in Havana
  • The losses suffered by the Boston merchant ship John Gally after the French capture of Turks Islands
  • Slave labor in Jamaica and the practice of raising regiments of slaves and black men to fight for Britain
  • Sickness among the British troops and African slaves
  • Danger of wide scale slave disturbances and escapes in November-December 1765
  • Disagreements between Sir James Douglas and Lyttelton after Douglas was not saluted when he arrived on the island
  • News that Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont, the secretary of state of the Southern Department, had died
  • British Acts of Navigation and laws passed in Jamaica
  • Differences of opinion on taxes between continental proprietors and island proprietors and on the implementation and repeal of the Stamp Act
  • Issues surrounding smuggling brandy and levying duties on spirits
  • Inspections of the fortifications in Jamaica in preparation for war
  • The Jamaica assembly's efforts to remove Lyttelton from office for alleged misconduct

Also of note is a letter from Mary Fearon regarding Lyttelton's purchase of a slave for his children in England (March 21, 1766). The collection contains one letter from Lyttelton's retirement in England, a June 8, 1796, item addressed to Mortimer Street concerning poetry.

Volume 1 (446 pages) and Volume 2 (76 pages) are a copy books containing letters from Lyttelton to British government and military officials, covering August 1757 to March 1760, while Lyttelton was governor of South Carolina. These provide answers to many of the incoming letters from the Correspondence and Documents series. Both volumes have alphabetical indices of letter recipients.

Volume 3 (125 pages) is a copybook containing two sets of letters. In the first group (pages 1-99) are secret and private dispatches between Lyttelton and British military leadership related to coordinating attacks on French forts in Alabama, Mobile, and Florida (1758-1759). The second group (pages 1a-26a) consists of miscellaneous letters labeled "Omitted in the Former Books," (1756-1759).

Volume 4 (30 pages) is Lyttelton's personal copybook covering his outgoing letters from April 15, 1762 to September 11, 1765, while stationed in Jamaica. Recipients include Governor General Philippe-François of Saint-Domingue, Marquis de Lambertye, Governor de St. Louis, Comte de Choiseul, Colonel John Irwin, Captain Kafflin, Monieur de Chambette de St. Louis a Paris, Captain Geofry, Comte do Ricla, and Comte d'Elva. Several of the letters concern prisoners of war. All letters are in French.

Volume 5 (167 pages) is Lyttelton's accounts book covering 1755 to 1806. The accounts detail Lyttelton's income, expenditures, and investments throughout his career, including his posts in South Carolina, Jamaica, Portugal, and England. Entries occasionally include brief mentions of his and his family's whereabouts.


Marblehead (Mass.) legal and financial documents, 1730-1812

27 items

This collection is made up of 27 legal documents and financial records pertaining to residents of Marblehead, Massachusetts, between 1730 and 1812.

This collection is made up of 27 partially printed legal documents and financial records pertaining to residents of Marblehead, Massachusetts, between 1730 and 1812. Sixteen items are statements of monthly and annual taxes that individual Marblehead residents owed between 1780 and 1812; most are addressed to Benjamin Lancey (or Lansey). The remaining items pertain to financial agreements, real property ownership and sales, and shipping. Two indentures concern the division of large residential buildings and provide detailed information about the rooms and passages belonging to each owner. One financial document relates to the town's fishing industry, and two relate to the schooner Sally: a bill of sale and an insurance policy.

Additional legal documents include an appointment of guardianship and a plaintiff's bill for legal costs incurred during a case in the Circuit Court of Common Pleas for the Middle Circuit.


Minerve log book, 1731-1737

1 volume

This log book contains daily reports for a French ship, commanded by M. de Breuille, that sailed between the Caribbean and Europe, and around the Mediterranean in the 1730s.

This log book contains daily reports for a French ship that sailed between the Caribbean and Europe, and around the Mediterranean in the 1730s. The book is preceded by the following statement: "Au nom de dieu soit fait a journal teneu par le St. francois pied noir..."

The bulk of the volume, around 400 pages, consists of daily log entries for voyages between April 1731 and January 1737, written by St. François, "pied noir" [black foot]. Most entries include reports on the weather, winds, and the ship's position. The ship called at Cadiz, Marseille, and St. Malo, among other ports.

The final pages are comprised of additional notes and instructions, such as a list of items sold in Cadiz, an illustrated method for calculating a building's height, and instructions for melting metal and producing gunpowder. An ink drawing of a flower appears on an early page. The volume contains the bookplate of Robert R. Dearden.


Graham family papers, 1731-1849

1.25 linear feet

The Graham family papers contain an assortment of letters, documents, and diaries relating to John Graham, Sr., and Jr., and to Sylvester Graham. Each man was a prominent physician and minister, though Sylvester was the more famous of the two for his Grahamite philosophy. The papers of John Graham, Jr., document his role in the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War.

The Graham Family Papers contain 96 letters, 12 diaries and journals, 11 documents, 3 printed items, 59 miscellaneous writings, 7 genealogical items, and 8 newspaper clippings, relating to John Graham, Sr., John Graham, Jr., and Sylvester Graham.

Items concerning John Graham, Sr., are a religious copybook, begun c. 1724; three printed items (A Platform of Church Discipline [1731], A Few Remarks on the Remarker [1760], and the Sermon at the Ordination of Mr. Bradner [1761]); two manuscript biographies; and 12 letters between his son, John, Jr., and him, written during the French and Indian War.

John Graham, Jr.'s life is well represented through letters, journals, and documents. The Correspondence series holds 32 letters written by and 2 received by Graham. The earliest items are materials from the time of his installment and ministry in West Suffield (8 letters and 5 other items, plus a manuscript record book of baptisms, marriages, deaths, and meetings at the 2nd Church of Christ) and his service in the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War. Particularly interesting are the 12 letters (incoming from his father and outgoing to his wife) written while he was at Camp Half Moon and Fort Edwards; they provide details on one engagement with Indians, information on troop movements, camp life, and his duties as chaplain. The 4 letters and 50-page diary kept by Graham while he accompanied the 1st Regiment during the Siege of Havana in 1762 provide useful information of the military operations there. The Revolutionary War materials consist of 10 letters between 1767 and 1779, including 3 written to his son Narcissus, and 7 from his half-brother, Chauncey Graham, from Fishkill. Chauncey also contributed 10 letters dated before the Revolution. He mentioned “Brother Robert," who was a member of the General Assembly meeting in Poughkeepsie (March 11, 1778), and seeing General Washington pass before establishing new headquarters (September 22, 1777). On February 15, 1779, he wrote that he was confident that the time of subjugation by Great Britain is near an end.

The collection holds 8 diary and journal items relating to John Graham, Jr. One item is a small bound volume of manuscripts, sermons, and copied letters, 1756-1780, that were collected and annotated in 1877. The [1739] and 1776-1785 journal contains a 21-page, four-chapter essay "Upon the Image of God and Man " that analyses original sin and "The Impossibility of Man's Recovery. " The bulk of the book consists of brief entries, often only one sentence, some of which describe soldiers' general movements. The entry from October 30, 1781, records that intelligence reports have confirmed the surrender of Cornwallis to Washington at Yorktown. The item entitled "Chronology of John Graham" duplicates some of the content of the previous journal, including notes on family and local events and holidays (1777-1785), but contains additional dates and synopses of his grandfather's letters (1746-1782). Also included in this series are John Graham's diary and religious notes (1749-1792), and a published book of extracts from his 1762 journal, published in 1896.

The Sylvester Graham material is very heterogeneous, with much relating to his lectures on health and the Bible. Of particular interest are the Sylvester Graham letters, which include: an 8-page letter to John Marshall on philosophy and politics (January 9, 1830), a 10-page letter to Henry Clay (1847) on politics and the presidential elections, a letter to the Citizens of Northampton (1850) outlining his personal history and reasons for leaving the city, and two letters relating to Graham's work with the American Sunday School Union. Among other items are letters from T. D. Weld, and Francis Condie, and 12 letters from attendees at Graham's lectures (1831-1844 and 1 undated).

The Writings Series holds 59 items from Sylvester including chapters from his book on Biblical Chronology, essays on American History, tea, coffee, opium, wines, experimental diets, the history of medicine, fruits and flowers, and a Fourth of July address, probably delivered by Graham.

The Documents Series (9 items) contains Reverend John Graham’s commissions as chaplain in the Connecticut State Militia, dated April 5, 1756, March 15, 1762, and October 14, 1777; John Graham, Sr.'s power of attorney (1756); Sylvester Graham's declaration of membership into the Vegetarian Society; and the marriage certificate for Sylvester Graham and Sarah M. Earl.

The Genealogy series (7 items) contains a 47-page biography of John Graham, Jr., written by Sylvester Graham, along with miscellaneous genealogy notes covering all three generations of Grahams.

Newspaper Clippings and Miscellaneous series (8 items) contains 3 newspaper clippings, a small metal button, an empty envelope, 2 auction descriptions of part of the collection, and a 9-page booklet entitled "The Direful Epidemick: A Loose Pindaric By Reubin Kitzinwinger Esqr."


Eighteenth-century commonplace book, 1732-[1762]

1 volume

This volume (234 pages) contains copied passages from histories, magazines, philosophical treatises, and other sources, dated from 1732 to the mid-1760s.

This volume (234 pages) contains copied passages from histories, magazines, philosophical treatises, and other sources from the mid-18th century.

The copied excerpts, written in a dense, consistent hand, are dated from 1732 to the mid-1760s, and most are attributed to their authors or other sources of origin, such as the Gentleman's Magazine of London, England. The creator if the commonplace book compiled information on subjects such as religion, history, philosophy, linguistics, medicine, and science, and often quoted specific articles, sermons, and treatises at length. The historical sections focus on English history, and the religious items occasionally incorporate words and lines in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. Much of the religious material pertains to specific biblical stories. The book has a partial subject index, created by the compiler. John H. Treadwell later owned the volume, which holds his bookplate.


Robert and Peter Van Brugh Livingston collection, 1733-1737

22 items

This collection is made up of 22 business letters and financial documents related to the Livingston family of Albany and New York City. Most of the material concerns the Livingstons' financial relationship with Samuel Storke of London, England.

This collection is made up of 22 business letters and financial documents related to the Livingston family of Albany and New York City. Most of the material concerns the Livingstons' financial relationship with Samuel Storke of London, England.

The first 3 items are copies of contracts between Philip Livingston and Lendert Lewis for loans totaling over £350 (November 3, 1733). The remaining items consist of letters, accounts, invoices, and payment orders between Robert Livingston, Robert & Peter Livingston & Company, Samuel Storke, and Storke & Gainsborough. Robert and Peter Van Brugh Livingston shipped textiles such as cotton wool and beaver pelts, as well as other items, to Great Britain in the mid-1730s. Many of the goods were shipped onboard the Albany. In one of his letters to Samuel Storke, Robert Livingston discussed his unsuccessful attempts to sell clothing in New York (June 2, 1735). The payment orders are addressed to Storke & Gainsborough of London, England, and concern money that Robert Livingston owed to individuals, often for merchandise. The final letter pertains to the Gentleman's Monthly Magazine, which Robert Livingston wished to have sent to his father (December 1737).


Noah Phelps papers, 1733-1790

125 items

The Noah Phelps papers consist primarily of materials relating to Phelps' service as a Continental Army Captain during the American Revolution, but also contain documents from his work surveying, and as justice of the peace in Simsbury, Connecticut.

The Noah Phelps papers consist primarily of materials relating to Phelps' service as a Captain during the American Revolution. There are bills for "refreshment of his company," "victualing and Liquor," and lodgings for his troops and horses, as well as a few receipts relating to Capt. Elisha Phelps, Noah's brother. There is an abstract of payment to soldiers of Capt. Noah Phelps' Company of Light Horse in Major Bull's Regiment for August 1777, as well as requests that Phelps "put up the pork" in Simsbury, and return all guns and bayonets to Governor Trumbull of Connecticut. There are accounts of loads of flour carted from Sharon to Simsbury, and an account of the quantities of pork and beef bought by Phelps. There are also a couple documents concerning mutinous soldiers.

There are two notebooks kept by Phelps when he was a surveyor. One from 1772 lists his travel expenses, and the other is an undated notebook filled with measurements he took in the greater Simsbury area. Several documents concern complaints he heard as Justice of the Peace. There are also copies of court records, including the case of Hezekiah Phelps Viets, who was charged in 1779 by Charity Hills of Windsor for "begetting her with child in fornication." There is also a document signed by the proprietors of Victory, Vt., naming Col. Noah Phelps as their legal agent in 1784.


Childe family papers, 1733-1908

38 items

The Childe family papers contain correspondence and documents primarily related to Zachariah Child of West Boylston, Massachusetts, and his son John; John later used the surname "Childe." Early documents relate to the family's land ownership in Shrewsbury and Boylston, Massachusetts, and later correspondence reflects John's career as a railroad engineer, as well as his second wife's efforts to compile his biography.

The Childe family papers contain correspondence and documents primarily related to Zachariah Child of West Boylston, Massachusetts, and his son John; John later used the surname "Childe." Until 1844, most items relate to landholdings belonging to Zachariah and David Child in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, including three manuscript maps of tracts in Shrewsbury and Boylston, several official indentures, and two unofficial indentures made in 1822 between Zachariah Child and Dorothy Thurston, a widow. The collection also holds correspondence addressed to John Childe (formerly Child) in Troy, New York; West Boylston, Massachusetts; and Springfield, Massachusetts, in the mid-19th century. His brother Marcus, who lived in Stanstead, Quebec, discussed the family's farm in West Boylston, as well as other legal matters, and officially designated John Childe his attorney at law (April 25, 1844).

Later letters primarily concern John Childe's engineering career, including congratulations from William B. Trotter after a recent legal triumph (February 20, 1857) and a letter from Childe to Mobile & Ohio Railroad President Judge Hopkins about the effects of financial regulations on railroad construction in the West and Southwest (March 17, 1856). His second wife, Ellen Healy Childe, received several letters following his death, documenting biographical details of his life, for use in a biographical sketch. These cover his early life and time in the military and include a contribution from his brother, David Lee Child (July 22, 1859). John Healy Childe also received a letter from Henry Clark, who agreed that his daughter Jessie could marry Childe (August 5, 1889). An undated "Family Record" gives birth and death dates for the family of Zachariah and Lydia Bigelow Child, and a brief biographical sketch of John Healy Childe.


James Cushing sermons, 1734-1756

21 items

This collection contains 21 sermons and sets of sermon notes compiled by Reverend James Cushing of Haverhill, Massachusetts, and Plaistow, New Hampshire, between 1734 and 1756. Cushing, a Congregationalist minister, preached throughout northeastern Massachusetts on topics such as sin, vanity, and divine law.

This collection contains 21 sermons and sets of sermon notes compiled by Reverend James Cushing of Haverhill, Massachusetts, and Plaistow, New Hampshire, between 1734 and 1756. Each sermon records the date on which it was first preached, as well as dates and places of subsequent delivery, which occasionally included private residences. Cushing traveled around northeastern Massachusetts, often preaching in Andover and Salisbury. The sermons include Biblical verses as a basis for discussion, and address topics such as vanity, sin, and divine laws. Several sermons include expanded sections titled "Improvements." Most of the sermons are bound, and some comprise over 30 closely written, two-column pages; many items contain the texts of multiple sermons.


Richard Fry papers, 1734-1756

9 items

The Richard Fry papers consist of nine documents related to Fry's administration of a Falmouth paper mill and later, his imprisonment for debt.

The Fry collection consists of 9 items which span a 22 year period (1734-1756). An early letter by Waldo states he owes money to Fry, and describes the conditions of the lease. Fry writes Waldo from jail accusing him of unlawful proceedings (very colorful). Four are depositions, two are from fellow prisoners who watched Fry's dealings with Tyler and Hasey, the other is from a woman who harbored paper making materials of Fry's that were seized by Tyler. Another document gives Fry power of attorney for a Mary Godard (relative?). The last deposition is a statement by George Massey who was hired to take Fry's place at the mill. The last three are receipts of monies exchanged for goods.

This collection will give insight to the study of paper construction in the early 18th century. Specific ingredients used in the process are mentioned as stolen articles. Waldo's referral to the act to encourage paper making is also significant.


Joseph Dwight collection, 1734-1762 (majority within 1746-1748)

127 items (0.75 linear feet)

The Joseph Dwight collection is comprised of letters and documents written by or related to Joseph Dwight, a Massachusetts lawyer who was a brigadier general during King George's War.

The Joseph Dwight collection (1735-1762; bulk 1746-1748) contains 127 letters and documents written by or related to Joseph Dwight, covering much of Dwight's military involvement in King George's War, as well as his legal duties as a judge in Massachusetts. Despite extensive accounts of other theaters of the war, the collection contains no items sent during the Siege of Louisbourg, although one undated letter draft from Dwight, intended for William Pepperrell, mentions a meeting between Dwight and Pepperrell at a camp outside of Louisbourg.

The majority of the collection pertains to King George's War, and the wartime experience of Dwight's commanding officers and their troops. In a letter dated March 8, 1746, Aaron Cleveland wrote, "While Capt Brintnall was last at Boston our Company was Still and quiet, Expecting the Capt Every day with their money, but not Receiving to their Satisfaction upon his Return, they are all indeed, up in arms." This letter illustrates the pervasive themes of unease and unhappiness about provisions and pay for soldiers, who repeatedly complained about not receiving their money in a timely fashion, and about the lack of food, ammunition, blankets, and clothing. Another letter to Joseph Dwight, written by Ephraim Williams while he was at Stockbridge, Massachusetts, elucidates the current mental and physical state of the soldiers: "Our Soldiers patience is almost spent for want of their Blankets" (November 24, 1746). He claimed that his men "almost suffer beyond what can be reasonably desired in performing their duty." One letter from the Massachusetts Bay Sheriff's office describes the mutiny of soldiers under William Williams' command; Isaac Goodall, Thomas Goodall, Joshua How, and John Shields refused to obey Williams' commands to march, at which point Williams had them arrested and sent to jail (May 9, 1747).

Native American involvement in King George's War is documented in several letters. On November 24, 1746, Ephraim Williams wrote to Joseph Dwight, recounting a story about a group of "Mohawks" returning from Canada with eight French captives and four scalps. In another letter written to Dwight, William Williams mentioned that Lieutenant Richard John is "going a scalping" and that "6. 10th of the Cannada men of your Honored Regiment had rather go a scalping than perform any of the duty assigned them by any order now extant." Samuel Pettebone (August 12, 1747) referred to the ambush of one of his sergeants by Native Americans at a place three quarters of a mile outside of the fort at Number 4 Township. Pettebone provided an action-filled account of his man fighting off and wounding numerous hostile Indians, while making his way back to the safety of the fort. Furthermore, in a copy of a letter to Colonel John Stoddard written on June 17, 1747, John Lydius recalled an encounter between a group of British-sympathizing Native American scouts and enemy troops numbering so many that their canoes "appeared as an Island in the Lake." After seeing the enemy, the scouts returned to the British and apprised them of the situation.

A humorous letter from Nathaniel Kellogg includes a description of soldiers at Fort Massachusetts finding a lost dog. After sending out scouts in an attempt to find whence the dog came, the soldiers decided that it had belonged to two Native American scouts working with the advancing French Army. They fed the dog, attached a collar around its neck, and fastened a note addressed to the "General of the supposed advancing French Army" to the collar, before sending it back into the wilderness. However, more serious issues pervaded this humorous note; Kellogg wrote in the postscript that most of the men who came to Fort Massachusetts with Lieutenant King were resolved "to leave this fort the next Ensuing week and run the risk of being deemed deserters unless they shall be relieved" (August 14, 1747). In later letters, Dwight's officers expressed concern about their ability to feed and clothe their men adequately. According to a letter from Hezekiah Ward on August 17, 1747, three men traveled to see Dwight about overdue back pay. Ward wrote, "Their is a general uneasiness among the men, since the news of their having no province pay…and now after all to have no more than those that have kept at home seems very much to Damp their Spirits."

Also of note are Joseph Dwight's journal entries dating from June 21 to July 8, 1747 (2 pages). Many of these entries are short and succinct summaries of his military actions during these days, but they provide a picture of the daily decisions he had to make while out on patrol. The collection contains five oversize items, including separate payrolls for Dwight's company and Captain Thomas Cheney's company, as well as accounts of enlisted men in Dwight's regiment.

Ephraim Williams, the captain in charge of Fort Massachusetts, was a particularly forthright correspondent, and an important figure in New England history. Before his death in 1755, Williams left strict instructions for the founding of a school on his estate upon the event of his death; this school would later become Williams College. Another contributor of note is William Shirley, Governor of Massachusetts Bay, and a participant in the Siege of Louisbourg.


Henry Burbeck papers, 1735, 1775-1866 (majority within 1802-1813)

3 linear feet

The Henry Burbeck papers consist of military and personal correspondence of Brigadier General Henry Burbeck, a career artillery officer in the United States Army (1775-1784, 1786-1815). The papers include Burbeck's incoming correspondence; drafts of outgoing letters; and returns, muster rolls, and other items submitted to Burbeck by officers under his command. The collection is particularly strong in its documentation of the administration and development of the artillery branch of the United States Army in the decade leading up to the War of 1812.

The Henry Burbeck papers (approximately 2,300 items) consist of military and personal correspondence of Brigadier General Henry Burbeck, a career artillery officer in the United States army (1775-1784, 1786-1815). The papers include Burbeck's incoming correspondence (approx. 1,350 items), drafts of outgoing letters (approx. 360 items), returns and muster rolls submitted to Burbeck by officers under his command (approx. 190 items), an orderly book, manuscript maps (10 items), and other financial and military papers. The collection is particularly strong in documenting the administration and development of the artillery branch of the United States Army in the decade leading up to the outbreak of the War of 1812.

The Correspondence and Documents series (approximately 2,220 items) contains Burbeck’s incoming and outgoing correspondence with military officers, army contractors, politicians, and other officials. Frequent correspondents represented in the collection include Secretary of War Henry Dearborn; as well as artillery officers Amos Stoddard, Moses Porter, Richard Whiley, George Armistead, James House, Nehemiah Freeman; and many others. Over seventy incoming letters are addressed to Secretary of War Henry Dearborn, which were then forwarded to Burbeck. The series includes returns, muster rolls, inventories, receipts, General Orders, instructions, memorandums, courts-martial documents, contracts, oaths of allegiance, and other miscellaneous items.

The bulk of the manuscripts in this series reveal practical day to day concerns of U.S. Army artillery officers, such as recruitment of men, desertions, provisions, payments, and exercises and drills. A frequent topic of concern was the recruitment and provisioning of musicians. Over 10 letters and documents, for example, relate to Francesco Masi, an Italian musician who served under Captain Nehemiah Freeman at Fort Independence in Boston harbor. Additional regular subjects include the planning and construction of artillery and shot, and the construction of coastal and internal fortifications. Henry Burbeck and other officers provided detailed reports on the forts occupied and constructed by American troops. Examples include: Fort Hale (October 24, 1811), Fort Trumbull (Oct 25, 1811), Fort Eustis (September 11, 1810), Castle Williams (October 1810), Fort Independence (October 5, 1811), Fort Niagara (September 29, 1808), Fort Detroit (November 5, 1808), Fort Mifflin (November 17, 1811), Newport, Rhode Island (October 25, 1811), Fort Norfolk and Fort Nelson (November 4, 1811), and Fort Powhatan (December 14, 1811).

Many letters are concerned with the design and testing of guns, shot, and gun-carriages. These subjects are especially prevalent in correspondence between Burbeck and contractors Jacob Eustis and Henry Foxall; and correspondence between Burbeck, Lieutenant Samuel Perkins, and Captain George Bomford, head of the United States Arsenal at New York. The collection's correspondence is focused almost exclusively on military affairs, with only a small number of letters related to Burbeck’s personal affairs. One example is twelve letters between Burbeck and Elisha Sigourney, an associate in Boston, concerning financial matters.

Selected items of note include:
  • Marriage certificate dated February 27, 1790, for Henry Burbeck and Abigail Webb for their wedding on February 25, 1790.
  • Magret Dowland ALS dated March 2, 1803. An enlisted man’s wife asked for back pay owed to her for working as Matron of the Hospital.
  • A copy of instructions given by Burbeck to Captain John Whistler dated July 13, 1803, in which he gave Whistler instructions to establish Fort Dearborn.
  • Simon Levy ALS dated April 12, 1805. Levy, the first Jewish and second ever graduate of West Point, asked to be transferred for health reasons.
  • Return J. Meigs, Sr. ALS dated January 1, 1807. Meigs wrote concerning settler and Native American relations in Tennessee.
  • Samuel Dyson ALS dated August 10, 1807. Dyson wrote that he had received news of an imminent Native American attack on Detroit.
  • Draft from Henry Burbeck dated November 1808. Burbeck wrote to John Walbach complaining of being sent to Detroit.
  • Satterlee Clark ALS dated November 2, 1811. Clark gave a detailed description (5 pages) of a fight between a sergeant and an artificer on the wharf in Annapolis.
  • Draft from Henry Burbeck dated February 8-9, 1812. On the back of this draft, Burbeck wrote to an unnamed correspondent giving his feelings on how women should sit for their portrait.

The Revolutionary War Reminiscences series (11 items) contains draft copies of letters written by Burbeck in the later years of his life, in which he described his service in the American Revolution. He focused particularly on his memories of the evacuation of New York in September 1776. Of particular note is one draft (December 24, 1847) in which Burbeck wrote in detail about the changes in uniform and appearance of American officers after the arrival of Baron Von Steuben. At least one of the drafts was intended for Charles Davies of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati.

The Orderly Book series (1 item) contains a 114-page bound volume dating from January 2, 1784, to May 16, 1784. This volume respects day to day activities of the First American Regiment, a unit of the Continental Army organized at West Point in the months following the ratification of the Treaty of Paris (1783). Most of the entries regard daily duty assignments, courts-martial proceedings, and promotions. The orderly book concludes weeks before the disbandment of the regiment.

The Maps series (10 items) is made up primarily of manuscript maps of fortifications dating from 1790 to 1811. One item of note is the 1790 map of Fort St. Tammany given to Burbeck by Surgeon's Mate Nathan Hayward. Burbeck personally oversaw the construction of Fort St. Tammany, and this item contains a detailed depiction of the garrison, complete with an American flag. Please see the "Separated Items" section of the finding aid below for a complete list of the maps present in the Henry Burbeck papers.

The Printed Materials series (58 items) is comprised of printed circulars issued by the United States Government and Army, blank enlistment forms, and personal materials collected by and about Henry Burbeck (including newspaper articles and other published items). A copy of the Second Congress's 1791Act for Making Further and More Effectual Provision for the Protection of the Frontier of the United States is housed in the Oversize Printed Materials folder. A small number of bound items include a copy of Andre; a Tragedy in Five Acts (1798), and 19th century booklets on military and artillery tactics. Two copies of an engraved portrait of Henry Burbeck, by Charles Balthazar Julien Févret de Saint-Mémin are also present.

In addition to this finding aid, the Clements Library has created three other research aids:


Tyler family papers, 1735-1888

1.25 linear feet

The Tyler family papers contain correspondence, documents, and writings relating to four generations of the Tyler family, who were Quakers and tanners in Salem, New Jersey, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The Tyler family papers contain 877 items, arranged into the following series: Correspondence; Documents and Financial Records; School Papers; Poetry, Notes and Other Writings; and Printed Items. Items in the collection span 1735-1888.

The Correspondence series consists of 235 letters to and from four generations of the Tyler family of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, covering 1748-1888. Much of the earliest correspondence is business-oriented and relates to Samuel and William Tyler's tannery and the sale of leather. Thomas Barnes, a frequent client and associate, wrote approximately 15 of the letters, which provide details on prices and the arrangement of transactions. Other early correspondence of the period relates to the activities of family members and neighbors, including a letter from Noah Bowson, an immigrant to Nova Scotia, who described his experiences there and recommended that the Tylers join him because of a leather shortage and favorable prices, (September 15, 1767).

Most letters between the 1790s and 1825 are the incoming correspondence of William and Catharine Tyler, primarily from family members. Letters tend to be fairly personal in nature, describing family news, religious thoughts, and health. During this period, Catharine and her sister, Ann Low, exchanged a series of letters, several of which included original poetry. Another sister, Hannah Gillespie, was also a frequent correspondent, and provided ongoing details about a "malignant fever" epidemic in Philadelphia in 1820, during which she considered seeking asylum in New Jersey. She described medical treatments, including "Jamestown weed" and blistering of the chest (August 14, 1821), as well as a strange incident regarding the autopsy of a friend who was pregnant with a "perfect Made child" that many believed she had carried for 14 to 17 years (June 11, 1820). Catharine's nephew, Joseph Elkinton, also wrote a letter, dated August 3, 1817, concerning his work teaching Native American children in Tunesassa, Pennsylvania.

In the mid 1820s, the focus of the collection shifts to Dorothea Hoskins and her future husband, John Mason Tyler, whom she would marry in 1832. Both received many letters from friends and relatives, revealing details about their social circle and families. Barclay Smith, an inmate at Friends Asylum in Philadelphia wrote two letters to Dorothea in 1823, informing her of the number of patients there and of his activities. A few letters relate to business matters; like his father and grandfather, John worked as a tanner. Beginning in the 1840s, John and Dorothea's children, William Graham Tyler and Catharine Low Tyler, contributed much of the collection's correspondence. In 1856-1857, William wrote a number of letters from Haverford College, describing his studies, classmates, and improvements made to the campus and buildings. Upon graduating, he expressed feeling torn between farming and pursuing a more intellectual career (December 13, 1857), and was chided by his father for his "indifference" toward agriculture (January 14, 1859). During the Civil War, William volunteered for a non-combatant role, working in the commissary at Hampton Hospital. He wrote several letters to his family during this period, and received many from his father, who shared his interest in contrabands, and gave information on friends involved in the war. The 11 post-war letters are primarily addressed to William, and contain updates on college friends and family members.

The Documents and Financial Records series spans 1735-1792, and contains seven subseries. The Salem County, New Jersey, Documents shed light on Samuel Tyler's work and duties as a constable in Salem, New Jersey, in the late 18th century. The William Richmond Estate Documents and James Tyler, Jr., Estate Documents record the dispersal of these estates between 1773 and 1799. The John Vanculin Accounts document transactions for groceries and other goods, 1786-1788. The Dorothea (Hoskins) Tyler Receipts record four of her purchases in 1832. The Other Legal Records subseries contains land indentures; a 1740 power of attorney document; a 1760 marriage certificate signed by 34 witnesses; and several apprentice indentures, relating to various members of the Tyler family. The Other Financial Records subseries, 1735-1881, includes a 1735 bill of lading for a ship called the Monmouth Hope; numerous receipts relating to the tanning business; records of debts; bills for laying pipes and for water from the Schuylkill River (1827); and other miscellaneous items.

The School Papers series, spanning 1765-1856, contains copybooks, an 1848 report card for Catharine Tyler, and an examination schedule and report card for William Graham Tyler at Haverford College, 1855-1856. Undated items include school essays on government, history, philosophy and metaphysics, and the classics. One essay, entitled "The cause of the extinction of the aborigines of this country," and likely written by William Graham Tyler, blames injustice, disease, and rum for the demise of Native Americans.

The Poetry, Notes and Other Writings series contains 31 items, all undated, and mainly unattributed, on a number of topics. The poetry includes a piece called "On Sugar," which characterizes sugar as "Steep'd in a thousand Negroes tears" and criticizes its use. Other poems include "On Marriage," "To Health," "On the Choice of a Wife," and several sentimental poems addressed to family members. The writings and notes comprise several religious musings, a genealogical essay, and instructions on how to "stop holes in iron."

The six items in the Printed Items series include several poems, clippings, and fliers, and other miscellaneous items, 1765-1880.