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Alan and Joyce Rudolph Papers, 1972 - 2011

35 Linear Feet (57 manuscript boxes and 7 flat oversize boxes)

The Rudolph papers include scripts, articles and clippings, publicity and press materials, books, photographs, artifacts/realia, audio and moving image materials, posters, awards, and branded crew garments and caps from many of Alan Rudolph's projects. Photographer Joyce Rudolph is represented by hundreds of professional and personal slides and photographs, including many candid on-set shots.

The collection consists of professional and personal correspondence, assorted clippings, film festival awards and memorabilia, and scripts and production documents related to Alan Rudolph's filmmaking career, spanning his early work in Riot (1969), through 2002's The Secret Lives of Dentists. Also included are a plethora of documents from various unproduced projects. In the Artifacts and Graphics series are a small selection of props from Rudolph's films, most notably The Moderns, along with an assortment of film cast and crew branded gear, including caps, shirts, and jackets, movie posters, and a representation of some of the numerous awards won by the Rudolphs.

A small sub-series of material devoted to friend and mentor, Robert Altman, consists of articles and reviews, assorted programs, and, most notably, photographs taken by Joyce Rudolph.

Joyce Rudolph is represented by hundreds of her professional and sought-after on-set photographs, company stills, and candid shots, all taken during the filming of projects by Alan Rudolph and a wide variety of other notable filmmakers.

A series of Audio and Moving Image material consists of several VHS tapes, several movie video disks as well as two soundtracks. The Artwork series contains an assortment of drawings and paintings, most likely created by Alan Rudolph, along with two large acrylic paintings used as props in The Moderns.


American Society for Indexing (American Society of Indexers) Records, 1961-2000 (majority within 1980s-1990s)

11 Linear Feet

The records of the American Society of Indexers date from the organizations early years in the late 1960s to as recent as the 2000s, and document the members of the society as well as the society’s activities. The collection is comprised of the following series: Administrative Files, Correspondence, Committees, Meetings, Events, Publications, Chapters, Awards, Other Organizations of Interest, and Multimedia.

Administrative Files (1968-2000, 4 linear feet) documents the organizational activities of ASI including constitution and bylaws, elections, financial documents, general topical files, organizational history, membership, and policies and procedures.

Correspondence (1981-2000, .5 linear feet) consists of the ASI related correspondence of the organization's elected officials, as well as inquiries from members and non members.

The Committees (1974-2006, .5 linear feet) series is comprised of papers relating to and originating from various ASI committees.

Meetings (1981-2000, 1.5 linear feet) documents the meeting materials generated by the board of directors of ASI, and including agendas and minutes. Additionally, this series contains papers relating to business meetings and special meetings held by the organization.

Events (1982-2000, .5 linear feet) consists of papers related to various events held and attended by ASI, including annual meetings and conferences, professional development workshop, and various symposia and workshops.

The Publications (1961-2000, 2.25 linear feet) series is comprised of various documents published by ASI, including newsletters and registers. This series also contains correspondence relating to the newsletter, register, and other publications, as well as reports detailing publication sales.

Chapters (1983-1997, .25 linear feet) consists of papers documenting the various chapters of ASI spread throughout the United States, as well as chapter manuals and general chapter information.

The Awards (1978-2000, .25 linear feet) series documents the various indexing awards given out by ASI, as well as related forms and criteria for selection.

Other Organizations of Interest (1972-1997, .5 linear feet) documents numerous outside organizations with which ASI is affiliated or otherwise interested in. This series includes the newsletters of a number of these organizations.

Multimedia (1970-1995, 1 linear foot) consists of items in a variety of formats created by ASI, including photographs, audio cassettes, and microfilm. The photographs and audio cassettes largely document annual conferences.


American Society for Information Science and Technology Records, 1925-2001 (majority within 1937-2000)

185 linear feet in 188 boxes — Photographs are primarily in boxes 149-156. — Audio material is primarily in boxes 172-187. — Visual material is primarily in boxes 121, 169, 173-187. — Most printed materials have been removed and cataloged separately. Newsletters are scattered throughout the collection.

ASIS&T (or ASIST) is a professional association which creates, organizes, disseminates, and applies knowledge regarding information and its transfer. ASIS&T was preceded by the American Documentation Institute (ADI), which was founded in 1937 with the goal of acquiring and indexing the knowledge of the world. Name changes followed in 1968 (ASIS) and 2000 (ASIS&T). The records consist of correspondence, business and financial documents, minutes, bylaws, memoranda, manuscript and printed journal articles, printed promotional material, microfiche, photographs, and audio and video tapes covering the society's activities (and those of its predecessor organizations) from 1925 to 2001, with the bulk falling between the 1930s through 2000. Organizational business affairs and activities, including the conceptual evolution of its purpose and mission, are well-documented in several series, most notably in the Council Files. These broad areas are also covered in the Committee Files, but in a more detailed fashion, focusing on specific activities or issues. This series also represents the scope of ASIS's liaison committees, ranging from the American Library Association to the Egyptian Society for Information Technology. Documents generated by ASIS-approved regional and student chapters and the organized professional groups within ASIS devoted to special interests (SIGs) are found in the large Chapter Files and Special Interest Groups series. The Publications series includes significant editorial and administrative documents as well as some manuscript submissions for the "Annual review of information science and technology, and the Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science." Special note may be made of the Special Libraries Association Merger Files which chronicle the history of the ultimately unsuccessful merger of ASIS and SLA. The main correspondents found in the collection include: Robert McAfee, Assistant Executive Director; Joshua I. Smith, Executive director (1973-1976); Bonnie Carroll, Councilor and President; Linda Resnik, Executive Director (1985-1988); Samuel Beatty, Executive Director (1976-1984); and John Brokenshire, ASIS Financial Officer.

For the purpose of clarity, the organization shall for the most part be referred to as "ASIS"--the name by which it has been known for most of its history and to which it is mainly referred in the records--throughout this section.

Throughout the record group, the year listed for a folder is often the fiscal year rather than calendar year. This is particularly so for records in the Financial series. The fiscal year for ASIS runs from October through September.


Anne Waldman Papers, 1945-2012 (majority within 1965-2000)

119.5 Linear feet (85 record center boxes, 7 ms. boxes, 4 large flat oversize boxes, 10 medium flat oversize boxes, 2 small flat oversize boxes and 2 portfolios.) — Printed material in boxes 77-80 and Portfolio 1; Artwork in boxes 81, 82, 99-108, and Portfolio 2; Photographs in boxes 83, 84, and 98 (includes slides); Audiovisual materials in boxes 85-92 (including reformatted copies).

American poet; co-founder of the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at Naropa University. Papers include correspondence, poems, essays, photographs, art, biographical material, and audiovisual materials.

The Anne Waldman Papers were purchased by the Special Collections Library in 1998. Periodic additions to the collection have been made.

The papers document Waldman's personal and professional life from childhood to adulthood in great detail, and provide a rich and unique source for the study of American poetry. The collection includes textual material, photographs, audiovisual material, and artwork that extensively document Waldman's writing, publishing and performance efforts; her administrative leadership and teaching activities at the Poetry Project at St. Mark's Church-in-the-Bowery and Naropa University's Writing and Poetics program; and her relationships and interactions with a remarkable number of prominent poets, writers, and artists.

The Biographical series (approximately .5 linear feet) contains biographical summaries written by Waldman and others, resumes, travel and work itineraries, and publicity material such as press releases, pamphlets, and quotes and "blurbs" for books.

A highlight of the series is Waldman's autobiographical essay and drafts for the Contemporary Authors' series. A small folder of poems written about Waldman is also included. The researcher should note that additional material written about Waldman can be found in the Correspondence and Name File Series.

The Correspondence and Name File series (25 linear feet of material, divided into several subseries) provides insight into Waldman's professional activities and relationships, and her personal relationships with many poets, writers, and artists. Poets including Allen Ginsberg, Ted Berrigan, Joe Brainard, Tom Clark, Diane di Prima, Kenward Elmslie, Joanne Kyger, Bernadette Mayer, Ron Padgett, and many others are well represented in the series, as are visual artists such as Alex Katz, Jasper Johns, Robert Mapplethorpe, Larry Rivers, and James Rosenquist. Material in the Correspondence and Name File was created during Waldman's college years and adulthood (approximately 1962-1999). Correspondence from Waldman's childhood and teenage years, and correspondence with family members can be found in the Early Years and Family series respectively.

The Name File subseries is an alphabetical file consisting primarily of more prominent personalities and frequent correspondents. Although the bulk of the material in the Name File is correspondence, manuscripts and other material created by or related to the person listed may also be found in the files. Where large amounts of material related to a person exist, the type of material has been grouped by genre and indicated separately in the finding aid. In cases where the type of material is not listed separately, the file contains mainly correspondence, but may also include small amounts of other material, most likely manuscripts. The researcher should note that some manuscripts submitted to Waldman and a small amount of correspondence related to Waldman's specific publishing ventures or specific subjects have been left with the appropriate subject file or organizational records.

The Miscellaneous Correspondence subseries contains more routine correspondence. This subseries is arranged alphabetically.

The Unidentified and Fragments subseries consists of approximately .75 linear feet of material from correspondents who did not identify themselves, identified themselves by their first name only, or whose signatures were illegible. This material is arranged chronologically, and is divided in to unidentified correspondence and unidentified manuscripts. Although every effort was made to arrange correspondence in the appropriate place in the Name File and Miscellaneous Correspondence subseries, researchers interesting in viewing all the correspondence from a particular person may want to examine the Unidentified and Fragments subseries.

The series also includes two folders of Anne Waldman's outgoing correspondence, as well as several folders of printouts of Waldman's outgoing and incoming email. The email correspondence spans the years 1997 and 2009. Researchers should note that there is substantial overlap between the Email and Correspondence and Name File subseries.

The Writing series (11 linear feet) consists of Anne Waldman manuscripts and other material, such as correspondence, administrative files, and ephemera, related to her writing. This series is divided into five subseries: Early Work; Fiction; Essays, Speeches, and Interviews; Poetry; and Contributions to Other Works.

The Fiction sub-subseries is divided into Drama and Short Stories. Much of this material is also early work, from Waldman's college years or shortly thereafter. Within Drama and Short Stories, the pieces are arranged alphabetically by title.

Essays, Speeches, and Interviews comprises Waldman's prose work, consisting of essays, articles, speeches and addresses, and interviews, as well as book blurbs, introductions, forewords, and reviews. Many of these pieces exist in various stages, from handwritten notes to published articles. The Essays grouping contains essays and articles written for various publications. The Speeches grouping, arranged chronologically, consists of speeches and speaker introductions made by Waldman at various events. Undated material is located at the end of the section. The Interviews grouping is divided into interviews of Anne Waldman by others, arranged chronologically, and interviews of others, which for the most part have Waldman as either interviewer or co- interviewee. These interviews are arranged alphabetically by name of interviewee.

Also included in the Essays, Speeches, and Interviews subseries are "Biographical Sketches" of other authors. (Biographical and autobiographical sketches of Anne Waldman can be found in the Biographical series.) Most of these sketches appear to have been written by Waldman, although some were contributed by the authors themselves. In addition, the researcher will find a Notes grouping, made up of Waldman's loose collected notes, both literary jottings and everyday work lists. Some of the notes are of unknown authorship, although a few appear to have been Reed Bye's.

The Poetry subseries is divided into two sub-subseries, Published Works and Single Titles. Although Waldman's poetry can be found throughout the Writing series--and indeed throughout the entire collection--the bulk of it resides here. Published Works incorporates Waldman's stand-alone or collected works, most but not necessarily all of which have been published. The Published Works sub-subseries begins with an Alphabetical File containing Waldman's shorter works intended for publication. These files are arranged alphabetically by title.

A Collaborations section of collaborations between Waldman and others, and a Translations section, with a small number of works by others which Waldman translated or helped translate into English are also included in the Published Works subseries. The Collaborations section is arranged alphabetically by collaborator. The translation section contains only three works, which are arranged alphabetically according to the original author.

The Published Work subseries also contains three linear feet of separate material for Iovis I, II, and III and Kill or Cure. This material consists generally of original manuscripts (handwritten drafts and typescripts) of single poems, drafts of the whole work, proofs, and a small amount of related correspondence. The Iovis I and Iovis II files strongly reflect Waldman's work process for the creation of these long, fragmentary epic poems. Namely, the Notes Drafts, and Research Material files, which have been left almost as-is, consist of seemingly randomly arranged clippings, correspondence, previously written material, and many different current drafts, merged together. The researcher may find this portion of the collection difficult to use, owing to its haphazard arrangement. Items which seemed of special significance have been flagged or pulled and foldered separately, the "Questions for men for Iovis" being one example. In some cases, the original has been removed and placed elsewhere within the collection. Details are noted in the contents list. Among these items are poems by Waldman's son, Ambrose, and letters written by Anne Waldman's grandfather to his future wife (due to extremely their fragile condition, the originals have been removed and placed in separate storage). The other portions of the Iovis material present a clearer arrangement, consisting as they do of draft and proof copies of the entire work. The Iovis III portion to date is quite small, consisting only of a version of Waldman's journal entries from a trip to Vietnam in 2000.

The material used in Kill or Cure has a clearer organization, although it should be noted that much of the content and order within the "Drafts/Collected Poems" portion remains unclear. It was impossible to ascertain whether some of the pieces included in the original folders labeled "Kill or Cure" were originally intended for the book and not used, or if they became misfiled. Too, some material may be missing, removed by the author from its original location in order to be used for other purposes, such as the creation of Iovis II . In fact, there is considerable overlap between some of the material in Iovis and Kill or Cure, the latter being published in between Iovis I and Iovis II .

Single Titles consists of the many loose poems that were originally scattered throughout the collection and which could not be easily placed within the context of a larger work. They are arranged alphabetically by title or first line. There are several folders of poem fragments as well, found at the end of this grouping. In the case of some of these poems, it has been difficult to ascertain whether they are in fact fragments or are rather complete, untitled poems. In general, when the title of a poem has undergone changes, all of the drafts of that poem have been grouped under what appears to be the latest version of the title. There may, however, be some exceptions to this arrangement.

Contributions to Other Works is a small subseries consisting of pieces which Waldman wrote for publication in larger works by other authors. Both poetry and prose works are represented here.

The Journals and Notebooks series (5 linear feet) consists of more than 110 journals, notebooks, appointment books, and address books kept by Anne Waldman. (For the sake of convenience, all of these items are referred to here as "journals.") A small number of journals kept by others is also represented. The journals offer a diverse array of content, from random jottings and to-do lists, to literary notes and drafts, to intensely personal diaries. In some cases distinct literary pieces have been recorded, and sometimes the line between journal and handmade book is somewhat blurred. There are collaborative works, such as those with Bill Berkson and Reed Bye. Other pieces were clearly written for friends such as Joe Brainard, Jim Carroll, and others.

The Journals and Notebooks series is broken into two subseries, Anne Waldman and Others, representing journals kept by Waldman and journals kept by others. The Anne Waldman subseries is arranged chronologically by decade, from the 1960s through the 1990s. There are many undated journals as well. The Others subseries contains journals by Lewis Warsh (including one that was co-written with Waldman) and journals very likely by Reed Bye. Of note within one of the journals from the 1970s in the Anne Waldman subseries is a drawing of Anne Waldman made by Bob Dylan.

The Editing and Publishing series (approximately 12.5 linear feet) is comprised of Anne Waldman's work in editing and publishing, often as a joint venture with those in her circle. The most important subseries, Small Press and Little Magazine, represents her work with The Poetry Project at St. Mark's Church-in-the-Bowery, Angel Hair, Full Court Press, and Rocky Ledge. For the most part, all of the Small Press and Little Magazine files consist of a mixture of the literary--manuscript contributions, drafts, mockups, proofs--and the administrative--reports, correspondence, sales and expense records, and so forth.

Perhaps the most significant portion of Small Press and Little Magazine, the Poetry Project grouping is divided into General, Adventures in Poetry, The World, and St. Mark's Church. "General" consists of correspondence; administrative material such as reports, notes, and budgets; poster, flyers, and other performance-related material, including speeches and introductions to Poetry Project events. Correspondence is related to the running of the Poetry Project, the newsletter in particular. Much of this correspondence appears to have been managed and kept by Frances Waldman, who edited the Poetry Project Newsletter from 1976 to 1978. There are also loose poems, which were printed and distributed singly, and many issues of the Poetry Project Newsletter (although not a complete run), along with original manuscript submissions for the newsletter.

Adventures in Poetry was a mimeographed literary magazine edited and published at St. Mark's Church by Larry Fagin using Poetry Project resources. A small number of submissions and publications appear here.

The most important division within the Poetry Project grouping are the files relating to The World, the magazine of the Poetry Project, which Waldman directed from 1968 through the late 1970s. Included are what can loosely be labeled "Administrative Material" as well as Submissions. Two files of Administrative Material are topical in nature, including an Author-title Index from 1979. In addition, there are the usual minutes, mailing lists, and the like. Submissions are for the most part arranged alphabetically by author. There are also two folders with material specific to individual issues of The World . Items of unknown authorship are placed at the end of these files. The researcher may find the aforementioned Author-title Index of some assistance in identifying these submissions.

"St. Mark's Church" refers to items which are church-specific; that is, related to St. Mark's as a religious institution or physical entity rather than to the Poetry Project: Such concerns as building preservation and restoration, youth projects, and church services are covered. Much of this material appears to have been maintained by Frances Waldman, including but not limited to files which are labeled as hers.

The Angel Hair files consist of material from Angel Hair Books and Angel Hair magazine, both of which Waldman co-founded and co-edited with Lewis Warsh. Press and magazine materials are commingled. Angel Hair is divided into Catalogues, Administrative Material, Proofs, and Submissions.

Full Court Press, which Waldman started with Ron Padgett and Joan Simon, was dedicated to publishing quality editions of out-of-print works. The volume of material in this collection is quite slim, consisting of only one folder.

Rocky Ledge refers to the mimeographed magazine, Rocky Ledge, which Waldman started with Reed Bye in Boulder. It was published in eight issues from 1978 to 1981. Some books were also published through Rocky Ledge Cottage Editions. There is a folder of general Administrative Material and another slim folder of manuscripts published by Rocky Ledge Cottage Editions. In keeping with the original organization of the material, the rest of the files are arranged by the individual issue of Rocky Ledge , with administrative materials mixed in with each issue of the magazine. Types of material found in the Rocky Ledge files include draft or mockup versions of the magazine; manuscript submissions; correspondence; cover art, both originals and facsimiles; receipts; and editors' notes. In some cases, the original manuscript submissions appear to have been used in the creation of the draft versions of the magazine. A separate division deals with submissions that were either not used in Rocky Ledge, may not have been intended for use in Rocky Ledge in the first place, or are unidentified.

Also included is a small amount of material labeled "Cherry Valley." Waldman summered in this small New York town in the late 1970s, Waldman's family and Allen Ginsberg maintained houses there for a time, and some work produced by Waldman and her circle was published by "Cherry Valley Editions." However, the exact nature and extent of literary activity from this period and location is unclear, and extant files in this collection are unrevealing.

The rest of the Editing and Publishing is divided along the lines of the individual book titles which Waldman edited or co-edited: The Beat Book, Nice to See You, Out of This World, Talking Poetics, and Disembodied Poetics.

The Beat Book files consist of some correspondence and, primarily, a draft version and a proof version of the work. Nice to See You, which is a tribute to poet Ted Berrigan, consists mainly of submissions by friends of Berrigan's. There are also files of background material, notes, a small number of photographs, correspondence, a draft, proofs, and publicity and reviews. Out of This World is an anthology of work from The Poetry Project. The Out of This World files consists of correspondence (dealing mainly with publishing permissions), early versions of the preface and introduction, drafts, and proofs.

Both Talking Poetics and Disembodied Poetics are anthologies of lectures delivered at Naropa University by Writing and Poetics Department faculty and visiting poets. These files are comprised mainly of transcripts of these lectures; manuscript reworkings and revisions by the authors; correspondence between authors, editors, and publishers; and various drafts of the whole work. In some cases, the name referenced in the correspondence file is the subject of the correspondence rather than its author. Administrative material is also included.

In the Talking Poetics files, the Drafts and Proofs section is divided into Early Work and Complete Drafts. Much of the Early Work section is fragmentary in nature, in particular, the Early Drafts material. Although at some time all of the individual pieces of Early Drafts were collated and paginated, much is missing or has been placed elsewhere. The existing pieces are now arranged alphabetically by author. Particularly noteworthy in this section is a handwritten John Cage score, a part of his work Lecture IV. Complete Drafts are arranged by page number.

The Disembodied Poetics files are arranged in a similar fashion, with individual pieces placed in the Early Contributions and Ideas and Early Drafts portions and later, more complete drafts arranged in or nearly in book order. It should be noted that the designations of the drafts as "A," "B," and "C" were assigned during processing and do not necessarily reflect chronological order. The order within each draft follows the table of contents for that draft, none of the drafts being paginated as a whole.

The subseries, General Publishing, consists of miscellaneous contracts, proposals, copyright application material, and financial material covering royalties, honoraria, book sales, and so on. The Unpublished material subseries consists mainly of miscellaneous pieces of writing that could be part of books that are published or unpublished or drafts of works with an unknown title.

The Naropa series (8 linear feet) consists of material related to Waldman's involvement with the Naropa Institute, now Naropa University, in Boulder, Colorado. It is comprised of the following subseries: Course Material, Administrative Material, Conferences and Panels, Publications, Printed Material, Other Teaching Activities, and Personal.

Course Material is divided into the following sub-subseries: Anne Waldman, Others, and Summer Writing Program. Anne Waldman course material is arranged chronologically and topically and contains many sourcebooks or bound copies of readings for her classes. Course material of others is arranged primarily chronologically, as is, for the most part, material from the Summer Writing Program. The Summer Faculty and Visiting Poets folder under Course Material includes contracts, correspondence and resumes from guest lecturers such as Amiri, Baraka, Ted Berrigan, Diane Di Prima, Tom Clark, Robert Creeley, Kenward Elmslie, Joy Harjo and Harry Smith and is organized alphabetically. Administrative Material is divided into General, Writing and Poetics Department, and Summer Writing Program. Within all levels of the Administrative Series can be found correspondence which includes emails, memos, minutes and reports, planning material, notes, etc. "Early Planning Material" within the Writing and Poetics Department files includes documents penned by Anne Waldman and Allen Ginsberg which formulate aspects of the founding of the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics. Also included in the Writing and Poetics files are departmental newsletters. Student and instructor evaluations also appear. Evaluation files, barring those of Anne Waldman, are closed due to privacy legislation and concerns.

Conferences and Panels consists of notes for talks given at Naropa along with transcripts and schedules. Speeches and Interviews covers those speeches and interview given at Naropa, although there may be some overlap with material in the Writing series. Speeches are arranged chronologically. "A Declaration of Interdependence," although grouped with Speeches, is not a speech per se, but rather a protest document mirroring in structure the Declaration of Independence. It was penned by multiple authors, including many Naropa faculty members as well as other poets and activists. Interviews are listed alphabetically by interviewee.

Publications consist of Campus Periodicals (student newsletters and literary magazines); Class Publications, including those of the Summer Writing Program; and a small number of works by faculty members. Printed Material consists of Catalogs and Brochures; Posters, Flyers, and Programs; and Clippings. Arrangement at the folder level is chronological. Additional class publications can be found within the Course Material subseries.

In addition to her role at Naropa, Waldman has taught at several other institutions. These activities are reflected in the Other Teaching Activities subseries, which includes work at the Schule für Dichtung in Vienna and the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey, among other institutions. Because the bulk of Waldman's teaching activities is tied up with Naropa, these files are included within the Naropa series. Material for each institution is arranged chronologically.

The final subseries of the Naropa series is Personal, which includes ephemera, correspondence, topical files, contracts, and notes. Correspondence is both incoming and outgoing and consists of both Naropa-related 'official' correspondence that is addressed solely to Waldman and correspondence that is personal in nature but which refers to Naropa (here, there will naturally be some overlap with Waldman's correspondence in the Correspondence and Name file series). Material within folders is arranged chronologically.

The Other Activities series is comprised of 1 linear foot of material, and documents Waldman's activities outside of writing and publishing. The series includes material related to conferences and festivals that Waldman attended or participated in, as well as material related to Bob Dylan's Rolling Thunder Revue Tour, various video and audio recording projects, and attempts to sell Waldman's archive, or portions of it. The series also includes a significant amount of material documenting Waldman's involvement in social protest issues.

The Personal series is a topical file consisting of 1.5 linear feet of material not primarily related to Waldman's writing or professional activities. Material documenting Waldman's interest in Buddhism and her 1967 wedding to Lewis Warsh can be found in the series. Of particular note is a collection of memorabilia, including material from Waldman's travels, and various playbills, museum programs and ticket stubs. Legal and financial records, as well as various and unidentified notes, jottings and telephone messages, are also included in this series.

The Early Years series contains 2 linear feet of material documenting Waldman's school years, as well as her early interests in writing, acting and drama. The series includes material from Waldman's elementary school, middle school, high school and college years. Early writings can be found in each of the Pre-High School, Friends Seminary and Bennington College subseries, as well as the Early and Unidentified Writings subseries. Highlights include childhood and family newsletters titled "Our Life and Times" and "The Penguin News," school publications in which Waldman was first published, production material from Waldman's high school newspaper (of which she was editor), and manuscripts and typescripts of early poems. The Friends Seminary and Bennington College subseries contain class notes and papers, a high school report card, college grade reports and other school-related material. The Bennington College subseries also includes correspondence and notes from Howard Nemerov and other professors.

The Acting and Theater subseries includes material from various productions, theater companies and organizations with which Waldman was involved in the 1950s and 1960s. The Correspondence subseries consists primarily of correspondence from Waldman's middle school and high school friends, but also includes a folder of notes that appear to be notes passed in class. This folder also includes school love poems that appear to have been written for Waldman. The Early and Unidentified Writing subseries consists primarily of unidentified or undated material that could not filed with the other subseries.

The Family series (approximately 4 linear feet and 1 oversize box) includes material related to Waldman's mother, father, brother, son and other relatives.

The bulk of the series is comprised of material created by, or related to Waldman's mother, Frances Waldman. The Frances Waldman subseries includes 1.5 linear feet of correspondence between Waldman and her mother, spanning the years 1958-1981. Several folders of Frances Waldman's correspondence with other people, including many New York poets and writers, can also be found in the subseries.

The subseries also includes several folders of Frances Waldman's manuscripts, translations and miscellaneous material. Although the majority of the material related to other family members is correspondence, manuscripts and other material can also be found in the series. Of special note are the manuscripts found with the Ambrose Bye material, which include some poems written with or transcribed by Anne Waldman.

The Handmade Books series (3 linear feet) is comprised of one-of-a-kind books made by Waldman and her friends. Often they were presented as gifts on special occasions. They are divided into three subseries: Anne Waldman, representing books by Waldman; Collaborations, representing collaborations between Waldman and others; and Others, that is, works by others.

Included in Others are books printed at Naropa University either through a print workshop or class, or through the school's Kavyayantra Press. Within the Waldman subseries, books are listed alphabetically by title, with untitled books at the back. Collaborations, all of which have Waldman as a coauthor, are arranged alphabetically by the collaborator's last name, as are works in the Others subseries.

Many of the handmade books bear inscriptions indicating maker, recipient, date, and other information, which has not been included in the contents listing. Included in the Handmade Books series are some limited edition volumes, such as those produced by Waldman's Erudite Fangs Press.

The Printed Material series (4 linear feet, 1 oversize box, and 1 portfolio) encompasses the subseries Broadsides; Posters, Flyers, and Programs; and Clippings. Broadsides are broken down into those by Anne Waldman, Collaborations (between Waldman and others), and Others--that is, works by others. Within these divisions, work is arranged alphabetically, first by author, then by title. Also included in Broadsides are postcards and bookmarks printed by various small presses. Oversize broadsides are housed separately.

Material in the Posters, Flyers, and Programs subseries is for the most part grouped chronologically. Separate, topical divisions have been made for undated material. Small press book catalogs and newsletters are included as separate divisions. Oversize posters are housed separately. The section labeled "Newsletters" consists of should really be viewed as a set of clippings, consisting as it does of single issues of various newsletters and some journals, most of which appear to have been saved for particular articles.

Clippings are arranged in rough chronological order by decade, where date is known. The vast majority of the clippings pertain to Waldman and her circle, although some clippings reflect topical interests. Some of these appear to have been saved by Waldman's mother, Frances LeFevre Waldman. In some cases, whole publications have been saved, either due to their content or to their rare or unusual nature.

Art (1 linear foot, 10 oversize boxes, and 1 portfolio) is made up of artworks by Waldman and her family and friends, as well as various pieces she has collected over the years. Work in many different media exists, including prints, paintings, sketches, drawings, and collages. Much of Waldman's work consists of prints done while a student at Bennington College. There are also exquisite corpses (collaboratively created pictures and writings, done in-the-round) by Anne Waldman, Reed Bye, and Ambrose Bye. According to Waldman, this was a frequent after-dinner pastime when Ambrose was young, and friends and guests, such as Bobbie Louise Hawkins, were invited to participate.

Cover Art includes "Collaborations," which consist of collaborative book-length works and not just cover art per se. Additional cover art may be found in the among the Rocky Ledge files within the Editing and Publishing series. Noteworthy among the artists represented are George Schneeman and Joe Brainard.

The Photographs, Slides and Negatives series consists of approximately 2.5 linear feet of photographic materials documenting a variety of subjects, including Waldman's childhood and school years, her large circle of friends and colleagues, and her publishing and performance activities.

The Personal subseries contains personal and informal photographs of Waldman and others. Photographs in the "Family and childhood" folder include photographs of Waldman as a child, as well as other family members. The high school and college photographs include several photographs of Waldman as a young actress. The bulk of the Personal subseries consists of the "Friends and colleagues" photographs. These photographs include images of many prominent late twentieth century poets, Waldman's husbands and significant others, and other friends and colleagues. Waldman herself is pictured in some of the friends and colleagues photographs.

One of the strengths of the Professional subseries is the large amount of photographs of Waldman performing. The performance photographs, which date from the late 1960s to mid 1990s, sometimes include images of other poets and performers. Also included are several folders of portraits and publicity photographs, photographs created for various book and publishing projects, photographs of Bob Dylan's Rolling Thunder Revue Tour, and photographs documenting Waldman's activities at Naropa University and the St. Marks Poetry Project. The St. Mark's photographs include images of New York School and other poets performing at the church. The Professional subseries also includes several photographs taken by photographer, poet, and filmmaker Gerard Malanga. Although Malanga photographs can be found within several of the groupings in the Professional subseries, the majority can be found within the portraits grouping. A Malanga portrait of Waldman and her mother, Frances, has been filed with the family photographs.

The Outsize subseries consists of photographs too large to be housed with the rest of the photograph series. The highlights of the outsize photographs include two photographs taken by Allen Ginsberg which include handwritten captions by Ginsberg.

The Albums and Scrapbooks subseries complements the friends and colleagues photographs found in the Personal subseries. In addition to photographs documenting Waldman's travels in Greece and Egypt in the early sixties, the albums contain numerous photographs of Waldman and her circle in the late sixties and early seventies. Photographs of Lewis Warsh, Michael Brownstein, Joe Brainard, Ron Padgett, Ted Berrigan, Tom Clark, Bill Berkson, and others can all be found in the albums. The albums have been arranged chronologically.

The Slides and Negatives subseries consists primarily of miscellaneous and unidentified slides and negatives. The subseries does contain a few slides of Waldman performing.

The researcher should note that a small number of photographs sent to Waldman by specific correspondents can be found within the Correspondence and Name File series.

The Audiovisual Series has been divided into four subseries: Sound Recordings, Video Tapes, DVDs, and Digital Files. The series provides a unique perspective on Waldman's activities, and thus complements and expands the manuscript and photographic holdings. Including recordings of readings, lectures, and interviews given by Waldman and others, the series strongly represents the sounds and voices of late 20th century American poetry.

The Sound Recordings subseries has been organized according to format, including LPs and 45s, Compact Discs, Reels, and Audio Cassettes. In order to facilitate access, each sound recording has been numbered. Recordings are numbered sequentially within each subseries. Titles indicated in quotation marks in the finding aid are quoted directly from the labels of the recordings. In a few cases, particularly within the Commercial Recordings grouping, quotation marks are also used to indicate the title of a poem or work.

The LPs and 45s, Compact Discs, and Reels represent a relatively small part of the subseries. The LPs and 45s include the 1977 LP "John Giorno and Anne Waldman," as well as Waldman's "Uh-Oh Plutonium" 45, and a "voice-o-graph" recording of Waldman and Michael Brownstein. The Compact Discs subseries consists of commercial recordings of Waldman, including a live 1991 performance in Amsterdam which includes an accompanying booklet of poems.

Reels include recordings related to a variety of subjects. Included are Waldman performances at radio stations and elsewhere, television shows related to poetry, a commercial recording of Fast Speaking Woman , and a recording of Waldman while acting. To facilitate access, the recordings in this group have been transferred onto recordable compact discs. The numbering and labeling of the compact discs corresponds to the numbering of the reels.

The largest part of the subseries is comprised of Cassettes, which include readings and lectures by Waldman and other poets, interviews, radio broadcasts featuring Waldman, commercial recordings, Waldman's recording projects, and other miscellaneous recordings. Spanning the years 1971-2002, the readings include recordings of Waldman reading with Ted Berrigan, Allen Ginsberg, Diane di Prima, Gary Snyder and others. In addition, there are several recordings of readings not by Anne Waldman, including performances by Ginsberg, John Ashbery, Robert Creeley, Philip Whalen and others. Lectures by Waldman at Naropa Institute and in other settings, and lectures by William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Ted Berrigan, Carl Rakosi, and Peter Orlovsky are included.

Interviews and conversations represent the strongest part of the series. In addition to an interview of Waldman conducted by Larry Fagin, tapes of interviews of Joe Brainard, Edwin Denby, Diane di Prima, Robert Duncan, Allen Ginsberg, and Philip Whalen are included, many conducted by Waldman. There are two recordings of "conversations," one with Waldman, Clark Coolidge, Lewis MacAdams, and others, and one with Waldman, Tom Clark, Lewis Warsh, Lewis MacAdams, and Philip Whalen. Of note is a cassette recording of Allen Ginsberg orally composing the introduction to Talking Poetics from Naropa Institute: Annals of the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics. To facilitate access, the cassette recordings have been transferred onto recordable compact discs. The numbering and labeling of the compact discs corresponds to the numbering of the cassette tapes.

Video recordings consists of 42 VHS videocassettes, one 8mm film reel and ten DVDs. The readings, performances and lectures grouping includes performances from 1990 to 1998 and is the primary strength of the subseries. In addition to Waldman's performances, the tapes include readings by Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, Michael McClure, Ed Sanders and others. Most of the tapes in the programs and television shows grouping were produced commercially or for television shows. The highlight of the grouping is a tape which includes seven episodes of "Word One," a Boulder, Colorado cable access television show hosted by Waldman, which includes performances by Allen Ginsberg, Kenward Elmslie and other poets. The programs and television shows grouping also includes a tape of "poetry videos" from the Manhattan Poetry Video Project, including music videos of Waldman's "Uh-Oh Plutonium," Allen Ginsberg's "Father Death Blues," and Bob Holman's "Rapp It Up." The personal and miscellaneous grouping includes a videotape copy of a home movie of Waldman, Lewis Warsh, Ted Berrigan and others. DVD copies of the first 27 videotapes and the film reel in the subseries (WALDVID-1 to WALDVID-27) are available for viewing in the reading room of the Special Collections Library, with advance notice for retrieval and setup. The ten original DVDs in the subseries are labeled with the prefix WALDDVD- and consist mainly of Anne Waldman poetry readings, and collaborative events such as Transatlantic Howl! A Dedication to Allen Ginsberg, a multivenue event featuring poetry readings and poetic theatre pieces celebrating Ginsberg's poem Howl.

The Digital Files subseries includes backups of email correspondence, files on Waldman's poems and books, such as parts I and II of the Iovis Trilogy and the anthology Civil Disobediences, and interviews. Most of these materials are stored on floppy disks and have not been transferred to viewable digital media.


Anthony J. Dziuszko papers, 1941-1945

133 items (0.25 linear feet)

The Anthony J. Dziuszko papers contain items pertaining to Mr. Dziuszko's World War II military career. The collection includes 45 letters to Dziuszko's future wife, Laura Szewick, 74 photographs, and 14 miscellaneous documents and other items from various islands in the South Pacific.

The Anthony J. Dziuszko papers consist of 133 items dated April 29, 1941, to May 19, 1945. Included in the collection are 45 letters, nine documents and receipts, 74 photographs and five miscellaneous items. The 45 letters provide vivid descriptions of military life, and of the natives and surroundings on the various islands where Mr. Dziuszko served (these descriptions were occasionally edited by the military censors). He detailed both the difficult physical challenges of jungle fighting and the recreational activities of his regiment.


Augustus J. J. Thibaudeau Family Photograph Album, 1900s-1930s

approximately 308 photographs, 4 manuscript items in 1 album

The Augustus J. J. Thibaudeau family photograph album contains approximately 308 photographs and 4 manuscript items related to the family and friends of Augustus J. J. Thibaudeau, a prominent lawyer based in Niagara Falls, New York, and a representative of the Photo-Pictorialist movement in photography.

The Augustus J. J. Thibaudeau family photograph album contains approximately 308 photographs and 4 manuscript items related to the family and friends of Augustus J. J. Thibaudeau, a prominent lawyer based in Niagara Falls, New York, and a representative of the Photo-Pictorialist movement in photography.

The album (26 x 31 cm) has black cloth covers with “Snap Shots” embossed in silver on the front. The 4 loose manuscript items are contained in a Mylar enclosure at the beginning of the album and include two letters from Marie Thibaudeau written to her mother and father while abroad in England in 1923; a booklet made of faux-bark paper containing a watercolor illustration and poem about fishing titled “Stower’s Fish”; and a hand-written recipe booklet containing 18 recipes for various dishes.

Around 111 loose photographs of various sizes and formats are also contained in a Mylar enclosure and mostly include individual and group portraits (both indoors and outdoors), natural landscape views, and images of homes. A small percentage of these photographs have captions on their versos, including some that identify subjects. Of the loose photographs, images of interest include a group portrait of young women at Wellesley College in 1918 during their freshman year; portraits of Marie Thibaudeau, including several showing her posing with her beloved dog Sam-Sam; snapshots taken during a trip to Rome in 1932; and numerous images showing exterior views of houses as well as swimming, fishing, boating, and other outdoor activities taking place near the Thibaudeau family cottage on the Georgian Bay in Ontario.

Approximately 197 photographs are pasted into the album proper. A number of these photographs are partially unglued and in some cases writing on their versos is accessible. The album has many photographs showing waterfront summer vacation scenes from what appears to be different trips to the family cottage over a span of several years; some of these images in the front end of the album have inscriptions on their versos which indicate those photographs were taken in August 1910 by “D.B.” Other images of note include a picture showing a group of young women in a large sleigh with the verso caption reading “Marie Thibaudeau ΖΣΕ Jan, 24, 1912”; a pair of photographs showing siblings Kenneth Fraser Allan and Dorothy Elizabeth Allan when aged 3 and 6 respectively; two group portraits of young men in military uniforms standing in formation; photographs taken at Wellesley College showing buildings, students, campus scenes, large group activities, and a commencement ceremony; two photographs of a biplane mid-flight; and a series of interior views of an unidentified home that appears to have a menorah above the fireplace.


Black Liberation Army Papers, 1963-1998

1.5 Linear feet (1 records box and 1 manuscript box)

The Black Liberation Army (BLA) was an underground Black Nationalist organization largely comprised of former Black Panther Party members. The majority of the materials in the Black Liberation Army archive fall under the Thomas "Blood" McCreary series, a member of the BLA. The archive consists of seven series: Thomas "Blood" McCreary, Correspondence, 1976-1978, Legal, Topical, Newspaper Clippings, 1969-1978, Events, Publications and Black Panther Party. The documents range in date from 1963-1998.

Thomas "Blood" McCreary, a member of the BLA, is the largest series in the Black Liberation Army archive. The correspondence sub-series consist of letters written to or from McCreary ranging in date from 1963-1998. Letters referencing Tupac Shakur can also be found in the correspondence sub-series. Legal is the largest sub-series and is comprised of eight legal cases McCreary was involved in as well as legal documents regarding Tupac Shakur's estate. Legal documents include affidavits, appeals, correspondence with lawyers, statements from McCreary describing prison conditions and trial errors, and a character reference from Bell Gale Chevigny. McCreary's resume, contacts and newspaper clippings are also small sub-series'. The photography sub-series is comprised of three folders which include a photograph of McCreary's graduation from Adelphi University in 1986, the Panther 21 reunion and miscellaneous photographs.

Project Renewal is an organization in New York City with a goal of ending homelessness. McCreary served as a member of the Black History Month Committee for this organization. The Project Renewal sub-series contain documents regarding the planning of a black history month event. The next sub-series is the 25th anniversary of the New York Panther 21 acquittal. On April 2, 1969, 21 members of the Black Panther Party were arrested and charged with conspiracy to blow up the New York Botanical Gardens. McCreary served on the committee to plan the celebration of their acquittal 25 years later. This material includes speaker requests, invitation and flyers. The final sub-series is the 30th anniversary of the Black Panther Party, where McCreary served as a committee member. This material includes meeting minutes, speaker requests and publicity.

Correspondence, 1976-1978 is a series consisting of 5 folders of letters and notes from Black Liberation Army members and range in topic.

The Legal series is comprised of two legal cases. The first is Caban v. United States, dated February 7, 1984. This document is an appeal in a case that involves a man named Salvador Caban who was detained for six day by INS despite being a citizen of the United States. The second is Richard Moore v. FBI, et al.. The documents in this case include exhibit documents as well as a transcript taken during the deposition of Sekou Odinga, a BLA member.

Topical is a series which is separated into 3 sections. Resumes are the first section, which contains the resumes of four people. Next, the Counterintelligence Program section consists of a memorandum describing the background, development and potential offices of the Counterintelligence Program (COINTELPRO), an FBI program which conducted covert and sometimes illegal activities to neutralize numerous political organizations. The final sectuib in the Topical series is titled Reconsolidation and Infrastructure, dated 1996. This includes several documents regarding ways to reconsolidate the structure of the BLA.

Newspaper Clippings, 1969-1997 is a series that largely consists of newspaper clippings covering the arrests of BLA members as well as opinion pieces regarding the organization.

Events consist of seven sections: United African Movement Freedom Retreat, Protests, Fundraisers, Memorials, Campaigns, Lectures, and the 27th Annual African American Parade. The materials range in date from 1970-1995 and include publicity material, clippings and flyers.

The Publications series contains five sections. First, the Black Panther section include various articles from the Black Panther publication ranging from their beliefs to collages and poems. The New York Amsterdam News section is an ad in support of Assata Shakur. "Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996," Public Law 104-132 is dated April 24, 1996 and was signed into law after the Oklahoma City bombing. Newsletters is a section comprised of newsletters from various organizations. Finally, the New Afrikan Journal section consists of Volume 4, Number 1 edition of the journal.

Black Panther Party is the final series in the Black Liberation Army archive and consists of six sections: Articles, "The Black Panther Party Foundation" by Afeni Shakur, Panther film, Questionnaire, Photocopies of photographs and Black Panther Collective. The articles section ranges in topic and are all undated. "The Black Panther Party Foundation" was a brief report written by Afeni Shakur regarding the assembly of the east and west coast Black Panthers in order to preserve the history of the party and conduct formal remembrances of fallen members. Panther, film is a section regarding the 1995 film about the BPP directed by Mario Van Peebles and starring Kadeem Hardison, Courtney Vance and Bokeem Woodbine. The photocopies of photographs sub-series include photographs of BPP Minister of Defense Huey Newton as well as photographs of a "Free Huey" rally. There are also miscellaneous photographs which are undated. The Black Panther Collective was formed in 1994 with the mission to carry on the legacy of the BPP. This sub-series includes correspondence, flyers, rules and regulations and community police patrol documents.


Brunn and Company Archive, 1920-1985 (majority within 1928-1938)

12.0 Linear feet (2 record center boxes, 2 manuscript boxes and 11 oversize boxes)

Founded by Hermann A. Brunn in Buffalo, New York, Brunn & Company were designers and builders of automotive bodies from the 1920s through the early 1940s, and are best known for the bodies constructed for the Lincoln Division of the Ford Motor Company. Brunn also built automobiles for private individuals, many of whom were well-known members of American business and society circles, including J.C. Penney and J.P. Morgan. Hermann C. Brunn, son of Hermann A., produced numerous designs for the company, and then continued his career at the Ford Motor Company following the closing of Brunn & Company in 1941. The collection documents the work of Brunn & Company, Hermann A. Brunn, and Hermann C. Brunn, through engineering drawings, photographs, paint and upholstery samples, customer order records, correspondence, and research materials.

The Brunn collection has been divided into four series: Correspondence, Design and Engineering, Images, and Sales and Marketing.

The Correspondence series is arranged alphabetically by correspondent and then chronologically within each file. The letters are primarily from customers to Hermann A. Brunn expressing appreciation for the work done on their vehicles. Letters that are circa 1970 includes material written by and sent to Hermann C. Brunn during his employment at Ford Motor Company, and in regards to modern restorations of Brunn vehicles. In cases where a specific vehicle can be identified, the correspondence has been filed with the photographic images of that particular vehicle. Some of the letters were part of a scrapbook and many letters are glued to the same page, as a result at the end of correspondence there are several letters listed together which indicates they are glued together and in the same folder.

The Design and Engineering series is divided into three subseries: Brunn & Company Drawings, Other Drawings, and Hermann C. Brunn. The material in the series consists primarily of drawings produced by Brunn & Company illustrating the various body designs produced by the firm, which are, for the most part, reproductions, or blueprints. The drawings show the left (driver) side elevation of the vehicle and, in some cases, include a plan view of the interior layout. Dimensions, if shown, detail the passenger interior space. The name, or initials, of the designer, customer name, and notes detailing specific vehicle configuration and trim can be found on many of the drawings. The drawings have been arranged alphabetically by make of chassis, then chronologically by date drawn and design number. Data for body style, model, chassis wheelbase in inches, engine configuration, order number, and customer name has also been included in the file title, where known. The Other Drawings subseries consist of a smaller number of drawings that originate from other manufacturers, including General Motors and the Ford Motor Company. The Hermann C. Brunn subseries consists of materials created by Hermann C. Brunn in the period after the closing of Brunn & Company, and includes a manuscript for an article describing the history of the brougham body style.

The Images series is divided into five subseries: Negatives; Vehicles, Brunn & Company; Vehicles Other, Non-vehicle, Brunn & Company; and Non-vehicle, Other. Image formats include black and white, and color, photographic prints and negatives. The bulk of the subjects are Brunn & Company vehicles, with images illustrating the exterior of completed automobiles. In many cases the prints and negatives are marked with the vehicle order number and many images are loose pages from a scrapbook. Images of body construction, interior, and body detail are captured for some vehicles. Non-vehicle subjects include the [1929] Paris, France, Auto Salon. Non-Brunn & Company subjects include several of images of the Aqua Cheetah, an amphibious vehicle built for the United States Army by the Amphibian Car Corporation. Another group of photographs are labeled “Best of Brunn” I and II which are an assortment of photos from various car models.

The Sales and Marketing series consists of brochures, print advertisements, owner lists, price lists, and a number of large-format upholstery and paint samples. The series also includes a Customer Order Book for 1935-1937. This journal records all vehicles built by Brunn & Company during that time period, with entries for order number, order date, body style, model number, customer name, body number, trim and paint specification, intermediate construction dates, and vehicle completion dates.


Cadets of Temperance (N.Y.) papers, 1847-1850

139 items

The Cadets of Temperance (N.Y.) papers contain correspondence, meeting minutes, financial records, and printed materials concerning the Eagle and Cygnet Sections of the Cadets of Temperance in northwestern New York.

The Cadets of Temperance (N.Y.) papers contain 17 letters, 102 records, and 20 printed items, spanning 1847-1850. The majority of the items concern the Eagle Section of the Cadets of Temperance in Rush, New York, but a few items pertain to the Cygnet Section of Rochester, New York, and the Rush Division of the Sons of Temperance of Rush, New York.

The Correspondence series contains 17 letters, 1847-1850, relating to the business of both the Cadets of Temperance and the Rush Division of the Sons of Temperance of Rush, New York. Grand Worthy Patron (G.W.P.) John F. Graham is the recipient of over half of the letters, which contain information about meetings, new members, elections, and practices of both groups. A letter of December 4, 1847, written by A.B. Clemons describes the threat to temperance posed by the availability of rum in Palmyra, New York. Charles E. Ford wrote a letter about the behavioral problems of members, including one man's refusal to sit down when the gavel sounded (December 13, 1847). On December 15, 1848, Daniel Cody wrote concerning the difficulty of finding adult leadership for the Cadets of Temperance because of the ban on tobacco. Also present are several letters between local sections that were collaborating to put on events.

The Records series spans 1848-1850 and contains several subseries pertaining to the Eagle Section of the Cadets of Temperance: Meeting Records, Bound Records, Receipts, and Applications. The Meeting Records subseries include minutes, attendance lists, an early constitution written at the first meeting (March 11, 1848), and records of votes taken at meetings. In one such vote, the boys debated whether the "Rough & Ready Society is more beneficial to society than the Cadets," which was affirmed by a vote of 7 to 6 (June 21, 1848). In another, they decided the question of whether "the negroes have been abused more than the Indians" (November 29, 1848). These records also document the election of officers, cases of rule violation by members and their punishments, and the payment of initiation and monthly dues. The Bound Records subseries contains three volumes: a book of meeting minutes for March 1848-March 1849 and two membership books that track fee payments for 1848. The Receipts subseries contains five small bundles of receipts for initiation and membership dues, totaling 60 items. The Applications subseries consists of 18 applications for membership, with name, residence, age, and recommender of each applicant.

The Printed Material series covers 1848-1850, and includes constitution and by-laws for the Cygnet Section of the Cadets of Temperance (1848), the Rush Division of the Sons of Temperance (1849), and the Eagle Section of the Cadets of Temperance (n.d.). Also in this series are several instruction cards, an undated booklet with songs and recitations, and a document containing the Cadets' 1850 password.

The Realia Series comprises a wooden box containing two ceremonial collars and a gavel. These items are housed in the Clements Library Graphics Division.


Charles Snyder papers, 1857-1866

0.5 linear feet

The Charles Snyder papers contain correspondence between Snyder, a soldier in the 50th New York Engineers, his future wife, and other family members, concerning soldiers' duties and attitudes, religious activities, and other topics.

The Charles Snyder papers contain 182 letters to and from Snyder, 1857-1866, and one carte-de-visite photograph of him in uniform. Charles wrote 67 letters; his future wife, Hannah Wright, wrote 77; his sister Lizzie wrote 10; and his brother Steve wrote 8. Miscellaneous friends and family contributed an additional 20 letters.

The 14 letters predating Snyder's enlistment concern his teaching career, study at the University of Albany, religious activities, and family news from several of his sisters. After the outbreak of the Civil War, Snyder commented regularly on the conflict; he stated that the "strongest moral power" would be needed by soldiers in order to resist the temptations of camp life (September 17, 1861) and described a visit to the barracks of his brother William, a soldier in the 97th New York Infantry (January 25, 1861).

Between Snyder's enlistment in August 1862 and the end of the war, almost all of the correspondence is between Charles Snyder and his future wife, Hannah ("Nannie") Wright. In his letters, Snyder gave his frank opinions of various aspects of the war, often influenced by his strong religious convictions. Snyder initially felt that a recruiter had deceived him about the character of the regiment he had joined, particularly objecting to the men's swearing and drinking, and in several early letters, expressed his disillusionment with their behavior, as well as with the Union's mounting defeats. In other letters, he described his duties with the 50th Engineers, including building and destroying roads and bridges, constructing rafts, unloading trains, clearing brush, filling ditches, and moving boats, but wrote "that our country is receiving the full benefit of our sacrifices is not so clear to me" (November 27, 1862).

Snyder's letters provide many rich details of his experiences, such as the taunting by Confederates wielding a sign reading "Burnside stuck in the mud" (January 25, 1863), the universal dislike of the strict pass system instituted by the army (August 30, 1863), and the eating of a Thanksgiving turkey that he and his friends named "Jeff Davis" (November 28, 1863). On several occasions, he wrote to Hannah regarding the morale of the Army of the Potomac, discussing their "unabated" confidence in General Joseph Hooker (May 7, 1863) and stating that they did not consider Chancellorsville a total defeat, especially with the death of Stonewall Jackson, which he considered "equivalent to the loss of many thousand men" (May 20, 1863). Many of Snyder's 1865 letters relate to his promotion to first lieutenant and his desire to return home to Hannah, whom he intended to marry.

In her letters, Hannah Wright discussed religious activities (including involvement with the Tract Society), teaching, and family news, and she also expressed concern and affection for Charles. Later correspondence indicated her increasing involvement in the Union cause, including going to meetings of the U.S. Sanitary Commission (December 21, 1864), and knitting for soldiers. Wright shared Snyder's religious devotion and strict moral code. She reacted strongly to his news that Mary Todd Lincoln had worn makeup to a reception held for soldiers by President Lincoln, writing "It is a sad pity Mrs. Lincoln isn't a true woman" and calling it a "sin" (February 19, 1864). Letters from Snyder's brother Steve and sister Lizzie are primarily personal, regarding health, social visits, and news about other enlisted friends and neighbors.


David Cope Papers, 1972-2013 (majority within 1980-2013)

22.0 Linear Feet — 21 record center boxes and 1 oversize flat box, approximately 22 linear feet.

David Cope is a poet in the Objectivist tradition and the founder of Nada Press, a small press which publishes the literary magazine Big Scream and other poetry. Cope, a University of Michigan graduate and lifelong Michigan resident, teaches literature and writing at Grand Rapids Community College and Western Michigan University. The collection documents Cope's writing, editing, and to some extent teaching and other spheres of Cope's life, through correspondence, manuscripts, notes, printed material, photographs, and videotapes.

David Cope made his first donation of papers to the Special Collections Library in 1987. Since then he has continued to make frequent contributions. The David Cope Papers cover Cope's writing and correspondence from the 1970s to the present, as well as his editing and teaching activities. In addition to offering insight into Cope's work, the collection details some of the activities and thoughts of friends and fellow writers and poets; in particular, Jim Cohn, Antler, and Jeff Poniewaz. Not currently well-documented are the more personal aspects of Cope's life--especially his family life--except for those details made available through his writings and correspondence.

The David Cope Papers are divided into nine series: the Correspondence and Name File, Writing and Editing, Teaching, Other Activities, Printed Material, Personal, Photographs, Audiovisual, and Oversize Material. Books and serial publications (periodicals) from Cope's library have been removed from the collection. They have been cataloged individually and are shelved by call number in the Special Collections Library. They can be located using Mirlyn, the University of Michigan's Library Catalog.


De Witt and Sarah Clarke papers, 1864-1900 (majority within 1864-1865)

0.2 linear feet

Collection of correspondence belonging to De Witt and Sarah Clarke, who were residents of Battle Creek, Michigan during the Civil War. Bulk of collection consists of letters Sarah sent De Witt from Michigan while he was serving in the 2nd Missouri Cavalry. Remainder of the collection includes personal correspondence with other family members and friends as well as De Witt's business correspondence. Bulk of business correspondence dates after De Witt relocated the family to the developing town of Le Mars, Iowa in 1871, where he was a prominent merchant and community leader.

The collection consists of Sarah and De Witt Clarke's personal correspondence and De Witt's business correspondence. The bulk of the collection consists of letters from Sarah to De Witt, written from Michigan while De Witt was away with Merrill's Horse in Arkansas and Tennessee from 1864 to 1865. In her letters, Sarah expresses anxiety for her husband, reports on home and family life, and describes caring for their child in his absence. The collection includes De Witt Clarke's letters to his wife and personal correspondence with other family members and friends during and after the war. De Witt Clarke's business correspondence dates from after the Civil War and includes receipts, ledgers, price lists, notices, and advertisements, as well as correspondence with typewriter manufacturers in New York and Ohio.

Also included in the collection are typewritten transcriptions and lists of letters compiled by Anne Meis Knupfer.


Don Werkheiser Papers, 1885-1998 (majority within 1950-1994)

8 linear feet

Don Werkheiser was a teacher, writer, and philosopher-reformer active in the last half of the 20th century. He is best described as an individualist anarchist and libertarian. Most of his writings center on the philosophy of Mutual Option Relationship, which he developed and promoted throughout his life. It is multidisciplinary in its nature but based mainly on principles of equal rights and freedom of the individual. The eight linear feet of papers consist primarily of Werkheiser's writings (in the form of notes, drafts, and finished typescripts), correspondence with friends and colleagues, and related ephemera. A small number of photographs, materials documenting Werkheiser's interests and activities, and works by associates of Werkheiser are also present.

Don Werkheiser, like many of his peers, received little recognition for his ideas and efforts during his lifetime, even among the relatively small circle of individualist anarchists within which he interacted. The papers consist mainly of various iterations of his Mutual Option Relationship philosophy and methodologies for realizing it, as well as his thoughts on the numerous social, economic, and political problems that he saw in contemporary American society. There is also correspondence with friends and associates in his intellectual and ideological sphere. The ephemera in the collection--consisting of newspaper clippings; pamphlets; and extracts from periodicals, books, and monographs, are significant because of their subject area (mainly freedom of speech), their relative obscurity, and also Werkheiser's extensive annotations. These materials are supplemented by a very small number of photographs.

The Don Werkheiser Papers (8 linear feet) have been divided into six series: Writings, Correspondence, Other Activities, Works by Others, Photographs, and Ephemera. Originally included with the Don Werkheiser Papers was a large collection of books and pamphlets by Theodore Schroeder, an important influence on Werkheiser, as well as published works by other authors. These have been removed and cataloged separately.

There is a significant amount of material in the Don Werkheiser Papers having to do with Theodore Schroeder. In addition to championing free speech causes, Schroeder developed a system of psychological thought which he named "evolutionary psychology." He was also interested in erotogenic interpretations of religious practices, and his writings on this topic generated much controversy in his day. Werkheiser was profoundly influenced by evolutionary psychology and other areas of Schroeder's thought, especially his advocacy of free speech. This is indicated not only in Werkheiser's own writings, but also in his substantial files of material by and about Schroeder and in a small amount of correspondence between the two, and between Schroeder and others. (As a point of clarification, Schroeder's evolutionary psychology appears to be entirely unrelated to the discipline of the same name established by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby in the 1990s.)

There is also a substantial amount of material related to the School of Living (mainly the one in Brookville, Ohio) and the ideas associated with it: decentralism, cooperative living, monetary and tax reform, alternative education, permaculture, wilderness and farmland preservation, and the environment. Its founders, Ralph Borsodi and Mildred Loomis, are also well-represented in the collection--particularly Loomis, who was a close friend of Werkheiser's. (As another point of clarification, the School of Living's journal-newsletter, Green Revolution, is unaffiliated with--and even in direct ideological opposition to--the Green Revolution in agriculture begun in the mid-1940s that encouraged large-scale chemical applications as a means to boost agricultural productivity.)

Other important influences on or associates of Werkheiser represented in the collection are Georgism and Henry George (on which Werkheiser wrote extensively), Laurance Labadie, Ralph Templin, and Arnold Maddaloni. There is also some material by the science fiction writer Robert Anton Wilson.


Edmund Whitman papers, 1830-1881

73 items

The Edmund Whitman papers contain personal and military accounts and records concerning Whitman's teaching, Civil War service as chief quartermaster, and post-war work locating the graves of Union soldiers.

The Edmund Whitman papers contain 23 personal account books/diaries, 3 military account and letter books, a document, and 38 newspaper clippings. The materials span 1830-1881.

The Personal Account Books/Diaries series contains 23 volumes covering 1830-1876. They primarily contain information on Whitman's financial transactions, but also record major life events and feature occasional brief diary entries. While most of the volumes contain information on only one year, Volume I covers 1830-1855 in many brief entries, and several pages in the back of the volume note events such as his wedding to Nancy Russell, which took place "in a Hurricane at K[ingston]" (September 30, 1839), the deaths of his parents and wife, and the dates and places of his children's births and school attendance. The volumes for the years 1851 and 1853 contain only financial entries, which document the economic aspects of running the Hopkins Classical School in Cambridge. In addition to accounts, the 1855 volume contains a page of genealogical information, compiled by Whitman, which sheds light on several generations of the Whitman and Russell lines. Other volumes contain lists of publications and books that Whitman wanted to purchase (1858), and beginning in 1862, scattered military transactions mixed in with personal accounts. Tucked into the pocket of the 1865 volume is a table of the burial locations of approximately 20 Union soldiers who died in Missouri. In late July 1866, Whitman wrote a lengthy entry about cemeteries in Knoxville and Chattanooga, Tennessee. The later books in the series, 1872-1876, document Whitman's travel, interest from investments, and general transactions. The collection also contains two ongoing accounts, placed at the end: one spans 1856-1880, and records transactions related to the National Kansas Committee, and later, the schooling of Whitman's children; and another volume primarily records tuition transactions from the 1840s to the 1870s.

The Military Account Books and Letterbook series contains three items. The first account book covers May 1, 1863-December 1864 and lists payments made by Whitman, mainly to soldiers, on behalf of the United States government. The second volume contains similar records for the period of January 1, 1867-August 20, 1868, when the government undertook efforts to identify the graves of Union soldiers and rebury many of them in national cemeteries. Unlike the previous volume, this book provides information on the reason for each payment, whether "postage," "service," "hired men," "towing," or "purchase." The letterbook covers April 11, 1865-April 25, 1868, and records and summarizes the content of incoming letters to Whitman. The letters mainly contain requests for such items as fuel, clothing, and livestock, or for payments by the government for requisitioned items.

The Miscellaneous series contains a promotion document for Whitman, signed by Ulysses S. Grant (November 15, 1867), and 38 newspaper clippings from the 1850s to the 1870s, mainly pertaining to the Kansas controversy and its aftermath.

The collection also includes nine large format volumes kept by Edmund B. Whitman, containing correspondence, letter abstracts, and accounts of the office of the Assistant and Chief Quartermaster, District of Tennessee.


Edward C. Weber Papers, 1949-2006

28.0 Linear feet (54 manuscript boxes, 1 oversized box.)

Edward C. Weber (1922-2006) was long-time curator of the University of Michigan Special Collection's Joseph A. Labadie Collection of radical history. Under his stewardship, the Labadie Collection grew into one of the premier and most forward-thinking holdings of materials relating to radical and protest groups from the United States and around the world. The Edward C. Weber Papers are made up of the subject's correspondence and biographical materials, written from 1949 to 2006. The bulk of the collection, the correspondence is mostly comprised of Weber's letters soliciting materials on behalf of the Labadie Collection or fielding reference questions from researchers, as well as personal correspondence from the his family and friends. The collection's materials are comprised of letters (typed and handwritten), printed out emails, postcards, greeting cards, news clippings, photographs, printed biographical materials, framed commendations, and other miscellaneous paper materials.

The Edward C. Weber Papers consists of Weber's correspondence with organizations, publishers, researchers, associates, family, and friends, along with biographical materials created for his retirement and memorial services. The collection provides a snapshot of the Joseph A. Labadie Collection and his work there for a 40 year period (1960-2000), as well as a portrait of his personal relationships with friends and family from 1949 to 2005.

The Biographical Materials series contains materials from Weber's retirement celebration and memorial service. The first folder contains past articles and correspondence on paper stock, reprinted for Weber's memorial service in 2006. The second set of items relate to Weber's retirement in 2000. This includes a flyer for his retirement celebration, articles about his retirement, and copied certificates of commendation. In addition, two framed items of commendation are housed in an oversized box.

The Correspondence series makes up the majority of the collection and is comprised of 27 linear feet of paper material housed in 54 manuscript boxes, foldered alphabetically by correspondent or corresponding organization. Individual letters, cards, photographs and other types of written communication are arranged chronologically within each subject's folder(s). The majority of folders are dedicated to outreach by Weber to various radical groups and individuals soliciting material donations to contribute to the Labadie Collection. His written responses to reference inquiries for items within the Labadie Collection make up another significant segment of the series. Most of these materials are typewritten letters officially sent on behalf of the Labadie Collection and University of Michigan Special Collections. Some later letters were written by Labadie Collection assistants during Weber's time there and with his knowledge. Since Weber never used email, his letters sent on behalf of the Labadie Collection were typed on a manual or electric typewriter. There are occasional handwritten notations on some of these letters and a few emails printed out so he could read them. Other folders in the series contain personal correspondence from friends, family, and other associates. These items are made up mostly of handwritten notes, postcards, greeting cards, newspaper clippings, printouts of emails, occasional photographs, and other miscellaneous items. Many of the folders were removed from the general Labadie correspondence files in 2008 and a listing was made of them at that time. The rest of the series is made up of personal correspondence Weber stored in his home.

Within the series are several notable, lengthy correspondence partners including Theodore Adams (1950-2004, 21 folders), James Q. Belden (1952-2000, 11 folders), George Nick (1949-1991, 12 folders), Curtis and Clarice Rodgers (1961-2005, 18 folders), and Henry Van Dyke (1950-2004, 12 folders). The series also includes correspondence from notable individuals such as civil rights activist Malcolm X, graphic novelist Harvey Pekar, former Secretary of State Eliot Abrams, the White Panther Party, among many others.


LC=Labadie Collection ECW=Edward C. Weber


Ella Reeve Bloor Papers, 1912-1922

2.0 Linear feet (4 manuscript boxes)

Ella Reeve "Mother" Bloor (1862–1951) was an American activist dedicated to the labor movement, the Socialist Party, and numerous radical groups.

The Ella Reeve Bloor Papers consist of two linear feet of personal and professional correspondence, notebooks and pamphlets, clippings, publications, and printed ephemera.

The collection, divided into 4 series, documents her activities as suffragist, free speech advocate, and labor organizer.

The Correspondence series consists of manuscript letters betweeen Bloor and her family, and correspondence between Bloor and her colleagues.

The majority of the family letters are to/from her children. Her letters, written during her travels, provide information about individuals and events associated with her work. Most of the family letters include the month and day written, but not the year. As a result, the letters are arranged in non-specific order.

Bloor's correspondence with colleagues and organizations are arranged chronologically. Included are letters from various Socialist societies, state and local government offices, newspapers, and labor unions, such as the New York State Committee Socialist Party, United Cloth and Cap Makers, Tailors’ Union. In addition, there are handwritten letters from other activists involved in socialist and labor causes (e.g., letter from Joseph W. Sharts, counsel for Eugene V. Debs in his trial at Cleveland, Ohio; Theodore H. Lunde, officer of the Peace Council in Chicago).

The Publications series includes several small booklets, articles, a journal, and a report on the professional achievements of Harold M. Ware.


Elsie Leake papers, 1861-1865

44 items

The Elsie Leake papers consist of 44 incoming letters to Elsie Leake, a young woman from Rochester, New York. The letters range from 1861 to 1865, and are primarily from Union soldiers from Rochester, New York, but also from several female friends.

The Elsie Leake papers are comprised of 44 letters written to Elsie Leake, dated between 1861 and 1865, primarily from Union soldiers, but also from several female friends. Leake seemed to have a “pen-pal” relationship with a number of the soldiers from Rochester, New York. The most prolific correspondent was Henry Tracy, of the 13th New York Infantry, who wrote 14 letters to Leake between 1862 and 1864. In his correspondence, he describes a stay in the hospital on David’s Island, fighting in the Bermuda Hundred campaign, but above all, his heath, the weather, and food. Another of Leake’s correspondents is Tracy’s friend Richard Ambrose, also of the 13th New York Infantry, who wrote 12 letters about his adjustment to army life and its hardships (“The muck was knee deep but it is all for my country it is a big thing but i can not see it,” May 17, 1862). Elsie Leake’s nephew, Alonzo D. Baker, of the New York 89th infantry, also wrote three letters, briefly describing his regiment’s movements and his duties (“last night i was on picket it was purtey rough for the first time.” April 12, 1864). Two letters from William Simpson (26th New York Cavalry) and five from James Simpson provide similar views of the everyday experiences of soldiers.

Several letters from female friends and relatives shed more light on Elsie Leake herself. Both “B.” and “Louise” informed Leake of their attempts to find a husband for her. In a letter of December 9, 1861, Louise wrote, “I have a nice young man here for you. I was showing all of my likenesses one day and he fairly fell in love with you no joking.” Their letters also describe dinners, parties, and other social events.


Fifth Estate Records, 1967-2016 (majority within 1982-1999)

17 Linear Feet (34 manuscript boxes)

Politically and socially radical underground newspaper founded in Detroit, Michigan, in 1965. The tabloid reflected an anarchist-libertarian philosophy during the 1970s under the influence of the "Eat the Rich Gang," which included editors Peter and Marilyn Werbe. Throughout the 1980s, the Fifth Estate continued to cover local issues and events, along with critiques of modern industrial society and articles covering the radical environmental movement. In 1999, the "Alternative Press Review" described the paper as an "anti-technology, anti-civilization, anarcho-primitivist quarterly."Collection consists of correspondence, business and office records, submissions for possible publication, clippings, flyers, posters, and photographs documenting the activities of the Fifth Estate primarily from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s. Financial documents, advertising, subscription and book orders, as well as legal documents regarding lawsuits are included. Correspondents include Bob Black, Peter Werbe, Marilyn Werbe, David Watson, John Zerzan, Lorraine Perlman, and editor (2002- ) Andy Smith (also known under the pseudonyms Sunfrog, Anu Bonobo, and Andrew Smith). The bulk of the audiovisual and digital media relate to Peter Werbe's Late Night radio show that dealt with similar topics as Fifth Estate.

The Fifth Estate Records document the activities of the Fifth Estate newspaper, one of the oldest underground newspapers in the United States. The records date primarily from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s. The record group has been divided into eight series: Historical, Correspondence, Publishing Material, Business and Office Records, Topical File, Miscellaneous Anarchist and Social Protest Ephemera, Photographs, and Audiovisual and Digital Media. There is a good deal of overlap among the series due to the work processes of the staff at the Fifth Estate and the lack of organization among the various accessions received by the library.


Finding Aid for Tyler-Montgomery-Scott Family Album, ca. 1870-1938

approximately 275 items in 1 album

The Tyler-Montgomery-Scott family album chronicles multiple generations of the Tyler, Montgomery, and Scott families of the Philadelphia area from the 1860s through the 1930s. It includes approximately 275 items including studio portrait photographs, informal snapshots, newspaper clippings, postcards, letters, and other ephemera.

The Tyler-Montgomery-Scott family album chronicles multiple generations of the Tyler, Montgomery, and Scott families of the Philadelphia area from the 1860s through the 1930s. It includes approximately 275 items including studio portrait photographs, informal snapshots, newspaper clippings, postcards, letters, and other ephemera.

The album (33 x 25.5 cm) is string-bound with grey cloth covers. Most photographs in the album have detailed handwritten captions identifying people, often with their middle or maiden names as well as the location and date. The presentation of the album is not strictly chronological, especially in the latter half. The early generations of Tylers are represented in photographic formats such as cartes-de-visite, tintypes and cabinet cards, while later generations are represented in snapshots and postcards. When the album reaches the mid-twentieth century, it begins to resemble the modern family album with various forms of ephemera (newspaper clippings, drawings, letters, Christmas cards, etc.) supplementing the photographs of family and friends.

The album begins with a portrait of Frederick Tyler, his daughter Sarah Sophia Cowen, granddaughter Kate “Gwen” Cowen Pratt, and great-granddaughter Kate Pratt. George F. and Louisa R. Tyler as well as their children (including Sidney F. and Helen Beach Tyler) are also featured in the initial section of the album, along with many extended family members, friends, nurses, and pets. Among the family friends pictured are painter Frederick Church, writer Bret Harte, Leonor Ruiz de Apodaca y Garcia-Tienza, Gen. William Buel Franklin, patent lawyer and historian Woodbury Lowery, and the Duke and Duchess of Arcos (Jose Ambrosio Brunetti and Virginia Woodbury Lowery Brunetti). Several interior views of rooms in George F. and Louisa R. Tyler’s home on 201 South 15th St. taken in 1896 are also present, including a photograph of the “Children’s play room” that features their granddaughter Hope Binney Tyler Montgomery holding a doll. Hope, her parents Mary W. and Sidney F. Tyler, her husband Robert “Bob” L. Montgomery, and their children Mary, Ives, and Alexander are well-represented in the album.

Of particular interest are a number of photographs in different sections of the album that depict Theodore Roosevelt and his family. Some of these images are formal studio portraits, while others are more candid snapshots of Roosevelt with other people. One snapshot shows the family at play on the grounds of Sagamore Hill in 1897. Two photos taken at the White House including Helen Beach Tyler, daughter of George F. and Louisa R. Tyler and second cousin to Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt, are labelled “taken by Ted Roosevelt,” possibly referring to President Roosevelt’s son Theodore Roosevelt III. Helen Beach Tyler may be the “Nellie” who was the recipient of a partial letter included in the album which describes conditions at a wartime hospital (most likely in Italy) in 1915. Only the first two pages of this letter are included, and there is no indication of the identity of the writer. Helen Beach Tyler may also have been the principal compiler of this album. Supporting this possibility is the presence of an interior view of a bedroom at 201 South 15th St. (George F. and Louisa R. Tyler’s home) captioned as “Mother’s bedroom,” a signed portrait of Englishman Lytton Sothern captioned “Given to me by Mr. Sothern June 1872. Mr. Edward Sothern & his son Lytton Sothern sat at our table on ‘Oceanic’ my first trip to Europe,” and a portrait of Sara Schott von Schottenstein, Baronin von Prittwitz-Gaffron, bearing the inscription “to her friend Helen Tyler 1880.”

Other items of interest include portraits of Col. August Cleveland Tyler; several portraits of Brig. Gen. Robert Ogden Tyler; a portrait of French pianist Antoine Marmontel captioned “Mr. Marmontel Professor au Conservatoire gave us music lessons in Paris 1873-74”; a group portrait of Helen Beach Tyler, Mary L. Tyler, Alice Seward, Kitty Seward, and Ida Vinton posing with a silhouette of Sidney F. Tyler; photographs of painted portraits of George F. Tyler and Hope Binney Tyler Montgomery; a series of photos taken at the Spanish Embassy in Mexico City, some of which include the Duke and Duchess of Arcos, Woodbury Lowery, and Archibald Lowery; portraits of the Prittwitz-Gaffron family in Germany; photos taken around the world in various locations including Egypt, India, Germany, and Italy; images taken during an exhibition of sculpture by Stella Elkins Tyler (wife of George Frederick Tyler, Jr.), as well as a program from the event; and photos showing the family of Helen Hope and Edgar Scott.


Frederick North collection, 1775-1783

5 items

The Frederick North collection contains four letters written by North between 1775 and 1783 and a financial record for extraordinary military services and provisions incurred by and paid for by North and George Cooke as Paymasters of Forces, 1766-1767.

The Frederick North collection contains 4 letters from North to various recipients, 1775-1783 and one 1766-1767 record of payment for services. In the first letter (April 17, 1775), written to an unknown recipient, North mentioned transferring a "Dr. Tatten" to Westminster, which he considered "more profitable" than other institutions. He also expressed regret that John Burgoyne did not attend a meeting at which Lord Dartmouth gave "explicit & proper" instructions. In his letter of August 22, 1782, also to an unknown recipient, North referred to a month-long "Tour of visits," which prevented him from writing sooner. He pledged his assistance in recruiting men for the 40th Regiment of Foot, recently renamed the 2nd Somersetshire after Somerset County, but opined that he could "do but little" because of his residence outside the area. In the next piece of correspondence, dated January 19, 1783, North congratulated William Eden on the birth of a son, accepted the role of godfather, and noted that their friendship was a "principal happiness" in his life. North wrote the final letter to the Duke of Portland, September 23, 1783, informing him of the material needs of emigrants from East Florida to the Bahamas, and inquiring if the army's extra provisions could be sent to the Bahamas for the settlers.

Also included in the collection is a 7-page "Account of Extraory Services incurred & Paid by the right honble Lord North & Geo. Cooke," covering 1766-1767, when North and Cooke served as Paymasters of the Forces. This document contains sums paid to various military officials for services and supplies in Germany and colonies such as Grenada, East Florida, and Jamaica. Also provided in the document is a list of names of the compensated and dates of warrant.


George C. Nichols papers, 1861-1865 (majority within 1862-1863)

36 items

The George C. Nichols papers document Nichols' service with the 25th Massachusetts Infantry, including participation at the battles of Roanoke Island and New Bern, stays in hospitals, and changing attitudes toward the war.

The George C. Nichols papers consist of 36 letters written by Nichols to family members during his service with the 25th Massachusetts Infantry. His letters span October 5, 1861, to February 21, 1865. The tone of Nichols' correspondence changes drastically over the three years that it represents. Early letters describe the "fun" and "good times" that he had while occupied as a guard (October 5, 1861) and as a sailor on the steamer New York (January 10, 1862). However, by the summer of 1862, news of bad food and illness dominates the correspondence, as Nichols had begun a series of hospital stays. On August 10, 1862, Nichols wrote, "I wish I was out of this damd hot place & out of this war[.] don't you tell aney one for it would go al over the street that I was sick of it…" (August 10, 1862). In letters from this point on, Nichols wrote about such topics as his treatment at Beaufort Hospital, including care by nuns (September 21, 1862), his thoughts on the progress of the war (June 21, 1863 -- "The Rebs are making a raid up into Pennsylvania. I am glad of it the North are a sleep and hav [sic] been for the last six months they dont seem to care much about the War…"), and his desire to return home. Although Nichols barely mentioned the action that he saw as a soldier, his letters clearly document his morale and medical treatment. Several sources state that George C. Nichols of the 25th Massachusetts Infantry was captured at the siege of Petersburg on May 16, 1864; unfortunately, his letters, which are concentrated around 1862-1863, never address his capture or time in prison.


George Montagu, 4th Duke of Manchester papers, 1779-1788

2 linear feet

The Manchester papers primarily contain the diplomatic correspondence, memoranda, and treaty drafts of George Montagu, 4th Duke of Manchester, who was appointed British Ambassador to France to oversee the negotiations regarding the Peace of Paris in 1783.

The Manchester papers contain 250 letters, 30 drafts, 13 instructions, 9 notes, 4 letter books, and a map, spanning 1779 to 1788. These items primarily relate to diplomacy and Manchester's role in the negotiation of the Peace of Paris in 1783.

The Documents and Correspondence series contains 331 items pertaining to British politics, the American Revolution, the negotiations of the Peace of Paris, and other topics. These include diplomatic correspondence, memoranda, drafts of treaty clauses, and instructions for the period of 1783 to 1784, when Manchester participated in the negotiations with France, Spain, and the Netherlands as ambassador to France at the end of the American Revolutionary war.

Just nine letters in the collection predate 1783. These include several accounts of the British military situation in North America from Captain F. Taylor, Manchester's agent in London, in which Taylor noted that "things are as bad, as they can be" and criticized British politicians for leaving London for their country homes in a time of crisis (September 30, 1780). He also condemned the naval tactics of Admiral Henry Darby (February 12, 1781) and commented on British ships headed to Jamaica (October 30, 1781). Beginning in the spring of 1783, the primary topic of the letters and documents shifts to diplomacy and negotiations between Great Britain, France, Spain and the Netherlands. This includes the April 23, 1783, instructions given to Manchester by King George III, which discuss the release of prisoners, the rights of the "French naturalized English," and mandate that Manchester maintain frequent contact with other "Ministers employed in Foreign Courts."

The collection also contains numerous drafts of the treaty's articles and clauses, nearly all of which are in French. With these, it is possible to trace the course of negotiations through the various changes proposed and accepted by the principal negotiators. The drafts of articles pertain to the wide array of issues addressed in the treaty, including boundary negotiations and the ceding of territory, the privileges of British citizens in areas newly controlled by other nations, trading privileges in the West Indies, fishing rights in Newfoundland, use of wood cut in Central America, the release of prisoners of war, and other topics.

Also included is Manchester's incoming and outgoing correspondence concerning the treaty and negotiations, including several dozen letters from the French foreign minister, Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes; a roughly equal number from the Spanish Ambassador to France, Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Comte d'Aranda; and 23 letters from British secretary of state for foreign affairs Charles James Fox. Correspondence concerns such issues as possession of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon and associated fisheries in the north Atlantic, restitutions to be made in India between the English and the French, and minor changes to the wording of the treaty. Correspondence between Manchester and Fox, in particular, reveals the inner workings of the British side of negotiations, including concerns that plenipotentiary David Hartley would "be taken in by [Benjamin] Franklin" and "disgrace both himself and us" (May 15, 1783), and comments on Fox's strong support for Russia and Austria (August 4, 1783). In several letters, Fox comments on specific articles within the treaties.

The collection also has a substantial amount of correspondence relating to diplomacy and European politics, which Manchester received in his position as ambassador. This includes complaints by British citizens about their alleged mistreatment at the hands of the French, such as the seizure of the merchant ship Hereford after it took shelter from a storm in Nantes, France (May 17, 1783), and the capture of the ship Merlin by privateers ([May 1781]). Several of Manchester's colleagues wrote to him about Russian politics and activities, including Sir Robert Murray Keith, who described growing tensions with the Turks (May 30, 1783), and John Collet, who gave an account of the Russian mode of colonizing Crimea, which was to pay Genoan families to settle there (June 2, 1783).

Just 27 letters postdate 1783. These give news of European politics, including information on the Russo-Turkish War, a commercial treaty between France and Portugal (February 2, 1787), and several updates on the movements and activities of the French Navy.

The Letter Books and Map series, 1782-1783, contains four volumes of correspondence and a 1783 map. The first volume contains letters and extracts of correspondence written by Alleyne Fitzherbert to Thomas Robinson, 2nd Baron Grantham (27 letters) and Charles Fox (10 letters). Covering a total of 216 pages, the letters span November 29, 1782, to May 3, 1783. They chiefly concern the peace negotiations, including discussion of the restoration of enemy ships (December 7, 1782), the wording of the treaty's preamble (January 19, 1783), ongoing negotiations relating to territory in India, and numerous associated topics.

The second volume, which covers August 9, 1782, to May 30, 1783, contains letters written by Grantham to Fitzherbert (86 letters) and Fox (7 letters), totaling 427 pages. These letters announce various appointments and refer frequently to peace negotiations. Also included are many drafts of treaty articles.

The third volume is divided into two parts, which cover April 30, 1782, to December 7, 1783. The first part includes 10 letters between Grenville and Fox, and two between Grenville and Shelburne. These contain further discussion of territory negotiations and the demands of the French, Spanish, and Dutch. The second part of the volume has 58 letters with 49 enclosures, written by Manchester to Fox.

The fourth volume contains 67 letters from Fox to Manchester, dated April 29 to December 2, 1783 and occupying 169 pages. In his letters to Manchester, Fox wrote about the Spanish treatment of British citizens, control of the wood trade in Central America, possession of Tobago, and specific treaty articles.

The map, dated 1783, is housed in the Map Division and depicts several rivers in the Yucatan Peninsula.


George Thompson papers, 1784-1831

0.25 linear feet

The George Thompson papers contain letters and documents primarily concerning Kentucky politics and conflicts between Native Americans and white settlers at the close of the 18th-century and during the war of 1812.

The George Thompson papers contain 32 items (29 letters and 3 documents) spanning 1784-1831. The materials relate to George Claiborne Thompson, who served as a Virginia colonel in the Revolutionary War and a surveyor and politician thereafter, and his son, George Claiborne Thompson, Jr. Isaac Shelby, the governor of Kentucky, wrote the first 4 letters in the collection between 1784 and 1788 to the senior Thompson. The first three contain details related to the surveying of land in present-day Kentucky, including information on geographical features, the expense of making surveys, and land claims. In the fourth letter, dated November 14, 1788, Shelby described a case of an African American man who was brought from Maryland to the "District of Kentucky" and had applied for his freedom under the Acts of Assembly of 1778 and 1785. Shelby noted that the case might "open the way to every negroe in the District to take the same steps."

A substantial number of letters in the collection concern Native Americans, particularly their ongoing clashes with white settlers. On June 1, 1790, George Thompson wrote to James Madison, describing a three-hour battle on the Ohio River between his party and 61 "Indians," who took two boats and other property. He also reported several other incidents, including the killing of John May by natives and the scalping of three white children in the area. Other correspondents reported on engagements with Native Americans in the War of 1812. On February 20, 1813, Isaac Shelby related an account by Frenchman Adelard Labbedie of the Battle of River Raisin, including the surrender of General Winchester and the killing of wounded American prisoners by "about 10 Indians."

The George Thompson papers also shed light on American and Kentucky politics in the late-18th and early-19th centuries. They include U.S. Senator John Breckinridge's discussion of the Louisiana Purchase and the surrender of New Orleans (November 4, 1803), Isaac Shelby's rationale for not running for Congress (April 23, 1803), and several reports on the Kentucky legislature by George Thompson, Jr. On October 16, 1821, he wrote to his father informing him that he, Thompson, Jr., had been named speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives for the new term. The collection closes with several undated legal documents stemming from lawsuits over Kentucky land between George Thompson, Sr., and several other men.


George William Taylor papers, 1823-1862

103 items

The George William Taylor papers contain correspondence, documents, photographs, and a journal related to the life of Civil War general George W. Taylor. The collection mainly consists of letters Taylor wrote during his periods in military service and travels abroad.

The George William Taylor papers contain 103 items, ranging in date from 1823 to 1862. The collection includes 92 letters, 1 diary, 4 legal documents, 2 photographs, several sheets of obituary clippings, and some miscellaneous items.

Taylor wrote most of the letters to his family during his periods abroad. The first major section of letters contains letters he wrote home to his parents and family during his time in the Navy while sailing the Mediterranean from 1828 to 1831 on the U.S.S. Fairfield. In these letters, Taylor gave descriptions of naval life, as well as observations of the ports he visited around the Mediterranean, including Gibraltar, Smyrna, Minorca, Venice (July 23, 1829: ". . . that most supurb city so appropriately stiled the 'Ocean Queen' at once spread out before us and free to feast our eyes on her unequaled singularity of beauty."), Palermo, and Marseilles (January 10, 1831: "The French are indeed a very warlike people you see it everywhere, every body is a soldier and there is no doubt that the military science is more generally diffused in France than in any other country.").

The next section of letters contains correspondence written during his time in the army in the Mexican War, from 1847 to 1848, and over the course of his trip to California during the Gold Rush, from 1849 to 1851. Though he saw little action during the Mexican War, his letters give some rich descriptions of a traveler’s view of the country (in particular, see July 21, 1847). Taylor’s California letters detail life in a California mining town, as well as his struggles to make money. After a fire destroyed part of San Francisco, Taylor wrote, "Confidence is destroyed and many will gather together what little they can and go home tired of the struggle . . . Thank God I owe nobody here I have never compromised my honour or self respect and if I carry home nothing it will be with some satisfaction to come out of the ordeal of Ca. untarnished" (May 5, 1851). A large portion of the letters during this period are from Taylor to his wife Mary, who remained in New Jersey during his travels. The collection also contains occasional responses from her, in which she gave news from home and expressed her loneliness over Taylor’s absence.

In the final section are several documents and letters from 1862, during Taylor’s brief time in the Union Army before his death. Several letters are addressed to Taylor from Union General Philip Kearny (1815-1862). Included are Taylor’s will (March 2, 1862) and an October 1862 letter of condolence, addressed to his daughter Mary.

Also in the collection are a 144-page journal from Taylor’s time in the Mediterranean, in which he wrote daily observations about his travels and life in the Navy; two photos of Taylor in Civil War uniform; and a collection of obituary clippings.


George W. Martin papers, 1864-1865

16 items

The George W. Martin papers consist of letters from a young soldier in the 22nd Pennsylvania Cavalry to his parents in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania.

The George W. Martin papers consist of 16 letters from Martin to his parents, dated between March 1864 and May 1865. Many of the letters are postmarked from Virginia and include items sent from the Harper's Ferry area, with a number of the 1865 letters posted from New Creek, West Virginia. The letters primarily concern daily camp life, such as a fire in the camp (March 31, 1864) and the theft of two pounds of Martin’s coffee (January 11, 1865). Martin also frequently recounted hardships (“We are almost starving these three or four days.” February 11, 1865), and continually discussed and requested care packages from his parents. On April 16, 1865, Martin wrote to his parents concerning the death of Lincoln, “We got very bad news here yesterday that President Lincoln was shot. And also secretary Steward was stabbed and his son. Dear Mother I am affraid that is a going to put the war back it will encourage the rebbles and they will fight the harder now since he is killed.” The letters document the experiences of a young adolescent faced for the first time with the hardships of army life.


Gregory M. Franzwa Lincoln Highway Papers., 1913-2009 (majority within 1992-2007)

4.5 Linear feet (9 manuscript boxes)

The Gregory M. Franzwa Lincoln Highway Papers consist of correspondence, publications, clippings, administrative papers, and audiovisual materials that not only discuss the inner workings of the Lincoln Highway Association that Franzwa helped spearhead in 1992 but also showcase the legacy of the historic interstate.

The Gregory M. Franzwa Lincoln Highway Papers, donated by Franzwa's widow, Kathy, on June 26, 2015, is a compilation of correspondence, administrative documents, guides, articles, photographs, and audiovisual materials that deal with the running of the Lincoln Highway Association as well as with the history, sites, and legacy associated with the highway itself.

Correspondence: In this series, there are letters and emails arranged chronologically about a variety of subjects including: the publication of Franzwa's books, the formation and functioning of the Lincoln Highway Association, conventions, and information related to the history of the interstate. Some are the most frequent correspondents that appear in this collection are: Bob and Joyce Ausberger, Rob Bauer, Earl W. Givens, Brian Butko, Lawrence R. Eno, Randall A. Wagner, and Esther M. Oyster. Each of these individuals played a role in the management of the organization. Many of the earlier documents in this section deal with the construction of the Lincoln Highway and are photocopies of the originals.

Lincoln Highway Association Administration: The documents in this series relate to the operation of the Lincoln Highway Association. Located first within this section are the membership rosters that are organized by date. There are two rosters from 1992 that contain slightly different information and are separated from the other booklets due to their rarity, fragile condition, and abundant annotations. Following the rosters are the papers of the organization that are arranged chronologically. The types of materials included in the papers are: participant lists, bylaws, mission statements, reports to the board, position descriptions, invitations to events, financial records, meeting notes, and internal communication. There are also awards presented by the Lincoln Highway Association to chapters of the organization as well as to individual members. The Lifetime Membership Awards are arranged alphabetically by last name while all the other certificates are organized chronologically.

Guides: This section consists of brochures, educational materials, information about landmarks along the Lincoln highway, maps, tours, and travel guides. Both the brochures and the maps are alphabetically organized by state while the travel guides are arranged alphabetically. The travel guides from the beginning of the twentieth century are photocopies of the originals. Though many topics appear in this series, Iowa is particularly well represented.

Journals and Clippings: This series is comprised of seventeen journals, arranged chronologically, that contain articles that either mention the activities of the Lincoln Highway Association directly or discuss themes with which this organization contends. There are also clippings that include newspaper articles, periodical pages, and short narratives organized according to date. The older documents in this section have either been printed out or photocopied.

Photographs: In this section, there are seventeen folders of photographs, negatives, film strips, transparencies, and printouts that are predominantly arranged according to chronology. These pictures document landmarks and scenery alongside the Lincoln Highway, Lincoln Highway Association trips and gathering such as the 1992 foundation meeting in Ogden, Iowa, and reproductions of historic images. On the back of many of the sheets of negatives, there is a list detailing the sites depicted along with a date.

Slides: The slides contain images of Lincoln Highway Association members, landmarks and scenery, and reproductions of photographs that had been taken in the early days of the Lincoln Highway's history. Franzwa used these slides, which arrived in carrousels but have since been removed from their initial housing for storage concerns, in presentations about the Lincoln Highway. They have been kept in their original groupings. While some written components to these slideshows are included with the slides, there is also a folder of other scripts as well as introductory information about Franzwa himself.

Audiovisual: The audiovisual materials consist of cassette tapes and digital media. The cassettes contend with topics like: Iowa's relationship with the Lincoln Highway, Utah, and Franzwa's notes on various historic societies. The digital media sub-series is comprised of CDs that contain images of the Lincoln Highway and individuals affiliated with the Lincoln Highway Association. Two of the CDs are pictures that accompany tours, and the PowerPoint is a conglomeration of Edward A. Holden's 1915 expedition.


Grosvenor L. Townsend Scrapbooks, 1893-1910

7 volumes

The Grosvenor L. Townsend scrapbooks consist of 7 volumes containing newspaper clippings, photographs, halftone prints, correspondence, ephemera, printed materials, maps, realia, telegrams, and other miscellaneous documents and materials related to the military career of Grosvenor Lowery Townsend.

The Grosvenor L. Townsend scrapbooks consist of 7 volumes containing newspaper clippings, photographs, halftone prints, correspondence, ephemera, printed materials, maps, realia, telegrams, and other miscellaneous documents and materials related to the military career of Grosvenor Lowery Townsend. Newspaper and journal clippings were mainly taken from New York-based publications. Most of the clippings are in extremely fragile condition. Many clippings are coupled with inscriptions indicating the name and date of the publication they were taken from. Numerous photographs also bear inscribed captions. Each volume measures approximately 25 x 19 cm in size and has marbled paper covers.

Volume 1 (1893-1894--New York; New Jersey)
  • This volume contains materials related to Townsend's service in the New York National Guard, 7th Regiment, Company D, between 1893 and 1894. Items of particular interest include a Grand Army of the Republic report regarding the 7th's service record in the Civil War and during various New York City riots (pg. 1); a group portrait of 7th NYNG Co. D soldiers, including Townsend (figure furthest to the right), at an encampment in Peekskill, New York in June 1893 (pg. 5); clippings related to a mock Civil War battle held at Van Cortlandt Park (pg. 11); clippings related to Townsend's promotion from private to lance-corporal (pg. 13); clippings from the New York Herald and New York Tribune regarding the 7th NYNG relocating to the Seventh Regiment Armory (pgs. 42-45); a group portrait of 7th NYNG members at Sea Girt, New Jersey, in July of 1894 during a visit with New Jersey National Guardsmen (pg. 67); and Townsend's Lance Corporal chevrons (pgs. 92, 93).
Volume 2 (1896--New York)
  • This volume contains materials related to Townsend's service in the New York National Guard, 7th Regiment, Company D, during 1896. Items of particular interest include an engraving depicting Company D winning a chariot race at the 7th Regiment games (pgs. 28, 29); a New York Herald clipping from May 31st 1896 regarding the 7th NYNG's victory over West Point in a baseball match (pg. 39); an American Lithographic Co. halftone reproduction of a Jay Hambidge painting showing the 7th NYNG marching in uniform titled "For Love or War?" (pg. 43); clippings regarding the new regimental clubhouse at the Creedmoor Rifle Range (pg. 45); a private circular for NCOs regarding a regimental parade in honor of Chinese viceroy Li Hongzhang as well as a halftone portrait of Li (pgs. 46, 47); and cartoons from the 7th Regiment Gazette of December 1896 comically depicting track and field events (pg. 61).
Volume 3 (1897-1898--New York)
  • This volume contains materials related to Townsend's service in the New York National Guard, 7th Regiment, Company D, from 1897 to May of 1898. Items of particular interest include a photographs of 7th NYNG officers and NCOs (pgs. 2, 3); halftone images from a 7th NYNG camp (pg. 7); a New York Sun clipping from October 10th 1897 regarding a mock battle at Van Cortlandt Park replete with a topographical map of the park (pg. 11); a New York Herald clipping from October 10th 1897 showing engravings related to "The Battle of Van Cortlandt Park." (pgs. 12, 13); a Harper's Weekly clipping from October 1897 showing halftone reproductions of paintings related to the mock battle at Van Cortlandt Park (pgs. 14, 15); camp scene photographs from June 1897 including one portrait of Townsend in uniform (pg. 23); halftone images showing interior rooms of the Seventh Regiment Armory (pgs. 25-28); a halftone reproduction of an engraving showing 7th NYNG uniforms from 1802 to 1897 (pg. 33); a halftone reproduction from Harper's Weekly vol. 42 no. 2157 of a painting by T. De Thulstrup showing the 7th NYNG being reviewed by Major General Charles F. Roe at the Seventh Regiment Armory (pgs. 76, 77); and multiple clippings related to the 7th NYNG's decision to refrain from allowing members to individually enlist in the regular US Army at the outset of the Spanish-American War so as not to disintegrate the unit (pgs. 82-91).
Volume 4 (1899--New York; Fort Monroe; Washington, D.C.; Cuba)
  • This volume contains materials related to Townsend's service in the 201st Infantry Regiment of New York Volunteers as well as in the US Army 1st Infantry Regiment covering the period from March of 1899 to February of 1900. Items of particular interest include clippings related to Townsend's promotion from Captain of Company M 201st NY Volunteer Infantry Regiment to Second Lieutenant in the US regular army (pg. 5); letters from Townsend to his parents regarding exams he must take at Fort Monroe, Virginia, in order to achieve his promotion (pgs. 8, 9); a picture book containing halftone images from around Fort Monroe (pg. 11); a photograph showing a Fort Monroe examination room black board coupled with text of the example question present on the board (pg. 17); a copy of Townsend's commission as Second Lieutenant (pgs. 22, 23); clippings related to the naval transportation of American troops to Cuba (pg. 33); photographs of various Cuban scenes including an ossuary outside of Havana, Cuban huts and houses, Cuban soldiers being paid, American camps and barracks, a Cuban funeral, Afro-Cubans, underbrush near the mountains, a general view of Pinar del Rio, American military officers and their wives, and American troops in formation (pgs. 36-46, 48-55); a memorandum concerning the administrative use of officers' photographic portraits (pg. 59); photographs showing scenes of Guanajay and Pinar del Rio, Company K rifle ranges, American officers including Lt. McCue, Lt. Tebetts, Lt. Reams, Lt. Beacham, Lt. Wilcox, Dr. Dunchie, and Lt. Reeder, child golf caddies (including a Chinese boy named Ah Soy), a Cuban house being constructed out of palm tree materials, American officers and their wives, a Cuban burial party, soldiers on the march and drilling, an American military graveyard, Cuban ox carts, a railroad station, and churches (pgs. 60-66, 68-82); a clipping including an advertisement for "Mahara's Minstrel Carnival" (pg. 84); and more photographs showing American officers and their wives, Chinese-Cubans, a man posing with a white owl, a well-dressed Cuban man named "Mr. Usavraga", 2nd Battalion shelter camps, American barracks at Guanajay, a group of American officers and several women that includes both Townsend and his mother Emma, the fort at Mariel, a Cuban ship named Alphonso XIII sinking in Mariel Harbor, street scenes in San Antonio and Guanajay, and golf links at Guanajay (pgs. 91-115).
Volume 5 (1900-1901--Cuba; Fort Leavenworth; San Francisco; Philippines)
  • This volume contains materials related to Townsend's service in the US Army 1st Infantry Regiment covering the period from April 1900 to December 1901. Items of particular interest include photographs showing 1st Infantry Company K assembled in uniform at Guanajay and the aftermath of a major storm at Guanajay, (pgs. 1, 2); clippings related to the potential ordering of the 1st Infantry from Cuba to China as well as Yellow Fever outbreaks among American soldiers stationed in Cuba (pgs. 4, 5); a fragment of an envelope bearing an official stamp from a US military surgeon indicating that the parcel had been "Disinfected and Passed" (pg. 9); clippings from August 1900 detailing the ordering of troops to Manila, Philippines, instead of China (pgs. 13-17); photographs showing various scenes from around Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, including the US Army Disciplinary Barracks (pg. 19-24); clippings from October 1900 regarding the capture and subsequent rescue of Capt. Devereux Shields (pgs. 28-30); clippings regarding the launch of the Samar Expedition and insurgent fighting tactics (pgs. 31-33, 40); photographs showing buildings occupied by American troops in Catbalogan, US Army officers and headquarters at Tacloban in February 1901 (pgs. 40-42); a clipping showing a map of the "Peaceful Districts in the Philippines" highlighting areas deemed unsafe for Americans to venture (pg. 46); photographs showing street scenes, Filipino villages and villagers, and landscape views (pgs. 50-54); a letter and associated hand-drawn map sent by Townsend to his mother describing an ambush against American forces in southern Samar in April of 1901 during which Townsend came under fire from a rifle he believed to have belonged to an American soldier who had deserted (pgs. 55, 56); a letter from Townsend to his mother in April of 1901 describing the visit of a group of Palauan tribesmen and counterinsurgency operations (pg. 57); photographs taken by Townsend of the Palauan tribesmen (pgs. 58-60); photographs from around Guiuan, including the U.S. Army headquarters, a 200 year old church door, Lt. Downes and Townsend's quarters, and images of a church and locals in Mercedes (pgs. 62, 63); clippings related to the death of Lt. Downes and Lt. McClure (pg. 68); a typescript copy of a letter initially sent by Townsend to Capt. Willard C. Fisk from July 1901, which the latter forwarded to Townsend's parents, describing engagements in Samar including one that led to Townsend being stabbed in the forearm (pg. 70); clippings related to the death of Lt. Downes and the Balangiga Massacre (pgs. 71-76); a letter from Townsend to his mother dated Oct 5 1901 describing the Balangiga Massacre and how his detachment were very nearly sent there (pg. 77); Townsend's Second Lieutenant bars (pg. 78); and a clipping describing innovative traps used by the Moros against American soldiers (pg. 79).
Volume 6 (1905-1907--Fort Brady; Canada; Philippines)
  • This volume contains materials related to Townsend's service in the US Army 1st Infantry Regiment covering the period from 1905 to September 1907. Items of particular interest include a group portrait showing Townsend, other U.S. Army officers, and several women (including Cornelia T. Getty) standing in front of a house in Canada with snowshoeing equipment (pg. 3); clippings related to Fort Brady and a roster of troops serving in the Department of the Lakes as of August 15th 1905 (pgs. 5-7); clippings related to renewed unrest in China and the shipment of more U.S. troops to the Philippines (pg. 10, 12); clippings related to the transportation of American troops to the Philippines (pgs. 18, 19); clippings related to the celebration of George Washington's birthday at a ceremony in Gibraltar in February 1906 (pgs. 24, 26); a letter from Townsend to his mother from aboard the USS McClellan near Sri Lanka in April 1906 describing the conditions of the ship and the progress of the journey thus far (pg. 36); a typescript summary of Townsend's military career as of July 1906 (pg. 49); panoramic views of Camp Stotsenburg (pgs. 58, 64); a clipping regarding an earthquake in the Philippines in April 1907 (pg. 69); a typescript copy of a memo from September 1907 titled "Regarding the Government of the Philippine Islands With Special Reference to the Subject of Police Protection" (pg. 80); and photographs by Pedro Casanave of the S.S. Mindoro and of "Calle Gen. Hughes" in Iloilo City (pgs. 87, 88).
Volume 7 (1909-1910--Fort Leavenworth; New York)
  • This volume contains materials related to Townsend's service in the US Army 23rd and 1st Infantry Regiments covering the period from August 1909 to August 1910. Items of particular interest include a roster of officers and troops on duty at the Army Service Schools, Fort Leavenworth and the US Military Prison as of November 1909 (pg. 5); a studio portrait of Townsend in uniform taken at Fort Leavenworth (pg. 7); a copy of the September 1910 issue of the Infantry Journal by The United States Infantry Association containing an article written by Townsend titled "The Use and Effect of Flying Machines on Military Operations" (pg. 25); clippings related to practice maneuvers at Pine Camp, New York (pgs. 28-39, 49-58); halftone images showing camp scenes at Pine Camp (pgs. 47, 48); and photographs showing Townsend in uniform, Townsend's parents Malcolm and Emma, and what may have been the Townsend family residence (pg. 59).

In addition to this finding aid, the Clements Library has also created the G. L. Townsend Scrapbook Inventory which serves as an itemized list of the contents of each scrapbook.


Hanuman Books Records, 1978-1996 (majority within 1986-1994)

16 boxes, 16 linear feet

Hanuman Books was founded by Raymond Foye and Francesco Clemente in 1986. The press published small handmade books, primarily of works by contemporary avant-garde writers and rare translations. The administrative and editorial functions were housed in New York's Chelsea Hotel, while printing and binding were done in Madras, India. Through correspondence, invoices, manuscripts, typescripts, artwork, audiotapes, printed ephemera, photographs and books, this collection documents the founding of Hanuman Books, the administration of a small press, Indian printing practices, San Francisco’s North Beach and New York’s Lower East Side art scenes, Beat poetry, the Naropa Institute, contemporary music and film, and gay culture.

The Hanuman Books Records include correspondence, invoices, manuscripts, typescripts, books, art work, audio material, printed material, photographs, and other assorted material. The twenty linear feet of records span the years 1978 to 1996, with the bulk of the material falling between 1986 and 1994. Subjects documented in the collection include the founding of Hanuman Books, the administration of a small New York press, Indian printing, twentieth- century publishing, San Francisco’s North Beach and New York’s Lower East Side literary and art scenes, Beat poetry, the Naropa Institute, music, film, gay men in the 1980s and 1990s, and gay male literature. The Records are arranged in six series: Administrative Files (1986-1994), Publication Series (1986-1994), Raymond Foye Files (1978-1996), Mixed Media (1980s-1990s), Photographs (1970s-1990s), and Printed Material (1970s-1994).

Note: The Special Collections Library also holds a complete set of all the titles printed by Hanuman Books. To make these Hanuman Books imprints more accessible, the books were removed from the Records and individually cataloged. A listing of all of the titles follows the Scope and Content Note in the Related Material section.


Harrison M. Randall papers, 1897-1965 (majority within 1954-1962)

1.5 linear feet (in 2 boxes)

Renowned physicist who studied, conducted research, and taught at the University of Michigan from the late 1800s until the 1960s; Dr. Harrison M. Randall helped develop the atomic and nuclear components of the physics program, and conducted research on infrared spectroscopy. Materials include correspondence, photos, postcards, research data, progress and final research reports, grant proposals, and reprints.

This collection includes Harrison M. Randall's personal and research-related materials including correspondence, photos, and research files. The bulk of the collection focuses on research projects in bacteriology that Dr. Randall conducted in collaboration with Donald W. Smith between 1948 and 1964.


Harry V. Robison Papers, 1905-1934

1.5 linear feet

Harry V. Robison was an employee of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Company and the Elgin, Joliet, and Eastern Railway Company in the early 20th century. The collection primarily consists of correspondence, both personal and related to Robison's railroad work.

The collection consists of correspondence with Harry “Bob” V. Robison, divided into two series: Personal Correspondence and Railroad Correspondence. There are also a number of telegrams.


Heinrich family photograph collection, 1895, 1910-1986 (majority within 1915-1930)

1 volume, 2 boxes (1 linear foot)

The Heinrich Family photograph collection is made up of a photograph album, loose photographs, correspondence, and other items pertaining to Eberhardt William Heinrich, and his parents, Bruno Otto Paul Heinrich and Helene Heinrich. The Heinrich family immigrated to Dubuque, Iowa, from Germany in the early 1920s. The photograph album contains photographs related to Bruno Heinrich's service in the German army in Eastern Europe during World War I. The remainder of the collection documents the family's immigration story, life in the United States, and later trips to Germany.

The Heinrich family photograph collection consists of 1 photograph album, 102 loose photographs, 4 letters, 1 passport, 76 postcards, 18 loose album pages, and 1 ceramic beer stein relating to the family of Eberhardt William Heinrich. The collection depicts the life of a German soldier during World War I and the immigration of a middle-class German family to the United States between the wars. Eberhardt Heinrich compiled the materials and wrote a brief family history, two copies of which are included in the collection.

The photograph album (13cm x 19cm) of Eberhardt Heinrich's father, German soldier Bruno Heinrich, contains 101 photographs and photographic postcards related to Bruno Heinrich's army service in Eastern Europe during World War I. Captions in English, added later by his son, identify people, locations and dates. The volume has a red cloth cover with a printed iron cross on the front, dated 1914. Bruno Heinrich's Iron Cross medal is placed in a clear plastic envelope inside the volume's front cover.

The Bruno Heinrich album shows individual and group portraits of German soldiers playing cards, resting in earthwork bunkers, in trenches, drinking, sitting by large artillery pieces, posing in ruined buildings, and mounted on horseback. Several photos are posed with local residents or refugees; one image features captured armored tanks. Most of the photographs were taken in Serbia, Poland, and Russia, though a few came from France and Germany. Although many of the photographs show soldiers and civilians at leisure, others depict the devastation and the humanitarian crisis created by the war. Images of note include a photograph captioned "Waking up in the ditch after a party;" a German cemetery of fresh graves and birch wood crosses; soldiers displaying a captured Serbian banner; Heinrich in a domestic interior with his rifle, hat, and "bridal picture" on the wall behind him; and a view of a Russian cloister with a large crowd of civilian refugees. Photographs at the end of the album depicting Bruno Heinrich and his brothers-in-law Paul Hobach, Heinrich Hobach, Richard Albert, and Willi Osterloh, who served on the Western front, may have been added later.

The loose photograph series includes 102 photographs arranged by subject matter, dating between 1910 and 1979. Some photographs have manuscript captions in English and German on the verso. A majority of the images show the families of Bruno Heinrich and of his wife, Helene, and of a young Eberhardt Heinrich. Family members are often identified on the verso. Also included are photographs of the family's immigration to the United States, crossing the Atlantic aboard the German steamship SS Yorck, and trans-Atlantic voyage to Germany in 1930 onboard the German ocean liners SS Bremen and SS Europa. Images depict groups and individuals onboard ship and views taken of the ocean en route. Also included are snapshots taken at the University of Michigan's geological field station in Wyoming, Camp Davis; plus other images of travel and family life in Dubuque, Iowa. Of note are three photos taken on separate dates of Bruno Heinrich, Helene Heinrich, and Eberhardt Heinrich, each posed atop a camel in front of the Great Sphinx and the pyramids at Giza in Egypt.

The collection's manuscripts consist of four letters and one passport. Three manuscript letters are written in German on business letterhead; two dated June 16, 1910, and one dated March 13, 1911. The latter includes two recipes written in English on the verso. One letter, in English, is dated July 29, 1985 and typewritten on Ann Arbor News letterhead. The United States passport was issued to Helene Heinrich on March 21, 1960, and tracks her travel to numerous countries around the world throughout the early 1960s.

The collection of postcards contains 76 lithographic and photomechanical souvenir postcards from Germany and the United States dating from the early to mid-twentieth century. Some notes inscribed on the verso are written in English and German and may have been added by Eberhardt William at a later date. A majority of the postcards depict German cities visited by the Heinrich family in 1930. Also included is a group from Chicago, Illinois museums; and a group of "Bonzo" dog cartoons by George E. Studdy. Of note is a group of sentimental postcards of German soldiers from the World War I era; a photographic postcard of Eberhardt William and Helena Heinrich aboard the SS Yorck during their immigration from Germany to the United States in 1923; and a souvenir postcard from Bremen, Germany featuring a colored lithograph of a traveler with a rucksack. A paper flap under the rucksack lifts to reveal a miniature accordion-fold viewbook of Bremen scenes.

The loose album pages series includes 18 loose pages separated into five groups dating from 1923-1964. Pages were likely previously part of compiled albums though no longer extent. Captions in English and German may have been added by Eberhardt Heinrich at a later date. Group 1 includes photographs taken aboard the SS Europa, during the October 1930 trans-Atlantic voyage from Bremerhaven, Germany to the United States. Images include photographs taken from the ship and from shore at Bremerhaven, Germany, including dramatic photographs of large seas taken from the ship's deck. Group 2 is primarily commercial photographs from the family's 1930 trip to Germany depicting Bremen; the Breitachklamm gorge, and towns of Sonthofen and Oberstdorf in the Allgäu region; Berlin; and the Spreewald. Group 3 features photographs of East and West Berlin taken in October 1963 by Helena Heinrich. The final two groups are photographs of a family visit to the gravesite of Julian Dubuque in Dubuque, Iowa, August 1964, and a trip to the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair in October 1940.

The final item in the collection is a half-liter ceramic regimental beer stein with a decorative pewter lid. The family history included in the collection notes that the stein belonged to Helena Heinrich's brother-in-law, Willi Osterloh, a member of the Kaiser's Garde-Kürassier-Regiment. The stein, manufactured by the Mettlach factory of Villeroy and Boch, with a production date of 1895, is decorated in the PUG (Print Under Glaze) style. It is inscribed with "Garde-Kürassier-Regiment" and depicts Garde-Kürassier-Regiment soldiers both standing and astride horses. The soldiers wear the normal service uniforms and the parade uniforms of the regiment. The pewter lid has a cast eagle thumb lift and is decorated with the seal and motto of the Order of the Black Eagle: "Summ Cuique."


Heinrich Spaeth papers, [1862]-1949 (majority within 1910-1915)

0.25 linear feet

The Heinrich Spaeth papers contain letters, documents, photographs, and a diary, most of which relates to Spaeth's service with the 9th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, a German-American regiment that fought in the Civil War.

The Heinrich Spaeth papers contain 82 items: 33 letters, 29 photographs, 13 pieces of ephemera, 3 legal documents, 3 newspaper clippings, and a diary. The materials span 1862 to 1949, with the bulk of items covering the period between 1910 and 1915.

The Correspondence and Documents series contains letters to and from Spaeth, spanning 1871-1918. Though written many years after the Civil War, most of these relate to the experiences of the 9th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, particularly at the Battle of Chickamauga. Several men who served in Van Derveer's Brigade wrote letters to Spaeth with accounts of the closing hours of the engagement. They attempted to refute the claims of Archibald Gracie, who wrote in his book The Truth about Chickamauga that the soldiers under General Ferdinand Van Derveer had been routed and driven off Snodgrass Hill on the evening of September 20, 1863. The soldiers from the 9th Ohio Infantry who provided these accounts were George A. Schneider (May 24, 1912), C.W.H. Luebbert (June 7, 1912), Ferdinand Zimmerer (June 17, 1912), Alvin Arand (June 18, 1912), and Herman Gerbhardt (June 20, 1912). Though written almost 50 years after the battle took place, the letters provide many details in support of their claims. Also included is an undated letter from Spaeth to Gracie, which contradicts Gracie's claims and states, "the third and last stand on Snodgrass Hill was as perfect as any man could or would ask." In the letter, Spaeth also discussed the official and revised casualty figures for the engagement.

Additional letters from the same period relate to controversy over Civil War monuments in Chattanooga, Tennessee, commemorating actions during the Battle of Missionary Ridge. On November 26, 1910, Colonel Judson W. Bishop of the 2nd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry wrote to Spaeth, complaining of efforts "persistently made during the past fifteen years by the Turchin's Brigade association to appropriate for [General John B.] Turchin" ground allegedly captured by Van Derveer's Brigade at Missionary Ridge on November 25, 1863. Bishop called the claims for Turchin "preposterous." Spaeth seconded the opinion in a letter to Captain Philip Rothenbush of the 35th Ohio Infantry, in which he called the actions "contemptble [sic]." An additional letter, dated July 5, 1915, also further addresses the issue of monuments in Chattanooga.

The Diary series contains Spaeth's diary, kept during his service with the 9th Ohio Infantry. The volume was written entirely in German Kurrentschrift or old German blackletter handwriting; it describes his wartime experiences.

The Photographs series contains 29 graphic items, most of which are undated and unlabeled, spanning ca. 1860s-1949. The photographs are in a variety of formats and depict many members of the Spaeth family, including Heinrich Spaeth at various stages of life. One photograph shows a parade float advertising Spaeth's business with the sign, "Spaeth's Big Free China and Stove Show," and another shows Heinrich Spaeth in front of a home in Aurora, Indiana.

Ephemera series contains a roster for the 35th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (O.V.I.) Association and the Loyal Legion of the United States, newspaper clippings, German money, and a few miscellaneous items.


Henry Strachey papers, 1768-1802

2 linear feet

The Henry Strachey papers contain the incoming and outgoing correspondence of British politician Henry Strachey, primarily concerning Strachey's personal life, activities in North America, plantation in Florida, and political matters. Also included are copies of scattered financial and legal documents and two volumes of reports from colonial governors to the Earl of Dartmouth (1773), which Strachey had copied around 1776.

The Henry Strachey papers comprise approximately 168 letters, a letterbook containing an additional 35 letters, 5 financial records, 23 documents, and 2 volumes of reports from the governors of various American colonies to the Earl of Dartmouth, 1773.

The Correspondence series covers the period between 1733 and 1802, although the bulk centers around 1776-1785. The largest portion of the correspondence is between Strachey and his wife, Jane; they exchanged a total of 34 letters between 1776 and 1778, while Strachey was in North America. The collection includes 29 letters from Henry to Jane and 5 long letters, totaling around 60 pages, from Jane to Henry. Strachey's letters to his wife primarily concern his impressions of the colonies, news about his health, and observations concerning mutual acquaintances. The tone of Strachey's letters is frequently affectionate; on December 2, 1776, he requested locks of hair from her and the children, but intimated that he felt "silly" and "embarrassed" doing so. In his letters, Strachey responded to his wife's curiosity about the colonies. On May 13, 1776, he recommended that she read Andrew Burnaby's and Peter Kalm's books on North America. He also provided rich details of his own experiences, as in his letter of March 24, 1778, in which he wrote a long description of daily life in Philadelphia, including elaborate "Tea drinkings," plays put on by soldiers, unchaperoned balls, and the respect accorded William Howe, who "is King here." Occasionally, Strachey's letters to his wife allude to political events taking place; on December 8, 1777, he mentioned the burning of the Augusta at the Battle of Red Bank, and directed her on how to use a cipher if the necessity arose. Jane Strachey's letters contain primarily family news, descriptions of her daily events, expressions of concern for her husband's health, and her thoughts on running the household.

Approximately 30 letters in the collection, and all 35 letters in the letterbook, relate to Beauclerc Bluff, Strachey's plantation in eastern Florida. The correspondence is both incoming and outgoing, and Strachey's correspondents include East Florida Governor Patrick Tonyn, lawyers Edward and James Penman, and plantation managers Alexander Gray and John Ross. These letters span 1771-1802 and document Strachey's increasing dissatisfaction with the plantation's poor returns and its eventual sale. Approximately 10 letters relate to the sale of Strachey's slaves, including accounts of their prices, and a reference to a male and female slave escaping and joining the Creek Nation (September 29, 1784). Several letters between Strachey and Thomas Bee concern Bee’s purchase of slaves and his failure to pay for them. Letters concerning Beauclerc Bluff also provide details on the struggle to introduce indigo to Florida (January 2, 1777) and on Strachey's waning confidence in the British ability to hold the country. On September 4, 1782, Strachey expressed these concerns to Tonyn and urged him to prepare for this in order to avoid "thinking of such Essentials when all may be hurry & Confusion."

Several letters in the collection focus on politics in England and America. In a letter to Strachey of March 14, 1774, Edward Clive mentioned Alexander Wedderburn's speech criticizing Benjamin Franklin, and congratulated Strachey on a victory over the "Bloomshbury gang" [sic]. Two additional items from Strachey to politician Christopher D'Oyly regard the prospects for restoring peace (August 11, 1776). Also present is a signed copy of a letter from General George Washington to Brigadier General Jared Irwin, requesting his opinion on the advisability of attacking Philadelphia during the winter (December 3, 1777).

The Documents and Financial Records series contains 10 items relating to Strachey's commissions and finances, and some additional miscellany, including an excerpt from the will of John Allen. Also present is a document tracking the number and prices of Strachey's slaves, 1770-1779, and other papers relating to the plantation. The items cover the years 1770 to 1791.

The Papers Relating to the War of Independence and the Preliminary Treaty of Peace series contains 86 letters and documents covering the years 1776 to 1783, with material relating to Strachey's efforts as a peace negotiator during and after the American Revolution, his opinions on Americans and independence, and his relationships with Richard and William Howe. The series includes his commission as secretary to the peace commission (May 6, 1776), three sets of instructions to the commissioners from King George III (May 6-8, 1776), and nineteen letters written by Strachey while he served as secretary to the Howe brothers in New York and Philadelphia from 1776 to 1778. Henry Strachey's diary spanning from June 1776 to the end of 1777 includes commentary on negotiation efforts, the war's progress, and meetings with British officers. An early draft of General Howe's defense of his actions as commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America is also present, along with approximately 205 page of material relating to the Treaty of Paris.

The Dartmouth Volumes series contains two bound vellum volumes of copies of replies and reports from the governors of British colonies in answer to the circular of William Legge, 2nd earl of Dartmouth (1731-1801). On July 5, 1773, Dartmouth, then Secretary of State for the colonies, sent out a circular letter with 22 questions to the governors of various British colonies. He collected their responses and accompanying records in two volumes. Around the time that he was appointed to the Howe peace commission, Strachey had copies of the volumes made for his own use.

The first volume contains Dartmouth's circular letter and questionnaires for the mainland colonies, island colonies, and Senegambia (pp. 1-11). They raise such questions as the number and attitudes of Native Americans, quantities of imports and exports, size of the militia, the characteristics of the population, and the geography and resources of each colony. These are followed by the responses of various governors and colonial officials: Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts Bay (pp. 12-30), Francis Legge of Nova Scotia (35-48), Walter Patterson of St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) (53-68), John Wentworth of New Hampshire (73-104), Jonathan Trumbull of Connecticut (107-120), William Tryon of New York (123-207), William Franklin of New Jersey (219-242), John Murray of Virginia (249-268), Thomas Penn of Pennsylvania (269-303), James Wright of Georgia (315-358), and Peter Chester of West Florida (363-373).

The answers are lengthy, and provide both quantitative and qualitative information on many aspects of each colony. In his response to the question, "What number of Indians have you and how are they inclined," Governor Trumbull of Connecticut answered, "There are 1,363, many of them dwell in English Families, the rest in small Tribes in various places in Peace, good order, and inclined to Idleness." (p. 115). Several colonies included appendices giving further details; New York included a 1771 list of inhabitants, a surveyor's report, a table of salaries and other records. New Jersey appended an account of marriages, birth, and burials between 1771 and 1772. Pennsylvania provided additional information on imports and exports, 1769-1773. The last item in the volume is copy of a three-page document (433-435), signed by Attorney General William de Grey, and entitled "Case," in which de Grey gave the opinion that Commander-in-Chief Thomas Gage's power over troops in New York superseded the power of the Governor of New York. The document is dated May 16, 1770.

The second volume contains the responses from Jamaica (pp. 29-65), Barbados (67-100), the Leeward Islands (101-158), the Virgin Islands, Grenada (185-226), Carriouacou (227-234), Tobago (263-314), St. Vincent (315-364), Dominica (373-397), the Bahamas (399-433), and Bermuda (435-447). In addition to responses to Dartmouth's questions, the reply from Jamaica contains accounts of "Ordinary Expenses" and "Extraordinary Expenses," and tax information. Barbados' portion of the volume contains a thorough description of numbers of cavalry and infantry and their organization into companies. Concerning the population, the report noted that "[t]he Blacks have decreased considerably within the last five Years…a Decrease that probably has proceeded from the Settlement of the late neutral Islands by the English…." (p. 77-78). Grenada's account includes a list of public and military officers, and of 1772 imports and exports, as well as several other appendices. The two volumes are a very rich source of information on the demographics, geography, and government of the British colonies just before the American Revolution.

The Maps series contains three maps: "Virgin Islands surveyed in 1774," "A chart of Tibee Inlet in Georgia" (1776), and a map of Fort Nassau, Bahamas (1775). These items are located in the Map Division.


Holly Fine and Danny Kaye Papers, 1934-1994 (majority within 1935-1938)

5 boxes (approx. 3.75 linear feet) — Photographs in Boxes 2 and 4. — Drawings in Box 5. — Newspaper clippings and magazines in Box 2. Scrapbooks in Box 5.

Holly Fine was a dancer and performer with the traveling vaudeville production, the Marcus Show, in the 1930s. The collection documents Fine’s relationship with entertainer Danny Kaye, as well as the Marcus Show itself. Includes correspondence, vaudeville programs and promotional material, photographs, scrapbooks, printed material and drawings. The correspondence includes approximately 0.5 linear feet of letters written from Kaye to Fine.

The Holly Fine and Danny Kaye Papers document the relationship between Fine and Kaye, as well as the 1930s traveling vaudeville production, The Marcus Show. The papers have been divided into six series: Correspondence, Vaudeville, Printed Material, Photographs, Scrapbooks, and Drawings and Artwork.


James Caswell Knox papers, 1863-1873 (majority within 1863-1868)

63 items

The James Caswell Knox collection consists of 63 letters, the majority of which were written between James C. Knox of the 147th Indiana Infantry and his wife, Catharine, while Knox was stationed in Virginia in 1865.

The collection contains 63 letters: 20 from James Knox to his wife Catharine; 22 from Catharine to James; and the remainder from various correspondents writing to either James or Catharine.

James’ letters describe his health, provide details of his life in the army, and express love of Catharine and longing for home. In a letter of April 21, 1865, he mentions the trains that showed up at Summit Point, Virginia, to take men from other regiments home. He spent part of his time as an orderly sergeant and part of his time as a second lieutenant there (May 14, 1865). In a letter dated June 13, 1865, gives a graphic description of his regiment traveling to the Shenandoah River at Vickers Gap to wash up. Finally, he writes from the hospital in Maryland that he will be discharged soon (July 14, 1865).

Catharine’s letters to James focus on her health, daily activities, and family news. Two early letters contain poems that Catharine wrote for James (February 16, 1865 and March 2, 1865). In an undated mid-April 1865 letter, she describes reactions to Lincoln’s death (“I wouldent halve felt any worse if it had been my father”) and mentions the executions in Indianapolis of six men “for saying they were glad of” Lincoln’s death. In a number of letters, she describes gardening and other household activities, and her letter of June 18, 1865, includes a strawberry and some cloth from a dress she was making.

Of the remaining 20 letters, 14 were written during James' service in the army. Of these, six were written to James and four were written to Catharine by other family members or friends. Seven of the eight letters written after the war deal with James Knox' business issues. Two additional letters were written to James' sister Harriet Knox from friends.


Jethro Sumner papers, 1780-1781

72 items (0.25 linear feet)

The Jethro Sumner papers contain incoming and outgoing letters relating to the progress of the Southern Campaign of the Revolutionary War, including the battles of Charlotte and King's Mountain, logistical and personnel concerns, and Sumner's resignation.

The Jethro Sumner papers contain 69 letters (both incoming and outgoing), and 3 militia lists, all spanning August 24, 1780, to April 1, 1781. All but two of the items date from August 24-October 20, 1780. The letters primarily concern strategic and logistical matters of the Southern Campaign of the Revolutionary War. Several letters in September 1780 document Cornwallis' invasion of North Carolina and the Battle of Charlotte. These include a series of letters between Sumner and Major General Horatio Gates, in which Gates promised aid to North Carolina's western counties (September 17, 1780), Sumner reported on the British occupation of Charlotte and requested orders on how to handle soldiers claiming discharge (September 29, 1780), and Gates ordered Sumner not to abandon the defense of the Yadkin Ford and criticized him for writing too infrequently (September 30, 1780). In a letter of September 23, 1780, Colonel Francis Lock wrote to Sumner from camp at Sherrills Ford, North Carolina, requesting that he send any men he could spare. Several letters from early October 1780 provide intelligence concerning the British, including their numbers, activities, and weapons; others refer to the scarcity of provisions, which Gates promised to address (October 7, 1780). On October 8, General William Lee Davidson recommended that Sumner "retain all the good Rifles from the Inhabitants who pass your Camp," judging that this might "induce some to return in Defence of their Country." Sumner and Davidson also exchanged several letters regarding the Battle of King's Mountain and the aftermath of the occupation of Charlotte, including the British departure (October 13, 1780). Sumner wrote three of the last letters in the collection to General William Smallwood, describing the condition of troops and movements, and finally, informing him of his resignation on October 20, 1780.

The collection also contains three militia records. Two identical items, dated October 12, 1780, give a statistical breakdown of officers and soldiers under Sumner by rank and function. Another document, dated October 13, 1780, provides the number of drafts and "Minute Men of the Foot" from the towns of Rowan and Mecklenburg counties in North Carolina, under Brigadier General William Lee Davidson.


Joan W. Blos Papers, 1971-2007

7 boxes and 2 oversize boxes (11 linear feet)

Joan Blos is a writer of children's literature who lives in Ann Arbor, Michigan. She is best known for her novel A Gathering of Days: A New England Girl's Journal, 1830-32, which in 1980 won the American Library Association's Newbery Medal.(1) Blos has written several other works of historical fiction as well as picture books for younger readers. The collection documents her career as a writer through items including development materials, correspondence, manuscripts and illustrations of both published and unpublished works.

The Joan W. Blos papers span the years 1971 through 2007 and are made up of some personal materials with the majority of the material. related to her literary works. The Personal series includes correspondence, manuscripts by students and others, and articles, announcements, events information, and awards not related to a specific literary work.

The remaining series are designated by book title and appear in publication order. Unpublished works follow published works and are listed in order of conception. Titles in the collection are: Just Think!; A Gathering of Days; Martin's Hats; Brothers of the Heart; Old Henry; Lottie's Circus; "Pioneers" (in Michigan Traditions); The Heroine of the Titanic; A Seed, a Flower, a Minute an Hour; Brooklyn Doesn't Rhyme; The Days Before Now; The Hungry Little Boy; Nellie Bly's Monkey; Bedtime!; Brother's of the Heart (a dramatization); Hello Shoes!; Letters from the Corrugated Castle; Bringing The Jackson Home; Thisca!; Brave Sisters, Fighting Women; When Times Square Was New; The Applesauce Tree; The Happy Park Day; Old Henry II; Samuel Foote's Nonsense; She's Busy!; The Scribble Scrabble Surprise; Rhymes and Reason; Bathtime; and Ker-choo! A Wintertime Story. Within each title series are several possible subseries:

Development Materials include items such as news clippings, photocopies of articles and stories, early handwritten and typed notes by the author, travel information, postcards, maps, brochures, and library request slips.

Correspondence is primarily with editors, publishers, and some illustrators. This section also includes corresponding manuscripts and drafts that have been edited by the author or editor.

Manuscripts are arranged chronologically and include correspondence from an editor or publisher.

Articles and Announcements include newspaper clippings, programs, announcements, reviews, advertisements for book signings and other promotional events, and interviews.

Events and Awards achieved by the author during her career.

Realia includes items such as playbills for the dramatization of Brothers of the Heart and a handmade quilt inspired by Brooklyn Doesn't Rhyme.

Illustrations, Artwork, and Publication Materials relate to the production of the corresponding title. Examples include mock-ups, color proofs, and unbound signatures for several of the picture books.

Audiotapes include a reading of A Gathering of Days , interviews, and Blos' Newbery acceptance speech for A Gathering of Days.

Study Guides include those associated with the dramatization of Brothers of the Heart.

The Blos papers provide a rich resource for scholars of children's literature along several different avenues. Blos' painstakingly thorough research process is evident in the almost two boxes of materials from her Letters from the Corrugated Castle. One is able to gain an understanding of Blos' creative process through the evolution of the manuscript for this piece of historical fiction. Nellie Bly's Monkey and The Heroine of the Titanic are longer picture books both researched and written as historical fiction. In addition to text, these materials, among other picture books in the collection, provide valuable insight into the collaborative process between author and illustrator. Correspondence between Blos and her editors and publishers provides a window into the business of children's book publishing over the span of Blos' writing career.


John Mathiot papers, 1849-1851

19 items

The John Mathiot papers primarily contain letters from Mathiot, a California gold miner, describing his journey by ship to California, the rapid expansion of the mining industry, his disillusionment with his chances of getting rich, and a subsequent restaurant venture.

The John Mathiot papers contain 19 letters written between February 3, 1849, and April 15, 1851. Mathiot wrote 16 of the letters, his sister Kate Mathiot wrote one to him, and friends in San Francisco wrote two letters to Pennsylvania with news of his death.

John Mathiot wrote the first six letters during his sea travels; he give descriptions of life on the ship, scenery, other passengers, and natives of Panama. On March 6, 1849, he wrote a letter describing a Panamanian religious ritual involving a procession of women in white robes and an image of the Virgin Mary, “a most beautiful & most solemn ceremony.” After his arrival in California, he wrote 10 richly detailed letters on such topics as the growth of Sutter’s Mill, California (July 12, 1849: “This place is growing fast into a town. There are some 40 buildings...”), the hardships and disappointments of mining (March 2, 1850), and journeying through the California wilderness. His letter of June 23, 1850, notes that the “mines are fast filling up with people from all parts of the world…every part of the present gold country will soon be used up.” His letters of the fall of 1850 describe his brief restaurant venture, which he abandoned in November. Correspondence from friends in California to Mathiot’s family in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, April 1851, concerns the circumstances of his death.


John M. O'Connor papers, 1810-1826

1 linear foot

The John M. O'Connor papers contain correspondence, documents, and miscellany relating to O'Connor's military career (including the War of 1812), translation work, and political involvement.

The John M. O'Connor papers contain 350 letters, 15 financial records, 7 legal documents, and several lists, clippings, and the lyrics to a song, spanning 1810-1826. The correspondence is almost entirely incoming and the majority dates to the period from 1815 to 1824. Approximately 20 of the letters relate to the War of 1812; some discuss official army matters, such as supplies and troops, while others concern popular opinion of the war (June 26, 1813: "The public do not appear to be satisfied with the military acquirements of the Commander in chief, and not a few are so daring as to stigmatize his operations as being tardy & imbecile"). A series of letters in September and October 1812 relate to the death of O'Connor's mother, Margaret.

Correspondence in 1815-1816 mentions and documents the chain of events arising from the feud between O'Connor and Major General George Izard, including O'Connor's court martial and subsequent leave of absence, and his attempts to regain his position and good standing in the army. Slightly later correspondence documents O'Connor's translation of Gay de Vernon's Treatise on the Science of War and Fortifications, and includes a letter from O'Connor to Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun, encouraging him to request more copies of the work in order to ensure the success of the project (March 4, 1818). Approximately 15 letters from this period were written in French.

The majority of the material, particularly later in the collection, relates to national politics and political factions in New York State. On October 12, 1818, William H. Crawford, whom O'Connor would later back in the presidential election of 1824, wrote to O'Connor concerning a visit to the South, including observations on the failure of crops, family news, and French politics. On February 18, 1820, James Taylor provided a long account of the Missouri Compromise to O'Connor, and commented that "I am constrained to believe that the spirit of intolerance & oppression towards the black man, and the determination to perpetuate his bondage…are daily gaining ground in the Southern & Southeastern United States." Letters of November 1823 concern the presidential election of 1824 and New York politics.

Also of interest are letters from O'Connor's sister, Eliza, who seems to have been a governess or lady's companion in Middletown, Pennsylvania, but left because of dissatisfaction with the position: "You say that I was placed with the most respectable family in Middletown and all my wants were provided for, and I was at once raised to a respectable and enviable situation, as to their respectability no one will dispute it, as to my situation being enviable, I do not know how excepting I was independent of them, the want of relations will never be compensated to me by strangers" (August 25, 1820). Many letters throughout the collection also document O'Connor's interest in trading stocks and bonds. Letters from his agent, Thomas Hutchison, show his interest in bank bonds and provide advice and information on securities trading.

Several of the documents in the collection relate to the military, including 1814 General Orders, several financial records, and two certificates. Also included are several bonds, a bill of lading, and lists relating to O'Connor's translation work.


Josephine Wakely papers, 1862-1868

22 items

The Josephine Wakely papers contain correspondence from several Civil War soldiers from Whiteford, Michigan, primarily describing battles, attitudes, and duties.

The Josephine Wakely papers contain 22 letters written to Wakely between 1862 and 1871. Six Union soldiers wrote seventeen of the letters during their Civil War service; they were likely Wakely's neighbors in Whiteford, Michigan.

Adam H. Crist, a corporal in the 15th Michigan Infantry, composed 10 of the letters in 1862 and 1863. In them, he described the aftermath of the Second Battle of Corinth (October 18, 1862), attacks by guerillas in Grand Junction, Tennessee (December 13, 1862), and taking horses from Southerners (December 27, 1863). Throughout his correspondence, Crist exhibited a dislike for military life, repeatedly stating that he did not blame anyone for getting out of the Army in any way he could. In several letters, Crist mentioned African Americans. On May 21, 1863, he observed that many in his regiment had taken roles as officers in "Negro regiments," while in another letter, he commented on the plight of soldiers: "they say we took the Negroes place & they took ours & it looks so to me for we are in bondage now while they are free." (July 16, 1863). In the same letter, he also discussed the superiority of western troops and wrote, "I never want to go unless Grant goes with us for I don’t want to fight under them Eastern generals."

Thomas Wakeley [sic] of the 8th Michigan Cavalry and George H. Rogers and Edward Keller of the 18th Michigan Infantry each wrote one letter to Josephine Wakely. In his letter of May 29, 1864, Thomas Wakeley described an assignment to tie a man to a tree as punishment. Rogers gave an account of washing clothes at Cumberland Hospital and expressed his appreciation for freckled Southern girls (February 15, 1865). From his location, Keller recounted seeing many steamboats burning aboard a gunboat on the Cumberland River (May 14, 1863).

Morris Cummings of the 24th Michigan Infantry and Thomas G. Spriggs of the 18th Michigan Infantry each contributed two letters. Cummings wrote from Camp Butler in Springfield, Illinois, and mentioned attending Abraham Lincoln's funeral (May 26, 1865), while Spriggs wrote from Huntsville, Alabama, concerning news and an upcoming prisoner-of-war exchange (February 19, 1865). Five letters postdate 1865. They primarily provide news about family members and mutual acquaintances, though one letter recounts a religious conversion experienced by its author (June 1, 1866).


King family papers, 1844-1901 (majority within 1844-1895)

0.5 linear feet

The King family papers document the business activities of the King brothers, three of whom worked as traders with Russell & Company in China in the mid-19th century, and the subsequent institutionalization of William King.

The correspondence series contains 69 letters. The earliest are from William King to his brothers, while in China in the late 1840s. They mainly concern trade conducted by Russell & Co., and frequently contain figures and purchasing instructions. During early 1850s, King writes several letters from New York discussing stocks and business matters.

A major shift occurs in the mid-1860s, when the most frequent topic of correspondence becomes William King’s mental health. One letter, from N.P. Russell, urges David King, Jr., to make William “obedient…to the stronger will of others” or else face “a public disgrace” and “wreck of both mind and frame” (October 16, 1864). Letters document several unsuccessful attempts to keep King’s behavior in check, including instructions from a physician to King, prescribing a healthier lifestyle (July 21, 1865), but by July 1866, the King brothers were corresponding with the McLean Asylum, where William had already arrived.

The few letters between 1867 and 1895 reveal more about King’s condition, mentioning “delusive fancies,” “acts of violence,” and a belief that “other patients are here as spies upon him” (July 29, 1870). Reports from doctors and friends during this period document a gradual worsening of King’s health and faculties. No correspondence documenting the legal case with Eugenia Webster Ross survives. The two folders of undated correspondence contain several letters in French as well as some unusual ruminations on women, night, and other topics, which appear to be in William King’s handwriting, and may have been addressed to a female love interest.

The documents series contains 36 items, including legal documents such as David King, Sr.’s will, tax documents, land indentures, and lease, loan, and rental papers, dating from the 1840s to 1900. Of particular interest is a printed 1893 Massachusetts Supreme Court record concerning William King’s condition, and Eugenia Webster Ross’ petition.


Laidley family papers, 1838-1886 (majority within 1838-1861)

392 items

The Laidley family papers consist of letters written by members of the Laidley family regarding family news, politics, and life in the military. The collection also contains fiction written by William Sydney Laidley, a travel journal, legal documents, photographs, and genealogical materials.

The Laidley family papers are comprised of letters, a travel diary, miscellaneous documents, creative writing, genealogical materials, business cards, newspaper clippings, and photographs.

Correspondence: The bulk of the letters are from Theodore T.S. Laidley to his father, John Osborne Laidley, between 1838 and 1861. The collection also contains letters from Theodore to his brother William Sydney Laidley, and letters from various friends and family members, including Amacetta Laidley and George W. Summers, to John Osborne Laidley.

Theodore's early letters describe his life at the United States Military Academy at West Point. After graduating from West Point, Theodore spent time at the Watervliet Arsenal near Troy, New York. He wrote to his father monthly about military life, his enjoyment of New York State, and his health. Theodore took an interest in politics, and was very much concerned about bills, policies, and appointments that he felt were detrimental to the future of the army.

Letters from Theodore contain news about his family, his wife's family, and their health. He also wrote to his father with advice about his siblings. Fewer letters exist from the other Laidley children, and Theodore refers to them being infrequent correspondents. Amacetta did write her father from Washington, recounting politicians and writers she had met. Amacetta's husband, George W. Summers, wrote to John Osborne Laidley about legal matters and his future in politics. Laidley's friends and children wrote frequently about faith and church matters. Following John Osborne Laidley's death in 1863, the bulk of the letters are from Theodore Laidley to his brother, William Sydney Laidley.

Diary: The travel diary is the record of an unidentified family member's journey from Charleston, West Virginia, to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1879. It contains several pencil drawings including sketches of bridges, a ship, the Chesapeake Bay, and a chandelier.

Documents: The miscellaneous documents consist of receipts, a bill of sale, and a deed.

Creative Writing: The creative writing series contains two poems and a short novel of the Civil War written by William Sydney Laidley.

Personal and Genealogical Materials: The personal and genealogical materials consist of Thomas Laidley's report cards, including some from West Point, a large family tree, information about individual family members, and records of births, deaths, and marriages.

Business Cards: The business card series is made up of the business cards of Theodore Laidley and William Sydney Laidley. William Sydney Laidley's business card features a pencil drawing of an infant on the reverse.

Newspaper Clippings: The collection includes two newspaper clippings. The first is a report of the sinking of the steamer Sultan and the death of Sarah Laidley Poage. The second is a report of a trip to Europe by a member of the Laidley family.

Photographs: The photographs series is composed of three photographs, including two of William Sydney Laidley and one of an unidentified member of the Laidley family.


Langstroth family papers, 1778-1955 (majority within 1831-1911)

780 items (1.5 linear feet)

The Langstroth Family papers document the activities and relationships of several generations of the Langstroth family, originally of Philadelphia, including the founding of several schools for women and African Americans, the experiences of a patient the Friends Asylum, and service in the Civil War.

The correspondence series comprises 600 items covering 1831-1955, and sheds light on the personal lives, careers, and activities of several generations of the Langstroth family. The bulk of the earliest letters, dating from the 1830s, are from Catharine Langstroth to her father and siblings. These letters concern the death of her sister Sarah, financial issues, and the health of several family members, including Margaretta, and refer to temperance (July 20, 1835 “It affords me much pleasure to know that you gathered in your hay on temperance principles”) and religious study. One letter of particular interest is dated January 3, 1839, and was written by Margaretta during a stay at the Friends Asylum in Philadelphia. It describes a harrowing series of treatments for unspecified mental problems: “My head has been cut open to the bone for 3 inches; and large [peas?] inserted; a lead placed over the slit and on the top of this a bread & milk poultice has been applied for two months… My hair has been shaved at least 6 times; and three times since the head was opened.” Margaretta also described the Asylum’s lectures, food, and other patients (“only deranged at intervals”).

Letters from the 1840s and 1850s were written by a variety of family members and document the founding of Mount Holly Institute for Young Ladies; the courtship of Thomas Langstroth, III, and Mary Hauss; and a range of religious attitudes, from Margaretta’s intense piety to Thomas’ doubt (December 12, 1853: “most all the young men in our church just before they got married have made a profession of religion, and how have they turned out! Look at them one half are as bad as they were before: but I have no right to judge.”). In early 1855, Margaretta wrote a series of letters from near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, describing her efforts at religious and educational outreach to slaves, for whom she felt sympathy (February 7, 1855: “Slaves! poor slaves! how my heart bleeds for them, they toil from night to morn, from morn to night--live and die here without knowledge enough to save the soul.”).

Little documentation of the family exists from the Civil War period, despite Edward and Thomas’ service on opposite sides, but Edward’s letter to Margaretta of July 14, 1865, indicates a rift between himself and his sisters, perhaps arising from his joining the Confederacy. Letters of the 1860s and 1870s are mainly incoming to Margaretta and concern teaching, finances, and advice. A number of letters to Thomas from the 1880s contain information about his brother Edward’s health. Approximately 25 folders of letters date from the 20th-century and were written between Hugh Tener Langstroth, his sister, Sara Paxson, and other relatives. These concern travel, social visits, health, and business matters.

The financial and legal documents series consists of 124 items relating to the Langstroth family, covering 1778-1913. It includes wills, records relating to milling, land indentures, an account book of 1814-1817 kept by Thomas Langstroth, Jr., paperwork related to loans, and other materials. Some materials relate to the bank failure which forced Langstroth to sell his mill in 1836. Only 15 items date from 1851-1913.

The diaries and journals series represents six volumes and a few fragments, covering the 1830s to the 1860s, all written by Margaretta Langstroth. The volumes dating from the 1830s contain biographies of historical figures and may have been used in school. Subsequent diaries recorded daily entries of varying length, covering parts of 1864-1868. The 1864 volume includes Margaretta’s memorials of deceased family members and is thus a good source of genealogical information. More commonly, her entries describe daily activities, religious meditations, and frequently seem to reflect a fragile mental state, as in this exceprt of April 15, 1865: “Abraham Lincoln shot in the Washington Theatre Secretary Sewar [sic] had this throat cut I hope Edwar [sic] has no hand in this what makes me fear that he had” or an entry of June 19, 1866, describing the death of a robin: “I felt very badly cannot describe my suffering poor bird…read hymns as it was dying wondering if it would live elsewhere[.] In bed all day so distressed so wretched…” In a number of passages, Margaretta noted the Sunday School classes that she taught, and commented on the number of students and the subjects of her lessons.


Leach family papers, 1857-1865 (majority within 1861-1865)

114 items

The Leach family papers are primarily comprised of the Civil War correspondence of the three Leach brothers to their sister in Cranston, Rhode Island. Joseph and Edwin Leach served in the 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery, and Leander Leach, in the 2nd Rhode Island Infantry.

The collection consists of 100 letters, spanning 1857-1865. The most frequent writer was Edwin Leach, who contributed 64 letters, while Joseph wrote 19, and Leander wrote 7. Edwin's letters cover 1861 through 1864, and he wrote all but three to his sister, Anna. Edwin's letter from July 13, 1862, also includes a note from Anna to their brother, Joseph, as she forwarded the letter. Edwin's letters described camp life, fighting, and the hardships of war, such as cold weather, mud, and boils. On April 26, 1862, he wrote a letter describing the siege of Yorktown and noted, "you wanded [sic] to know if I was friten when we was in the fight I was in the first of it but when I had ben in there a little while I dind care … " Edwin also described the pervasive illness in the camps: "the guys is gitting sick we havd got men enough to work the Battery" (May 31, 1862).

Joseph's letters, also written primarily to Anna Leach, span 1861-1862 and contain rich details about camp life, movements of the battery, and battles. On August 26, 1861, he wrote a description of Washington, D.C., in wartime: "the streets is all dirt and hogs cows and every thing else runging around in the streets." He also expressed cynicism about payment: "I don't think that they will pay us untill we go into a battle and get some of us killed of and then they will not have so many to pay." In addition, he mentioned an axe fight between men and officers (November 7, 1861), gave his negative opinion of General Charles Pomeroy Stone's decisions at the battle of Ball's Bluff (February 12, 1862), and described the respiratory illness that led to his medical discharge in 1862 (March 12, 1862).

Leander entered the war in 1864, when he was only around sixteen years old. His letters include family news, his picket and cooking duties, and briefly recount a skirmish at Petersburg, Virginia (March 28, 1865). Leander wrote to both his brother Edwin, and his sister Anna.

Friends and relatives wrote an additional 11 letters to Anna, including two letters by Nathan B. Searle, of the 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery. These letters shed light on Anna's friendships and provide some additional details concerning the Leach family.


Leckie family papers, 1794-1808

50 items

The Leckie family papers document the business activities and relationships of Alexander Leckie and his sons, who traded dry goods between England, the United States, and the Caribbean around 1800.

The Leckie family papers contain 44 letters, 3 ledgers, 2 inventories, and a receipt, spanning 1794-1808. The materials primarily document the business activities of the Leckies, who traded dry goods between the United States, England, Jamaica, and Haiti. The correspondence contains many details on the nature of an ambitious mercantile business and matters affecting it during this period. These include political disruptions that threatened trading, especially in Santo Domingo (August 31, 1797), insurance of cargoes, the suitability of certain kinds of goods for specific markets (August 5, 1797), and the types of materials bought and sold, such as cloth, groceries, soap, and candles. The inventories provide further specifics on types of items and prices.

The letters also reveal family relations and their repercussions on the business. In their correspondence, the Leckie brothers frequently quarreled with and chastised one another. They found particular fault with Alexander, who, according to his brothers, made a number of bad contracts (April 7, 1795), as well as an "unfortunate and premature attachment" to a young woman in Virginia (December 28, 1795). In a letter of February 4, 1802, George discussed Alexander's enormous debts ("Alexander could not be indebted at New providence in any less sum than 100.000 Dollars"). Despite this, all three remained in the business at least until 1808.

William Leckie's letters, in particular, show him to be a keen observer of society. In a letter of August 15, 1802, he described the rapid growth of cotton as a crop, the construction of Washington, D.C., and his views on the American social and political scene. His comments on the growing tensions over slavery in the south would prove prophetic: "I have thought that two circumstances are likely to operate at possibly no very distant day to the disadvantage of this happy Country, the first is the great laxity of morals & religion…The other is the increasing quantity of blacks…who are all natives & many of whom can read & write, these will perhaps prove the bane of all the Southern States & by their struggles for freedom involve nearly one half of the Union in Civil Wars."


Lee Walp Family Juvenile Book Collection, 1891-2002 (majority within 1950-1990)

37.00 Linear Feet (25 record center boxes, 6 oversize boxes, and 4 flat file drawers)

The Lee Walp Family Juvenile Book Collection is the collection of the late Russell Lee Walp (1906-2003), an avid book-collector and Professor of Botany at Marietta College (Marietta, Ohio). Mr Walp, along with his wife, Esther "Sparkie" Walp, collected materials related to the best in 20th century children's literature, with an emphasis on well-known illustrators and their illustrations. He corresponded with many illustrators and authors, whose letters, manuscripts, and original artwork may be found in the collection. Ed Emberley and Robert Andrew Parker are the most well-represented, but Roger Duvoisin, Hardie Gramatky, Robert Lawson, and Shimin Symeon, as well as scores of other luminaries in the world of children's literature are also represented. Included in the collection are notes, bibliographies, and catalogues documenting how Mr. Walp built and used his collection to educate the public are included, along with a small amount of material related to the study and teaching of botany.

The Lee Walp Family Juvenile Book Collection contains two types of materials: information about the Walps and their collecting, and information about the illustrators and authors. Material related to Mr. Walp's collecting may be found in the following series: Personal, Book Collecting, Walp Library Catalog Cards, and Articles, Exhibits, and Lectures by the Walps. Information about the illustrators and authors is concentrated in the series Illustrators and Authors and Art, and also in Articles and Clippings, Audiovisual, Posters, and Realia. The approximately 5,000 books in the Walp Collection include a complete set of first editions of the Caldecott Medal Books, and first editions of all but three Newbery Medal-winning books. These books are cataloged separately.

The Walp Collection has material by or about over 250 children's book illustrators and authors. The two most well-represented are Ed Emberley and Robert Andrew Parker. There is also a significant amount on Roger Duvoisin, Hardie Gramatky, Robert Lawson, and Symeon Shimin.


Lester O. Kruger Papers, 1956-2005 (majority within 1974-1990)

3 linear feet

Lester O. Kruger was a long-time 3M employee and a leader in the micrographics industry. As an active member of the National Micrographics Association and Association for Information and Image Management, Kruger helped develop national and international micrographic standards. This collection documents Kruger's career and involvement with Filmsort/3M, NMA, and AIIM.

The Lester O. Kruger Papers are divided into 8 series: National Micrographics Association (NMA), Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM), 3M, Personal, Photographs, Microforms, Printed Material, and Realia. Largely consisting of professional papers, the collection documents Kruger's work in micrographics, imaging, and standards. Included are correspondence and memoranda between colleagues, organizational correspondence and information, meeting reports and resolutions, drafts of proposed standards, presentation drafts, photographs, and microfiche. The collection contains a smaller amount of more personal material, pertaining to Kruger's career and achievements. These include: awards, plaques, a scrapbook, photographs, ephemera, and a small quantity of personal correspondence with professional colleagues. Realia related to micrography, including microfilm viewers and a medallion from an NMA conference, make up the final series in the Kruger Papers.


Lincoln Highway Association Records, 1911-1941 (majority within 1912-1930)

6 linear ft. and 1 portfolio

Formed in 1913 by Carl G. Fisher, Frank A. Seiberling, and Henry B. Joy, the Lincoln Highway Association was made up of representatives from the automobile, tire, and cement industries. The Association aimed to plan, fund, construct, and promote the first transcontinental highway in North America. The route ran from New York to San Francisco, and covered approximately 3,400 miles. The Detroit headquarters of the Association closed in 1928. This collection contains: correspondence, particularly between members of the Association and government officials; meeting minutes; reports, bulletins, and newsletters published by the Association; motorist maps of the route; and annotated editions of The Complete Official Road Guide of the Lincoln Highway. Photographs from the Lincoln Highway Association Records have been digitized and are accessible online at the Lincoln Highway Digital Image Collection ( The Digital Image Collection contains over 3,000 images including views of construction underway, towns and cities, markers, bridges, cars, camp sites, scenic views, and snapshots of Association directors and field secretaries traveling the route.

The Lincoln Highway Association Records date from 1911 to 1993 with the bulk of materials concentrated before 1930. The records are divided into five series: Official Business (1912-1941), Correspondence (1912-1929), Planning (1914-1940), Publicity (1911-1993), Publications (1915-1935), Jens Jensen Drawings (1922-1924) and Miscellaneous.

The Lincoln Highway Association archive was donated to the University of Michigan's Transportation Library in 1937. The archive was transferred to the Special Collections Library in 1992.

Communication was frequent between members of the Association as well as with officials from towns, counties, states, and the federal government. Correspondence and meeting minutes make up an important part of the collection. The Association published reports, bulletins, and newsletters to keep board members and the public aware of the Highway's progress. Maps of the driving route along with mileages were provided for motorists for navigation as were five editions of The Complete Official Road Guide of the Lincoln Highway .

Photographs from the Lincoln Highway Association Records have been digitized and are accessible online at the Lincoln Highway Digital Image Collection ( The Digital Image Collection contains over 3,000 images including views of construction underway, towns and cities, markers, bridges, cars, camp sites, scenic views, and snapshots of Association directors and field secretaries traveling the route.


Litchfield-French papers, 1862-1918 (majority within 1862-1899)

1 linear foot

The Litchfield-French papers contain correspondence and documents related to the Civil War service of Allyne C. Litchfield and the Spanish-American War participation of his Litchfield's son-in-law, Roy A. French.

The Litchfield-French papers consist of 414 items ranging in date from February 15, 1862, to 1918, though the bulk of the collection lies between 1862 and 1899. The collection includes 335 letters, 60 documents, and several clippings, photographs, and receipts. Approximately 280 of the letters cover the period of Allyne Litchfield's Civil War service, including letters from Litchfield to his wife, letters among and between the Litchfield and Carver families (especially Lysander Carver and Susan Carver), and other correspondence pertaining to Allyne Litchfield. Roy French either wrote or received around 65 of the letters, primarily during the 1890s.

Between early 1863 and Litchfield's capture in March 1864, he wrote near-daily letters to his wife, describing movements, battles, and camp-life, and expressing his love for her. On May 9, 1863, he described the exhaustion of cavalry forces, led by George Stoneman, to whom the 7th Michigan sent reinforcements: "you can imagine perhaps the condition of men and horses after being saddled and ridding [sic] for 7 days. One can see the bare bones on the backs of some of them." His letters of July 6 and 7, 1863, are almost entirely devoted to his experiences at Gettysburg, and contain his accounts of his horse falling on him after it was shot in battle, and his regiment's extremely heavy losses. At times, Litchfield's correspondence also reveals his managerial side, as in a letter from Michigan Governor Austin Blair, recounting an anonymous complaint about "Col. Man" (almost certainly Col. William D. Mann) and requesting Litchfield's perspective on the matter (June 18, 1863). Also of interest is a letter of December 19, 1863, in which Litchfield detailed having dinner with 24-year old George Armstrong Custer and expressed his admiration for him.

After his capture, Litchfield wrote infrequently; however, ,in his letter of March 16, 1864, he described his conditions: "I have been kept in an 8x12 feet cell… 4 negro soldiers with us." More prevalent are letters to Susan Litchfield from family members, expressing support for her and suggesting solace in religion. The few letters to his wife, Litchfield generally communicated an optimistic attitude and gratitude for his good health, as in his letter of November 4, 1865, from prison in Columbia, South Carolina: "I have shelter, still retain my old overcoat and have plenty of blankets, which I am sorry to say is not the case with most of the officers."

Very little correspondence exists between 1865 and 1893. In the latter year, Roy A. French began writing a series of letters to his relatives, which became more frequent when he joined the military. In 1898, he commenced writing to his future wife, Almira "Myra" French (daughter of Allyne and Susan French). He described "monotonous" camp life at Camp Townsend in Peekskill, New York (July 15, 1898), his voyage to Puerto Rico on the Chester, during which he was very seasick, and his observations of Ponce, Puerto Rico, including the people, their modes of transportation, and the wild fruits that he saw (July 15, 1898).

On September 25, 1898, he wrote from "Camp Starvation" ("that is what the regulars call this camp because we are fed so poorly"). He reported prolonged health problems, from which he would die in 1911.

The 60 documents and miscellaneous items include newspaper clippings, military and family documents (such as a will, a passport, and a wedding invitation), a wallet, and a metal nameplate. Of particular interest is a manuscript copy of a letter of recommendation for Litchfield by George A. Custer. The copy is dated February 24, 1881. Other items document Litchfield's service in India to some extent.


Louisa A. Reed papers, 1863-1894

53 items (0.25 linear feet)

The Louisa Reed papers consist primarily of letters to Enos Reed, of the 34th Iowa Infantry in the Civil War, from his wife, Louisa, and other relatives and friends.

The Louisa Reed papers consist of 53 letters, spanning 1863-1894, with the bulk concentrated around 1863-1865. Louisa wrote 40 letters to Enos, all but 2 during his Civil War service; Enos wrote 1 letter to his daughter, "Ollie," in 1864; Enos' mother, Asenath Long, wrote 3 letters to her son; and other family members and friends contributed an additional 9 letters.

Louisa Reed's correspondence to her husband provides news from home, updates on Olive's activities and development, and observations on the war and on maintaining their home by herself. In nearly every letter, she devoted an affectionate paragraph to Olive's "mischief" and the new ways of playing the child had discovered. Reed also frequently referred to family members and neighbors, recounting her visits to them, but intimated that she sometimes felt "lonely in company" (January 4, 1863). Throughout her correspondence, she showed herself to be astute in management of the home and farm, frequently broaching the idea of selling off livestock and buying land before the end of the war, when she believed that land would become more valuable.

Although Reed's correspondence more frequently addresses personal than political topics, it documents tensions in Belinda over the validity of the war, with frequent references to the Copperhead movement. On February 7, 1864, Reed wrote that war supporters had threatened to tar and feather a particularly vocal Copperhead. She also briefly described fundraising efforts at a "union meeting," and expressed her support for the Union cause. In another letter, she criticized men who both opposed and profited from the war (November 13, 1864).

The conflict over the war is further dramatized by several letters from Asenath Long to her son, who, according to Louisa, attended "every meeting of that kind [Copperhead] within fifteen miles" (January 15, 1865). In Long's correspondence, she expressed her anti-war sympathies and her strong feelings against African Americans: "if it was not on the account of the Negro we could have peace now … if I have raised sons to die for the Negro I shal [sic] go with sorrow down to my grave … " (August 7, 1864). Letters from other writers provide family and neighborhood news, and several letters document the Reeds' movement around the Midwest after the war.


Marge Piercy Papers, 1958-2004 (majority within 1966-2003)

54 boxes, 8 oversize boxes, and 3 portfolios (approximately 54 linear feet) — Photographs are found in box 49 and oversize box 4. — Artwork in box 35, oversize box 7, and portfolio 3. Videotapes in box 54. (DVD copies are available.) — Audio material is in boxes 50-53. — Printed material is in boxes 46 and 47. Published books and serials have been cataloged separately.

Marge Piercy is an internationally recognized feminist poet and writer. A University of Michigan alumna, Piercy is the author of over thirty published works and a contributor to numerous journals and anthologies. The collection documents Piercy’s work as a writer, through manuscripts, literary correspondence, printed ephemera, videotapes, and audio material, as well as a small number of photographs and personal artifacts. Also present are works of others based on or relating to Piercy’s writings. The bulk of the collection is comprised of thirty-four feet of manuscripts and nine feet of correspondence.

The Marge Piercy Papers were deposited with the Special Collections Library by the author in 1987. Since then, she has continued to make frequent additions to the collection. The collection offers insight into Piercy’s literary career from the late 1950s through the present, primarily by way of manuscripts of nearly all of her works, present in early drafts through to production stages. Audiovisual material, photographs, artifacts, and artworks supplement the picture.

Besides documenting the professional life of one of America’s leading feminist writers and activists, the collection offers a glimpse at the literary magazine publishing scene of the 1960s and following, particularly the feminist presses and magazines (such as CALYX and 13th Moon) which Piercy wrote for and championed. Correspondence with other poets and writers, as well as to fans, reveals Piercy’s development as a writer, her views on important issues, and her influence on others. The collection also steps beyond the literary world (mainly through correspondence) to show Piercy’s collaborations with and support of artists, musicians, and activists (especially women in these fields)--thus reinforcing the fundamental connection for Piercy between her writing and all other aspects of her life.

With roughly fifty-four linear feet of materials, the Marge Piercy papers are divided into eight series: Writings; Correspondence; Other Activities; Personal; Ephemera; Works by Others; Photographs and Negatives; and Audiovisual. Researchers should note that books and serial publications by or from Piercy have been separated from the collection and cataloged individually.


Masten family papers, 1799-1899

122 items

The Masten family papers contain correspondence documenting the everyday lives of the Hastings and Masten families in 19th-century New York, as well as the Civil War service and subsequent endeavors of Henry Masten in Grandville, Michigan.

The Masten family papers are comprised of 120 letters and two miscellaneous items, dating from 1799 to 1899. The daughters of Jonas and Nancy Hastings were the primary writers of the earliest letters, which concern mainly family and farming news, specifically births, marriages, and deaths of relations and neighbors. Caroline (Hastings) Pennell’s letters to her siblings in New York shed light on the family’s struggle in Northville, Michigan, where they settled sometime in the 1830s. In a letter dated October 14, 1840, Caroline mourned the death of her infant Ebenezer, “his little body was laid in the silent grave by the side of little Andrew and it appears at times as though a part of my heart was buried with them. I find in the midst of life we are in Death and the most promising flowers are nipt in the bud…”

Several letters from the 1850s refer to problems between Samuel Hastings and his wife Mary. On September 25, 1851, Caroline wrote to her sister Nancy, stating, “Mary tells me she and the children talk of coming back this fall they cannot live there with Sam in any peace the children are afraid of him….” Caroline blames the strife on “cursed Drag Alcahol.”

Also noteworthy is the long series of letters between Henry Masten (son of Nancy and Ephraim Masten) and his sisters during the 1860s and 1870s. Henry’s Civil War letters cover camp life in Virginia, such as marching, food, weather, and equipment. In a letter of October 24, 1864, he describes being surprised by the Confederate Army at the Battle of Cedar Creek. The letters from the 1870s, when Henry lived in Grandville, Michigan, portray the work, recreation, family relations, and social setting of a farming family of that era. They contain details of farm work, birth and death of children, health and sickness, church activities, and religious beliefs. Later letters detail his activities with his grocery business, Masten & Hammond.


Matthias papers, April 1834-11 June 1835

7 items

The Matthias papers are a small, miscellaneous collection of letters and documents relating to Robert Matthias (a.k.a. Robert Matthews), the leader of the Kingdom of Matthias cult. They touch upon the lives and circumstances of Matthias; his wife, Margaret Matthias; cult follower Benjamin Folger; and Matthias’ legal counsel, Henry Western and N. Nye Hall.

The Matthias papers include seven miscellaneous items: three letters from Robert Matthias’ wife, Margaret, to his legal counsel, Henry Western; two letters to Robert Matthias while he was living in Sing Sing, New York; and two legal documents. A full description of each item is located in the Detailed Box and Folder Listing.


Mead family papers, 1861-1862

28 items

The Mead family papers primarily document the Civil War experience of Henry Mead, of the 10th Connecticut Infantry, up to his death from typhoid fever in April 1862. Mead’s letters describe informal religious meetings, the battles of Roanoke and Newbern, and camp life.

The Mead family papers contain 28 letters written between October 10, 1861, and July 17, 1863. Henry Mead wrote 21 of the letters to his parents and siblings during his service in Company I, 10th Connecticut Infantry. Other letter writers include Henry’s friend William Long, who was also a member of Company I, as well as a soldier named Willis, likely Willis Mead of the 6th New Hampshire Infantry, and Henry’s father, Sanford Mead. George Pease, “Nellie,” and “Deak” contributed three additional letters; their connection to the Meads is unclear.

Henry Mead’s letters shed light on his six months of service with the 10th Connecticut Infantry, before his death from typhoid fever in April 1862. He provided details of camp life, drilling, sailing on the schoonerE.W. Farrington , and the religious activities of soldiers. He was a dedicated participant in informal religious “meetings” held in tents, and discussed them throughout his correspondence. On December 10, 1861, he wrote, “there was one thing that made the meeting rather more solom to night was the loosing of our men last night… It made a deep thought on my mind for I thought why was it not I instead of him.” In his letter of October 29, 1861, he described getting his photograph taken in uniform and having money stolen from his pocketbook. Although Mead’s battle descriptions are sparse, he frankly expressed his anxiety and fear of death before fighting at Roanoke (February 8, 1862).


Minto-Skelton papers, 1757-1956 (majority within 1770-1900)

2 linear feet

The Minto-Skelton papers contain the papers of Walter Minto (1753-1796), noted mathematician and educator, his nephew Walter Minto Skelton (1804-1848), and other members of their extended family. Walter Minto's papers contain correspondence, writings, and other documents related to his travels in Italy, scholarship, and teaching career. The Walter Minto Skelton and family papers include correspondence, poetry, prose writings, illustrations and photographs, documents, printed materials, notes, invitations, and miscellanea.

The collection entitled Minto-Skelton family papers is divided into two series: the Walter Minto papers and the Skelton family papers. It began as the Walter Minto papers by donation from Harry B. Earhart in 1934, and this collection, which consists of 21 documents and seven letters, has been incorporated into the new, larger collection of Minto-Skelton family papers given by Jean McIntyre Conrad in 2004. The Skelton family papers contains only a few items from the Earhart donation: specifically, seven of the ten Detargny documents between 1796 and 1798 (in Series 2, sub-series 4) and one printed broadside from 1799 (in Series 2, sub-series 5); the rest come from the much larger Conrad donation. In the Contents Lists that follow each collection it has been noted which papers originally belonged in the Earhart donation.

Walter Minto Papers:

The Walter Minto papers consists of 296 letters and 31 documents, along with nine manuscript notebooks, diaries, account books, etc. and five short handwritten notes by Minto himself. Nearly all of the letters were written during Minto's lifetime, from 1774 to 1796, with four from 1797-98 added to the collection because they refer to him or to his estate. Most of the letters were written to him (253), and they are about equally divided between those written before he left Scotland for America (mid-1786) and those written after he arrived in America. Those from 1779 to 1786 are especially revealing about two events in his life that were either unknown or only hinted at previously.

The first has to do with his sojourn in Italy. He accompanied the Johnstone boys to Italy in 1776 as their tutor and remained with them there until early 1779, when they, and presumably he with them, returned to England. But letters both to and from his father, Walter Minto, Sr., along with references in other letters, make clear that, after entrusting the boys to Captain Machell in Spain, he returned to Slop's home in Pisa in March of 1779, began a formal, concentrated study of mathematics with Slop, that he continued that study there until mid-1782, and that it affected his health.

The second has to do with Minto's previously unknown relationship with a woman named Catherine Drummond. This relationship can be seen in the 49 letters (sometimes in French, occasionally in Italian) written by her to him between March of 1784 and early June of 1786, when he left Scotland for America. The correspondence continued in America, though less frequently; she wrote only three letters between February of 1787 and January of 1788. In a letter (of which there exists only a partial "translation") in response to hers of January of 1788 he tells her that he has loved her for four years and proposes marriage to her. She rejects his proposal by return mail, but continues writing to him until 1791, even after his marriage to Mary Skelton in the fall of 1789.

During his time in America, he met and exchanged letters with a number of influential people, both before going to Princeton (mid-1786 to late 1787) and afterwards (1787-96): for example, John Witherspoon, president of the College of New Jersey; the astronomer and clockmaker David Rittenhouse; Dr. Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, with whom he lodged when he first came to America; the army officers James Chrystie and Francis Gurney, who became his friends; even George Washington, to whom he sent a copy of his book on the new planet.

Another 25 letters are neither to nor from him. Most were written from one Minto family member to another and concern primarily family matters; they were probably brought by Minto to America, or were perhaps sent to his wife, Mary (Skelton) Minto, by his Scottish relatives after his death. Two of the letters were written to or from the Johnstones, in 1764 and 1772 (the latter by David Garrick), before Minto had even met the family. Three of the four letters written in 1797-98, after his death, were addressed to his wife, and the fourth to a close friend of hers.

Of the 18 letters written by Minto himself, eight are originals, having been sent to relatives and friends. The other ten are copies or drafts, in his own hand, that he kept for his personal use: these are always marked "copy" or "draft" in the Contents List.

Following the letters are nine manuscript notebooks, diaries, account books, etc. (eight written by Minto, 1776-96; plus one written in 1802, after his death) and five miscellaneous notes in his own hand. Most of the notebooks provide details about events in his life, especially the lists of expenses in the notepads from 1776 and 1779, having to do with his theological education and his dealings with the Johnstone boys, his trip to America in June and July of 1786 from the daily log he kept of it, his travels during his first few months in America from the notepads for late 1786 and early 1787, and the nature of his mathematical lectures at the College of New Jersey from the notebook dated 1802.

Of the remaining 31 documents: 14 date from 1757 to 1786, when Minto left Scotland for America; 14 from 1787, after he arrived in America, to his death in 1796; and three from after his death, the latest of which is dated 1801. The earliest one (a transcript of the entry for Elisabetta Dodsworth's baptism in 1739, from the Baptismal Record of Leghorn in Italy) is dated 1757, when Minto was only four years old. The last is a bill of lading, dated 1801, for what was probably family memorabilia sent from the Minto family in Scotland to Mrs. Mary Minto after her husband's death. In between are documents providing glimpses into Minto's education (24 January 1776), his being set free in Cadiz (13 March 1779), his trip home from Italy in the summer of 1782 (the passport signed by Sir Horace Mann on 11 June 1782), his honorary degree from the University of Aberdeen (3 February 1786), his becoming a United States citizen (24 July 1787), and his membership in the American Philosophical Society (17 January 1789).

Walter Minto Skelton (1804-48) and Family Papers:

The Skelton family papers, unlike the Walter Minto papers, consist of a great variety of materials: 43 letters, written between 1780 and 1940; a large body of prose writings and poetry, including 6 notebooks of prose and poetry, 20 orations, lectures, and essays, and 22 manuscripts of miscellaneous verse; one engraving, one drawing, one print, and four portrait photographs; 50 documents of various kinds; 14 printed materials and 3 newspaper clippings; and 58 items of miscellanea, including 7 notes, 18 invitations, and 24 round pieces of cloth with writing in ink.

The letters are divided into three groups based on the primary correspondent in each group: Mary Skelton Minto (from before 1780 to 1813, and possibly to 1824, the date of her death); Walter M. Skelton (from 1824 to 1843); and the Boyd family (from 1872 to 1940). All three groups of letters provide details about events in the lives of family members. In addition, the first group provides some chronology on the life of Marin Detargny, which is described in detail in the section below on documents. The second group contains some important Skelton family documents, especially the very difficult-to-read letter to Walter Skelton from his father Joseph dated 20 January 1825, and the one from his aunt Elizabeth White dated 22 March 1827. The third group of letters contains a mix of dates and correspondents, mainly regarding the extended Skelton families (especially the Boyds). Two letters in particular are revealing in their insights into the late 19th-century (and later) interest in spiritualism, or spiritism: the one from Edgar Ryder to Ann Skelton dated March 1872 announcing his belief that her brother Walter "is one of the Big Guns in the Spirit world"; and the one from Charles Robb to Elizabeth Boyd dated 12 January 1930 enclosing his transcript of a spirit message from her aunt Ann Skelton during a séance the previous day.

Following the letters are prose writings and poetry, divided into three groups. The first consists of manuscript notebooks containing one or the other or (usually) both genres, and is further divided into notebooks in Walter Skelton's own hand (3) and those in other hands (3). Except for "Elizabeth White's Collection of Poetry," all of these notebooks have Princeton connections, and a few have western Pennsylvania connections.

The second group contains orations, lectures, and essays, nearly all of which are in Skelton's hand and presumably composed by him. The dated ones are from his years at the College of New Jersey in Princeton, and most of the others must be as well. Public speaking was an integral part of the College curriculum, and some of the orations must have been delivered there during his student days (see especially the one dated July 1825).

The third group contains miscellaneous verse. A few of the poems are in Skelton's hand and may have been composed by him (3); the leaf containing the second poem has a few occurrences of the name "(Miss) C. Morford," who may have been a love interest of his. Most of the poems (19), however, are in other hands and range from well known ones like "Don't give up the Ship," Burns' "Auld Lang Syne," and Waller's "Of My Lady Isabella playing on the lute" to obscure ones, including a "Canzonetta" in Italian by Peruchini. Along with Elizabeth White's collection in the first group, these poems indicate a strong interest in poetry in Walter Skelton's extended family.

After a few miscellaneous illustrations and photographs are a large group of documents (certificates, wills, receipts, deeds of land sales, surveys, and the like), divided by the families to which they refer. Most of these families were from western Pennsylvania and related to the Skeltons (Boyd, Craig, McFarland) or were members of the Skelton family itself. The Franklin Heirs also relates to western Pennsylvania, for in January of 1840 Walter Skelton purchased two tracts of land, totaling 410 acres, on the west side of the Allegheny River in South Buffalo Township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, which had been owned in the 1780's by Benjamin Franklin; Skelton presumably built a house on the property and lived there until his death in 1848, when it passed into the hands of his sister Ann Skelton. The Scudders were friends of the Skelton family in New Jersey, and the deed of sale described here was probably from a descendant of that family. The two White family documents refer to Elizabeth White, whose collection of poetry is described in Series II, sub-series 2 above and who lived in Scarsdale, New York; she was the sister of Walter Skelton's mother, Sarah White Skelton, wife of Joseph Skelton, Sr.

The most intriguing set of documents has to do with Marin Detargny. It is uncertain how his papers came to be included in the papers of the Mintos or of the extended Skelton family. Moreover, seven of the ten Detargny documents between 1796 and 1798 were in the Earhart donation; why or how they became separated from the rest of the Detargny documents is a mystery, especially since they are not so different from the other three of the same date. From the documents (and four letters referring to him) one learns that Marin Detargny was born in France on 26 June 1776, son of Jean Francois Detargny. He is twice called "homme de lettres," once "Professeur," and is later referred to as "Reverend." He remained in France until at least 1798, not leaving until 1800 or a little later. By December 1802 he was in Virginia, residing in Alexandria and trying to open a school, but at about the same time he must have moved to Annapolis, where he taught French until at least April 1804. Between November 1805 and August 1807 he was in Charleston, South Carolina, but by 1810 he was in Philadelphia and being looked after, at least financially, by Benjamin Hopkins (husband of Mary Skelton Minto's niece, Elizabeth, the daughter of Mary's brother Josiah). By early 1813, Detargny was destitute and was in danger of being sent to the overseers of the poor; his wife was also destitute and depended on "relatives" who could not afford to help her husband.

How the Skeltons and the Hopkinses came to know him, and especially how the Hopkinses came to be responsible for him, is unknown, though intriguing; sometime after 1807 (see undated letter from M. Chrystie to Mary Minto) a "Mrs. Ditennia" (probably Mrs. Detargny), who had been ill, visited Mary Minto in Princeton.

The next category consists of printed materials (a broadside; an interesting advertisement and list of fees for Mrs. Graham's school in New York from the early 19th century; two newspapers; some pamphlets and announcements; and three newspaper clippings about family events). The most numerous group is the pamphlets and announcements, which contains primarily the Proceedings of seven Boyd family reunions held in western Pennsylvania and Ohio between 1881 and 1892 (at least ten reunions through 1900, but no other Proceedings appear in the Skelton family papers). These Proceedings contain lists of the participants and attendees at the various reunions, along with biographies of some of the Boyds (including Walter Skelton Boyd [1864-92], who was named for his uncle, Walter Skelton, in the 7th Proceedings), and an in-depth study of some of these people might help to unravel the connections both among the Boyds and of the Boyds with the Craigs, Earharts, and McIntyres.

The final group consists of miscellaneous materials, including notes by Walter Skelton; invitations to parties, dances, and college exercises; a statement from students at the College of New Jersey directed to James Carnahan, president of the College; a notebook containing "By-Laws of ‘The Princeton Blues'," a militia group in Princeton whose captain in 1830-31 was Walter Skelton; a booklet of proverbs and common sayings in English and Spanish on facing pages; a series of primarily 20th-century family notes and lists about the contents of the second Minto-Skelton collection before it was given to the Clements Library; and some obscure pieces of cloth with writing on them. Three of the five notes written by Walter Skelton are presumably from his days at the College of New Jersey; a fourth is apparently a record of the books in his library; and the fifth is a unique list of "Provincialisms noticed in the Western part of Pennsylvania," which he must have recorded when he first went out to that part of the country in 1826. Fourteen of the eighteen invitations (some on the backs of playing cards) are addressed to one or more of the Skelton sisters requesting their attendance at parties, dances, and college exercises, and they attest to the active social life for young women in Princeton and environs in the 1780's.

The last item in the group of miscellaneous materials is a set of twenty-four round pieces of cloth with writing in ink on one side of twenty-two of them. The writing has various configurations: always the name of the writer and, in addition, occasionally the name of the addressee, usually a sentiment of some kind, and frequently a date and the home of the writer. The addressee, when given, is always Mary or Mary McFarland; the year, when given, is 1845, usually in October; the home addresses are nearly always somewhere in Indiana County or Armstrong County, Pennsylvania; and the writers are often relatives (five are Skeltons).


Morgan family papers, 1834-1913

0.5 linear feet

The Morgan family papers contain the correspondence of three generations of the Morgan family of Ohio, Iowa, and Colorado. Primarily spanning the 1850s and 1880s-1890s, the papers document the Morgans' support for abolition and social reform, as well as their teaching, farming, and business endeavors.

The Morgan family papers consist of 292 letters and 7 documents relating to 3 generations of the Morgan family, primarily in Ohio, Iowa, and Colorado. The collection spans 1834-1913, with most of the items clustered in the 1850s and the 1880s-1890s, with little representation of other decades.

The Morgan siblings wrote nearly all of the approximately 117 letters dating from the 1850s. Their correspondence provides family news, details on their teaching careers, and updates on their health. As the Morgans were very politically and intellectually engaged, they also discussed their opposition to slavery, opinions on various reform issues, and attendance of lectures by such figures as Sojourner Truth (August 25, 1851) and Henry Ward Beecher (January 30, 1856). Eliza Morgan's letters address such topics as bloomers (September 15, 1851: "I can walk faster than ever now and much farther without being tired") and spiritualism (April 18, 1852: "New mediums are being developed constantly all through the country, near and far & some of our nearest neighbors…Milton Maxwell is a shaking medium--that is the spirits can & do shake him [and others too] without his being able to control himself in the least."). Another subject in which the siblings shared an interest was education. Sue Morgan, in particular, wrote of a desire to make it more commonly available: "how much better it is to educate the mass of the people than to confine knowledge to the few[.] if all had an equal chance and were equally educated what a vast amount of suffering and crime might be prevented and Oh what a good leveler would it be to society…" (February 4, 1851).

In the 1880s and 1890s, the most prolific letter writers were Joshua Morgan's sons, Charlie and Wendell. Their letters concern farm life in Colorado and Nebraska, including a boom period for Holyoke, Colorado (March 17, 1888). Sometime during this period, Charlie and Wendell went into business together in Colorado, and this is reflected in their letterhead. The later letters in the collection contain more business-related material and represent more correspondents outside the Morgan family. Many letters (primarily from John Burns and Peter Young) focus on the ongoing care of Celinda Spiker, a relative of Susan Spiker.


Moses Warren, Jr., letters, 1796-1797

12 items

The Moses Warren, Jr., letters document Warren's travels through New York and the Western Reserve with the Connecticut Land Company.

The Moses Warren, Jr., letters contain 12 letters written by Warren to his wife, Mehitabel, in 1796-1797, with a gap from August 1796 to March 1797. Warren wrote the first letter while onboard the Lark on May 4, 1796, and the rest while traveling around upstate New York and eastern Ohio with a group of surveyors for the Connecticut Land Company. In his correspondence, he described his work and colleagues, interactions with Native Americans, and the difficulties of surveying, including bad weather and illness.

In several of his letters, Warren made observations about Native Americans. On July 9, 1796, he recounted signing a treaty and smoking a peace pipe with Prince Cato and the Missisago Indians at "Port Independence." In the same letter, he also listed the gifts exchanged, and compared the Missisago language to that of the Mohegan. While in Youngstown, Ohio, he noted the scarcity of Native Americans, whom he believed were avoiding his party out of fear, and described the initial wariness of the "Tawa" (Ottawa) men (July 31, 1797).

In other correspondence, he described the men of his party, who were "very active & well informed, except 3 or 4" (May 8, 1797), and gave details about their health and tasks. Of his own work, he noted an assignment to "run the 5th East & West line to Pennsylvania" (June 18, 1797). At times, weather and accidents interfered with the group's progress: a "deluge" of rain near Buffalo Creek in New York caused delays (May 25, 1797) and a man drowned while accompanying a horse across a river (June 18, 1797). Warren also frequently described illnesses, such as dysentery and ague, which struck many of them while traveling.


Naomi Long Madgett and the Lotus Press Papers, 1937-2004 (majority within 1970-2003)

14 boxes and one oversize box (approximately 16 linear feet) — Photographs in box 14 and scattered throughout the collection (see contents list). — Visual material in box 13. — Audio material in box 13. — Books by Naomi Long Magdett and Lotus Press, and books from Madgett's personal library, have been catalogued separately. Some chapbooks appear in the General Correspondence series, where such material were enclosed with a letter to Madgett. See the Writings and Author Files series for materials from the production of some Lotus Press books.

Naomi Long Madgett is a prominent poet, educator, and editor, recognized for her significant contribution to African-American letters. Since 1972 she has run, single-handedly, Lotus Press, which publishes poetry by African-Americans and others. The collection documents Madgett's career and the operation of Lotus Press, through correspondence, manuscripts (both by Madgett and by authors published by Lotus Press), ephemera, audiovisual material, and photographs.

The Naomi Long Madgett Papers document the prominent career of Ms. Madgett as a poet and a teacher, and her operation of Lotus Press, which Madgett has run single-handedly for more than 30 years. Thus, the collection makes a good source of insight both into Madgett's own writing and aesthetic sensibility, and into the cultures of lyric poetry and African-American letters in the latter decades of the 20th Century. The bulk of the material covers the 1980s, the 1990s, and the first few years of the 21st century, with Madgett's activities in the 1970s being fairly well represented as well. From the correspondence collected here a vivid picture emerges of Madgett's relationships with some of the authors whose work she published--such as James Emanuel and Gayl Jones--as well as with other authors, such as Gwendolyn Brooks. In addition, correspondence and ephemera evidence the growth of Madgett's own reputation, documenting her many professional activities, awards, and honors over the years. While manuscripts by Madgett herself do not comprise a large part of the collection, the fortunes of one of her most famous poems, "Midway," are documented in detail, and an unpublished autobiography ( Pilgrim Journey) provides an extensive synthesis by the author of her own influences and career (a section of which has been published by Gale's Contemporary Authors' Autobiography Series). Finally, the collection provides a close look at the daily operation, from its inception, of a small literary press.

The Naomi Long Madgett papers have been arranged into nine series: Personal, Writings, General Correspondence, Workshops and Events, Author Files, Business Records, Ephemera, Photographs, and Audiovisual. Books published by Lotus Press, as well as other books and periodicals from Madgett's library, have been catalogued individually and are shelved by call number in the Special Collections Library. Within the collection, however, much material is available from the production of certain Lotus Press books; see below Writings and Author Files.


Nathan D. Stanwood papers, 1852-1860

23 items

The Nathan D. Stanwood papers primarily contain the outgoing correspondence of Stanwood, a gold miner who entered the meat and produce business in Sacramento in 1853.

The Nathan D. Stanwood papers (1852-1857) contain 23 letters, spanning 1852 to 1860. Stanwood wrote 22 of the letters, and Daniel Towle, a relative of Stanwood's first wife, contributed an additional letter.

Stanwood wrote 19 letters to Nancy Delano, his former mother-in-law; 2 to Benjamin Delano, her son; and a third to "Mother." His most frequent topic was his various business ventures in Sacramento, California, and his intention to "make an honest pile and come home" (March 13, 1853). On September 11, 1852, he mentioned that he had purchased 15 salmon nets, with which he would start a fishing business with a friend from Maine, Joseph A. Locke. He also promised to send money and commented that his prospects were "very bright." On October 31, 1853, he wrote about the opening and early success of his new meat store, the "Boston Market," and by August 1854, he reported selling $1000 worth of meat per week. He eventually left this venture to go into the produce business after being forced "to wait too long for my pay" (July 3, 1856). His final letter, dated April 25, 1860, notes that an overland mail route will soon provide him with weekly delivery (in favor of the slower mail delivered by steamship).

In other letters, Stanwood commented on his reasons for not remarrying sooner, which were primarily economic (April 13, 1855); gave a secondhand account of the explosion of the steamship Pearl (January 30, 1855); and mentioned his support for John C. Fremont (November 30, 1854). The last few letters in the collection document Stanwood's marriage to Emily S. Barrell in 1857, and the increasing success of his produce business.

The single letter from Daniel Towle, dated January 25, 1852, primarily concerns his investment in the Spring Valley Quartz Mining Co., which he believed would bring him "a fortune."


National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Records, 1966-1995 (majority within 1979-1989)

69 linear feet — Photographs located in Boxes 22, 47, 52, 55, and 69. — Visual Material located in Boxes 23, 30, and 53. — Audio Material located in Boxes 4-5, 7-9, 19-20, 22-24, 26-30, 43-45, 50-53, 55, 61-52, 64, and 68-69.

Materials relating to the work of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science and the 1979 and 1991 White House Conferences on Libraries and Information Services. Includes correspondence, committee files, clippings and subject files.

Nicholas Delbanco Papers, 1956-2010 (majority within 1966-2000)

47 linear feet (50 boxes)

Nicholas Delbanco (1942-), came to the University of Michigan in 1985, from Bennington College and Skidmore College, and has served as Director of the MFA Program in Creative Writing and as Robert Frost Collegiate Professor of English Language and Literature.He has also served both as Director and Chair of the Avery Hopwood and Jule Hopwood Awards Program. He has published over twenty-four books (novels, short stories, non-fiction, and textbooks), as well as many essays, reviews, and articles, and edited selected works of his friends and mentors, John Gardner and Bernard Malamud. The Nicholas Delbanco Papers includes correspondence, manuscripts, personal materials, professional records, and clippings. The correspondence is a rich collection of personal and professional letters exchanged over many years with fellow authors, publishers, and literary agents. Several manuscripts in various stages are also included.

The Nicholas Delbanco Papers were acquired by the Special Collections Library, University of Michigan, in September, 2006. Five boxes were added in November, 2009. The papers span over 40 years and include a particularly rich collection of correspondence with nearly 800 authors, educators, family members, and friends. Well known authors include, among others, John Updike, John Gardner, Joyce Carol Oates, Annie Dillard, and Raymond Carver. The correspondence traces the growth of friendships and professional relationships over many years. Other materials demonstrate the development and publication of Delbanco's manuscripts, articles, commentaries, speeches, and other writings as well as his professional careers at Bennington College and the University of Michigan. Delbanco's dedication to his students and the advancement of literature are demonstrated in his professional records, the depth of comments offered on student writings, and his active participation in associations and workshops. Personal materials include correspondence with family members, educational records, photographs, and journals from his early years.

The Nicholas Delbanco Papers are divided into six series: Name and Topical, Writings, Personal, Professional, Computer Disks, and Clippings. Books and serial publications have been separated from the collection to be catalogued individually.

The Name and Topical series contains 10 linear feet, Boxes 1-10, of mainly correspondence with fellow authors, academians, literary agents, and publishers. Topics relevant to the collection, such as university and organizational correspondence or special events are also included. Relevant photographs, clippings, ephemera, manuscripts are generally kept with related names and topics although there may be overlap in the Writings Series, especially when Delbanco and his fellow authors reviewed each other's work. The series is arranged alphabetically, and chronologically within. Incoming and outgoing correspondence are not separated. Each name or topic is given a folder as long as there are at least three letters of correspondence or if the person is of significant status. Names or topics that do not meet these minimum requirements are filed by letter in the alphabet, but are not arranged alphabetically nor chronologically within. The correspondence within these folders spans the years of the collection. There are also several folders that have unidentified correspondence in them because signatures are illegible or incomplete. Identified but undated material are generally placed in the back of related folders.

The largest segments of this series include correspondence with Frederick Busch, John Updike, Jon Manchip White, Andrea Barrett, Alan Cheuse, Richard Elman, Jim Landis, and publishers such as Brandt & Brandt, Warner Books, and Paul R. Reynolds, Inc. Although Jim Landis represented William Morrow as Delbanco's editor, the importance of his friendship with Delbanco appears greater than the business relationship; because of the depth of this friendship, the correspondence is arranged under Landis' name. Correspondence with John Gardner includes correspondence before Gardner's death and then with Gardner's family after his death in 1988, after which Delbanco was assigned to be his literary executor. Other notable correspondents include, among many others, Carly Simon, Joan Didion, Annie Dillard, George Garrett, and Wallace Stegner. Any photographs of correspondents or photographs of Delbanco by the correspondents that were originally with letters remain with those letters. Delbanco initially formed many of these friendships and professional relationships in college, graduate school, as a professor at Bennington College, and through writing workshops and conferences at Yaddo, Bennington, and Bread Loaf.

The Writings series is approximately 29 linear feet, Boxes 11-40, and encompasses many but not all of Delbanco's published writings. The series contains six subseries: Fiction, Short Stories, Nonfiction, Editorial Works, Other, and Writings by Others. Titles are arranged chronologically within the Fiction, Short Stories, Nonfiction,and Editorial Works subseries. Each title may contain a variety of formats which are noted – manuscripts, corrigendas, page proofs, typescripts, mock ups, galleys, penultimates, and unbound signatures, etc. These are arranged chronologically and often are titled as such by Delbanco in his notes. Correspondence that relates directly with manuscript materials that were originally with these manuscript materials, remains in this series, while there may be complementary information in Name & Topical.

The bulk of the material in the Fiction subseries, approximately 14 linear feet, is from The Martlet's Tale, News, Fathering, Small Rain, What Remains, and The Vagabonds. It is evident in the collection that some manuscripts were written under a variety of titles before the final decision was made as to the what the published title would be. Every attempt has been made to distinguish and attach these to the final product. One example is Fathering, which was written during the creative process under titles such as "Plague Year", "Times Fool", and "Leave Taking", before settling on the final title.

The Short Stories subseries contains approximately 1 linear foot of materials, Box 25, tracing development of About My Table and four folders, mainly reviews, on The Writer's Trade, and Other Stories. Individual short stories may be found in the Other subseries.

The Nonfiction subseries, Boxes 26-35 with additional materials in oversize Boxes 45-48 and 50, contains material primarily from Beaux Arts Trio, and two textbooks, The Sincerest Form: Writing Fiction by Imitation, and Literature: Craft and Voice. The Beaux Arts Trio was inspired by Delbanco's father-in law, Bernard Greenhouse, a cellist for the original trio.

The Sincerest Form: Writing Fiction by Imitation, a teaching textbook, was a project undertaken with students from Delbanco's English 417 and Strategies in Prose classes. Materials for this textbook include student critiques, opinions, and exercises for the purpose of learning the basics of writing fiction through imitation, "to encourage the students to develop a much more careful and critical eye when reading" (Instructor's Manual, Box 31), and at an advanced level, "to develop what they learn in class into serious critical essays" (Instructor's Manual, Box 31). Student papers, their releases for usage, and Delbanco's comments in response to their writings are included with these materials.

Literature: Craft and Voice is a three volume textbook written in collaboration with Alan Cheuse, covering works of fiction, poetry, and drama by various masters and commentaries on them. The textbook includes "nonfiction accounts of the process of composition (memoirs by playwrights, letters by poets, essays by short story writers, etc.) in which the authors discuss the problems posed and artistic challenges met." (Prospectus, 2003, Box 33).

The Editorial Works subseries contains approximately 1 linear foot, Box 35, of materials for which Delbanco served as editor. These include works by John Gardner, a colleague at Bennington College, who was killed in a motorcycle accident in 1982, at the age of 55. Delbanco was a great admirer and good friend of Gardner and his family. There are only a few materials relating to Stillness and Shadows, but there is overlapping information and also correspondence in Name and Topical (Gardner, John), reflecting Delbanco's and Gardner's relationship and the trust held by Gardner's family for Delbanco's handling of Gardner's unfinished manuscripts.

In materials relating to Talking Horse: Bernard Malamud on Life and Work, which was a collaboration with Alan Cheuse, there are correspondence, drafts, and an introduction by Delbanco regarding published and unpublished prose by Bernard Malamud. Malamud was Delbanco's mentor at Bennington College; other materials demonstrating Delbanco's and Malamud's relationship are contained in Name & Topical.

The Other subseries, approximately 4 linear feet, Boxes 35-39 and oversize Box 50, contains a variety of materials such as essays, short stories, commentaries for a WUOM radio program with Alan Cheuse, early writings from the late 1950s and early 1960s, articles for various magazines and newspapers such as Travel Holiday and Harper's, reviews on Delbanco's writings, reviews by Delbanco, and unidentified writings. Autobiographical and biographical materials are also located here as well as interviews with, Kurt Delbanco, Bernard Greenhouse, and Amy Tan. This subseries contains some materials for which it is undetermined whether publication occurred.

The Manuscripts by Others subseries, 1 linear foot of materials, in Box 40, contains writings by Robert Boyers, an article by Thomas and Andrew Delbanco (brothers of Nicholas), Jim Landis (friend and editor at William Morrow), and Stewart O'Nan, fellow author. These writings were submitted to Delbanco for his professional review; the reviews are included here.

The Personal series encompasses 1.5 linear feet of a variety of materials, Boxes 40-41, that pertain to Delbanco's childhood, education, and family. There is correspondence with his brothers, mother, father, uncle, and grandmother; also, marriage telegrams, birthday cards, and get well cards addressing his hospital stay and surgical procedure due to heart problems in 2003. Materials collected while at Fieldston, Harvard University, and Columbia University include correspondence, yearbooks, publications, ephemera, and writings. There are limited marriage, financial, and selective service records. Fifteen folders contain photographs of family, friends, travel, and professional portraits. A diary and handwritten journals contain notes and writings dated 1958 through 1966, with some undated material also. In oversize Box 50, inside Sketchbook #2, is a story written and signed by Delbanco as a very young child.

The Professional series contains 3.5 linear feet of material, Boxes 42-45, divided into subseries: Bennington College, Skidmore College, University of Michigan, Associations and Workshops, and Ephemera.

The Bennington College and Skidmore College subseries' include mainly class notes, professional correspondence relating to his academic positions, clippings, and thoughtful, detailed reviews of student work by Delbanco.

The University of Michigan subseries includes class notes, professional correspondence relating to Delbanco's academic status, clippings, lecture notes, certificates of awards and honorary degrees, and over 40 folders containing Delbanco's commentaries on student works, both at undergraduate and graduate levels. Comments on students' works provided by Delbanco are referred to as "comments"; year end evaluations of classes by students are referred to as "class evaluations". Some students are Hopwood Awards winners. There is commentary in this subseries between Delbanco and Elizabeth Kostova regarding her work for the MFA Program and debut novel, The Historian, which won an award for best Novel in Progress through the Hopwood Awards Program, and went on to be purchased for 2 million dollars by Little Brown and Company in 2004.(See Fiction, Comments, 2002.) Also included are speeches and correspondence regarding the Hopwood Awards Program.

The Associations and Workshops subseries contains correspondence, applications, meeting and agenda documents, ephemera, judging and recommendations notes and documents, and fellowship and grant awards information. Bennington Summer Writing Workshops (with photographs), Bread Loaf Writer's Conferences, Pen/Faulkner, the National Book Foundation, the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, and the NY Writers Institute are highlighted.

The Ephemera subseries contains flyers and pamphlets that relate to Delbanco's appearances, readings, and publications. There are also catalogues of trade publications and in oversize Box 50, 6 posters.

The Computer Disks series contains unidentified 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disks.

The Clippings series is arranged by decade and contains articles and reviews written about and by Delbanco from the New York Times, Chicago Tribune, Ann Arbor News, etc. Reviews and articles can be found with related subjects as well throughout the collection in related files.


Nixon family papers, 1800-1889 (majority within 1800-1851)

88 items

The Nixon family papers document the lives of several branches of the Nixon family, including settlers in southern Ohio and women attending Mount Holyoke Female Seminary and Charlestown Female Seminary.

The Nixon family papers consist of 88 items: 84 letters, 3 legal documents, and a ledger. The materials cover the period between 1800 and 1889, with the bulk clustered around 1800-1851. They primarily concern the family's settlement on land in southern Ohio in the 1810s and 1820s and the education and social lives of Warren Nixon's daughters in Massachusetts in the late 1840s.

Thomas Nixon, Jr., and his attorney, Rufus Putnam, wrote most of the correspondence of 1800-1817, which relates to taxes and land values in southeastern Ohio. Several documents concerning the land also date from this period. Beginning in 1818, letters from Warren Nixon, Otis Nixon, and Richard Nichols describe clearing and planting in Morgan Township, Ohio, as well as their everyday lives there. Warren looked down on his neighbors, calling them "a poor ignorant lazy set of beings as ever inhabited the world," and disapproved of their religious practices --"the old women & girls will pretend to preach… and jump round a while and then fall down as if they were dead" (June 22, 1818). In many letters they described their hardships; these included the neighbors stealing their horses (December 3, 1819), the low prices paid for their crops (July 13, 1822), and widespread disease (August 10, 1823). Responses from Thomas Nixon, Jr., advised patience and frugality.

By the 1830s, Warren had returned to Massachusetts, and only Otis Nixon remained in Ohio. Otis wrote the majority of letters during this period to Warren and other relatives. In a letter of May 14, 1841, he described the events in Watertown, Ohio, leading up to William Henry Harrison's election: "We have had Harrison women and Harrison boys, tippacanoe poles, log cabins and hard cider in abundance besides dinners I don't know how many & balls not a few. Many have supposed that Gen Harrison lived in a log cabin and drinked hard cider and therefore would be an uncommon friend to the poor, but such was not the fact." Otis' later correspondence also gives details of his crops, farm buildings, and events within his immediate family circle.

Between 1846 and 1851, the focus of the collection shifts to several of the daughters of Warren Nixon and Salome Rice: Selina (1825-1916), Marcella (b. 1827), and Laurella (b. 1820). The sisters exchanged a series of letters concerning family news, church matters, Charlestown Female Seminary, and Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. In her letter of January 25, 1847, Marcella, a Baptist, worries that the "far off Western wilds" are filling with "Roman Catholics… undermining the minds of the young with their false religion." On April 13, 1848, while at Mount Holyoke, she gave an account of Mary Lyon's attitude toward missionaries: "Her whole soul is bound up in the missionary work and she would have her pupils cherish it as she does." Only five items represent the period after 1851. These include several letters from Otis Nixon and his son, George, updating the family on their health and endeavors.


Northwest Territory collection, 1755-1822

0.25 linear feet

The Northwest Territory collection contains approximately 100 miscellaneous items relating to the settlement and surveying of the Northwest Territory, as well as the social and military history of the region.

The Northwest Territory collection contains approximately 100 miscellaneous items relating to the exploration and settlement of the Northwest Territory, as well as the region's social and military history. Although the territory existed from 1787 to 1803, the materials span 1755 to 1822 and include both correspondence and documents.

Examples of items in the the Northwest Territory collection:
  • Two letters by John Armstrong providing news of Fort Hamilton in Ohio (January 14, 1792; January 19, 1792).
  • Letter from Isaac Shelby to Charles Scott concerning the recruitment of the Kentucky Volunteers, who are to be sent to Fort Jefferson (September 18, 1793).
  • A letter by Andrew Marschalk describing the cutting of a road from "Lormies" (Fort Loramie, Ohio) toward St. Marys, Ohio (March 18, 1796).

Also included are several military returns and warrants for arrest.


Olga and Jesse Smith collection, 1898-1924 (majority within 1909-1914)

72 items

The Olga and Jesse Smith collection is made up of photographs, correspondence, and other materials revolving around this couple's work at the Ironwood and Ponca Schools for Native Americans, in South Dakota and Oklahoma, respectively.

The Olga and Jesse Smith collection is made up of photographs, correspondence, and other materials revolving around this couple's work at the Ironwood and Ponca Schools for Native Americans, in South Dakota and Oklahoma, respectively. The largest portion of the collection dates during their time at Ironwood School, 1909-1912, and the Ponca School, 1912-1914.

The centerpiece of the Smith collection is a photograph album, apparently kept by Olga Smith. Consisting of 304 mounted snapshots, this album is divided roughly into two parts: photos from South Dakota and photos from Oklahoma. The first images were taken in and around the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota. Their subjects include the Ironwood and Upper Cut Meat Day Schools, portraits of school children and other male and female members of the Lakota tribe, Native Americans in tribal costumes and on horseback, an excursion to the Badlands, and other subjects. Photographs taken in Oklahoma include views of the Ponca School and its school children, and other portraits.

This photograph album is valuable in its entirety, and for many of its outstanding individual images. Some of the most impressive photographs are casual portraits of Native Americans, snapshots of a Catholic "Indian Funeral," views of school buildings and grounds, and Native American rituals and encampments. The album also provides insight into what the Smiths deemed important enough to photograph and retain.

The collection also contains 39 loose photographs and images, including tintypes, real photo postcards, picture postcards, a cyanotype, studio portraits, and other miscellaneous photographs. These include family photographs, portraits of Native Americans (some in full regalia), Ponca and Ironwood schools and schoolchildren, images of Native American women cooking out-of-doors, a Rosebud Reservation hotel, a cemetery at the St. Francis Mission, and a several commercial picture postcards of locations on reservations in Oklahoma and North Dakota. See the Additional Descriptive Data for a more thorough list of subjects and names represented in the photograph album and loose photographs.

A small group of 10 letters accompanies the Smith collection. These include six letters and postcards from Olga to her parents and sister at Anderson and Graysville, Indiana, 1909-1910. Two of Olga's letters provide extensive details on life in Cut Meat on the Rosebud Reservation in February 1909. These letters describe the surrounding area, the school, the responsibilities of the Smiths' students, interactions with Native Americans, language barriers, the daily routine, and carriage and train travel. One of these two letters was printed in an Indiana newspaper. In the remaining four letters, Olga provides further insight into life on the reservation, pleads with her parents to visit, and offers advice on how to smuggle a child onboard a train without paying their fare. Smiths' daughter Mildred wrote a letter to her grandparents, in which she discusses her pets and expresses hope that they will come to visit (dated June 1909). Finally, two 1912 letters from Ironwood students to Jesse Smith in January 1912 discuss their chores and school attendance, and a single telegram to Jesse Smith in October 1914 regards his transfer to "Kiowa Schools," Oklahoma, to serve as supervising principal.

A selection of miscellaneous materials completes the Olga and Jesse Smith collection. Six of these nine items relate to the Smiths' school administration and their own efforts to learn and retain Sioux names and vocabulary. These include pages of typed names, titled "Indian Names That is Good for the Soul and Body," and "Sioux Indian Words from Memory"; two pages hung in the Ironwood school by Olga Smith, which list the female students cleaning and sewing responsibilities for two weeks; and a 55-page typed list of Native American names (possibly students). This last item contains approximately 1,450 names. Other miscellaneous materials include a commencement program for Olga Byrkett's graduation, 1898; a card with a hand-drawn teepee and tent which advertises a Progressive Dinner Party given by the Mission Ladies at Colony, Oklahoma, December 1916; and a Grand Secretary's Certificate for Jesse W. Smith, Master Mason, Ponca, Lodge No. 83, December 1924.


Orson Welles - Oja Kodar Papers, 1910-2000 (majority within 1965-1985)

41.5 Linear feet (27 record center boxes, 15 manuscript boxes, 4 flat oversize boxes, and 1 oversize drawer ) — 27 record center boxes, 15 manuscript boxes, 4 flat oversize boxes, and 1 oversize drawer

The Orson Welles – Oja Kodar Papers includes scripts, production documents, photographs, and other materials from Orson Welles's work in film and other media. General correspondence, topical files, papers related to Oja Kodar, and personal materials also make up a portion of collection. The bulk of the papers date from the 1960s to the 1980s with a smaller amount of material from the 1930s-1950s. The Additions to the Welles-Kodar Papers series, acquired in 2015, complements the scripts, correspondence and photographs already held, but also include annotated typescripts of drafts for a planned memoir, additional on-the-set photographs from films, television, and other projects, personal photographs, and documents from collaborations between Welles and Kodar.

The Orson Welles - Oja Kodar Papers primarily document the creative activities of Orson Welles during the last two decades of his life. The papers also contain a smaller amount of materials from the 1930s through the early 1960s. The materials in this collection were obtained from Oja Kodar, his companion and creative collaborator from the 1960s until his death in 1985. Additional papers were acquired in 2015 and are described below in the Additions to the Welles-Kodar Papers series.

The Welles-Kodar Papers have been divided into thirteen series: Theater, Radio, Film, Television, Other projects, Magic, Name and topical, Personal, Oja Kodar, Sound, Motion pictures, Realia, and Articles and clippings. Though much of the collection was loose and unordered, any parts of the collection that were grouped or organized by Welles, his assistants, or Oja Kodar have generally been kept in their original order. The loose, unorganized papers were then arranged according to the patterns that seemed exist in the material that was organized. Essentially, the current organization of the collection is an attempt to more fully implement the organizational schemes that Welles and Kodar were employing in the collection.

The first five series (Theatre, Radio, Film, Television, Other projects) represent the bulk of the collection and are arranged by project. For example, all materials relating to Citizen Kane including correspondence, photographs, and production documents, are kept together, physically and intellectually. The projects are then ordered chronologically. For example, immediately after the Citizen Kane (1941) materials are materials related to Welles' next project, The Magnificent Ambersons (1942). There are two exceptions to this project-based arrangement, where two groups of materials were kept together by production company (Astrophore and Roprama Film). Researchers should also note that Welles often worked on several projects at once so a memo filed, for example, under F for Fake (1974), may touch on Blind Window , which he was working on in roughly the same time period. Browsing through material from projects that occurred during the same general time period may therefore be a useful search strategy for researchers.

The Magic series, consists of a small amount of magic books, scripts for tricks, correspondence with magicians, and playing cards, reflects Orson Welles' strong, life-long interest in magic.

The remaining seven series (Name and topical, Personal, Kodar, Sound, Motion pictures, Realia, and Articles and clippings) contain material not generated during the making or distribution of Welles' creative projects. The Name and topical series consists of an alphabetical set of subject and name files material may range from correspondence with friends to posters from film festivals honoring or featuring Welles's work. The Name and topical series also includes correspondence with many famous filmmakers and actors and actresses. The Personal series contain photographs of Welles and materials relating to childhood friends, family, Welles's houses, and personal legal and financial matters. The Oja Kodar series includes material from her career as a sculptor, scripts she wrote, and some correspondence and personal material.

The final series: Sound, Motion pictures, Realia, and Articles and clippings, are relatively small (taken together they take up roughly 3 linear feet). Some material of note include cigar boxes on which Welles jotted various notes and a set of acetate records which seem to include a rare Welles radio performance.

The Theater series consists of a few files (about .1 linear feet) with he contents made up primarily of photographs and some programs from relatively early in his career, including the Mercury Theatre, as well as some from after he started working in film. Dates span 1934-1960.

In 2015, the library acquired the remaining Orson Welles papers in the possession of Oja Kodar. The Additions to the Wells-Kodar Papers series has been arranged into eleven series, mirroring the arrangement of the papers in the original acquisition. The series are: Theater, Radio, Film, Television, Other Projects, Magic, Name and Topical Files, Personal, Oja Kodar, Biographical Works, Clippings and Articles, and Oversize Photographs.

The Radio series consists of a few files (about .1 linear feet), related to Welles' work in the late 30's and early 1940s, including photographs, scripts, articles, and correspondence.

The Film series is the largest in the added material, comprising ca. 3 linear feet of scripts, drafts, correspondence, articles and clippings, promotional materials, and photographs. Films represented include both those directed by Welles and those directed by others in which he acted or participated. The series is arranged chronologically by film, dated according to their first public showing or general release date. Unfinished or unreleased projects are identified with an approximate date range of the years in the work took place.

The material related to the earliest films from the 1940s and 1950s consists primarily of photographs. Later unfinished films of particular interest include The Deep, Because of the Cats, The Other Side of the Wind, Crazy Weather, Assassin/The Safe House, The Other Man, The Dreamers, Big Brass Ring, and King Lear. Also included is articles, promotional materials, correspondence, and photographs from Don Quixote, filmed on and off from the late 1950's to the early 1970s. Materials are primarily related to the version which was released in 1992 after a the footage was edited and finished by director Jesus Franco, but the photographs are from the original filming.

As with drafts in the earlier accessions, Welles typically worked on scripts in sections, producing successive drafts which he then amended. The collection preserves many pages of these working drafts, which sometimes also include Welles's typed or written notes about the story and characters, along with messages to and from his typists. Minimal reorganization of the papers was done in order to preserve evidence of the process, and there are many files of "drafts" which may contain repetitions and out-of-sequence pages, filed as they were found. As Welles often worked by inserting new pages into older drafts or blending together several different versions of a scene, page numbers may not follow a logical sequence. In many cases no information about the script material was recorded before it was filed away, so dating the drafts is difficult. The dates assigned to this material are approximate. Because of the lack of identifying information on some of the material, a miscellaneous sub-series is included at the end of the series, which includes unidentified photographs and drafts of scripts.

The Television series comprises about .4 linear feet, and includes scripts, photographs, correspondence, and other materials relating to projects that were originally meant for television. This includes The Orson Welles Show, a talk show that only ever shot one episode with guests Burt Reynolds and the Muppets. Aslo included are materials related to Orson's Bag, a collection of short films including Swinging London, Stately Homes, and the Merchant of Venice, the contents of which were eventually released in 1995 as part of The One-Man Band. Other materials reflect the initial stages of a Christmas TV movie and a special for NBC.

The Other Projects series (.1 linear ft.) includes materials related to Welles' non-film related work, including advertising and vioceover work, as well as correspondence about various job offers.

The Magic series (about .5 linear ft.) includes scripts, correspondence, photographs, and other materials related to Orson Welles magic performances, including the Mercury Wonder Show, and television specials The World of Magic and Orson Welles' Magic Show. Also included are collected printed magic tricks, drafts of trick patter that he used during performances, articles and clippings, and drawings of costumes.

The Name and Topical Files series (approximately 1 linear ft.) contains primarily correspondence and various other materials arranged alphabetically by the name of a person, place, event, or subject. The series includes letters from directors and film executives such as Martin Scorsese and August Coppola, actors and actresses such as Charleton Heston and Charles Fawcett, close friends such as Roger Hill and Peter Bogdanovich, and some fans of Welles's work. Also included are posters, programs, and other materials related to film festivals and tributes to welles, including the Cannes International Film Festival and the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

The Personal series (1 linear ft) includes a variety of materials related to Welle's personally, rather than his screen work. This includes drafts of his writing including essays and articles about various topics, including Shakespeare and tributes and remarks about others in the film business, as well as untitled, unidentified drafts. Also in this series are works by others given to or collected by Welles including poems, short stories, and tributes. Most significant is the material from Welles' unpublished memiors, both in draft form and shorter more organized versions, along with notes, correspondence, and photographs meant for the book. Additionally, there are miscellaneous personal documents, including the notes he would write himself with lists of things that needed to be done, and notebooks with similar content as well as several doodles, one a self protrait. Correspondence with his daughters and Oja is also found in this series, as well as personal and family photographs, some from very early in his life.

The Oja Kodar series (approximately .75 linear ft.) consists of materials related to Oja Kodar's work both with and Without Orson Welles, as well as correspondence, and personal matters. The series is divided into subseries for film, writing, name and topical files, and personal. The writing and film subseries both include unpublished drafts of scripts and stories. The personal subseries included several topics related to Orson Welles' estate after his death, including real estate, legal papers related to the dispute over film rights, and Oja's eulogy for Welles. Also included are materials from her sculpture work and photographs.

The Biographical Works series (about .25 linear ft.) includes published and unpublished works about Welles written by others, including a collection of annotated correspondence, "Orson!:An Original Play", drafts of biographies by Jonathan Rosenbaum and Barbara Leaming, and a copy of The Unknown Orson Welles.

The Clippings and Articles series (approximately .5 linear ft.) is a collection of articles and clippings about Welles from various publications including magazines and newspapers. Materials are mainly arranged chronologically from before 1970 to 2014, but also included are folders of undated materials, undated clippings from Croatian/Yugoslavian publications, and photographs clipped from articles.

The Oversize series comprises two oversize boxes with oversize photographs that correspond with materials in the Film, Television, Magic, Personal, and Oja Kodar series and follows the same order. The magic subseries includes pages from a scrapbook with images from vintage magic ephemera together with images of Welles performing magic.


Peet family papers, 1789-1831 (majority within 1807-1813)

33 items

The Peet family papers contain correspondence and documents relating to everyday life in New England, politics, and the War of 1812.

The Peet family papers contain 27 letters, 3 legal documents, and 3 financial records, dating from 1789-1831, though the correspondence covers only 1807-1813. Don Carlos ("Carle") Peet, Luna Peet Sperry, and Anson J. Sperry wrote the bulk of the correspondence from Manchester, Vermont, to their father, Samuel Peet, and brother, Roily Peet, in New Milford, Connecticut. The letters primarily concern family news, including accounts of Luna's declining health prior to her death in 1810, purchase of land, and the birth of children. In a letter of February 12, 1812, Carle Peet noted Anson Sperry's remarriage and described his new wife. In other letters, he described everyday activities, such as farming and clothes-making.

Two of the letters concern politics and the War of 1812. In the first, August 16, 1812, Carle noted the organization of a volunteer company in Manchester, and criticized it as "nothing more than an out side show of pretended patriotism," and its captain as elderly and overweight. In the second letter, he described elections for Congress and expressed disillusionment with the outcomes (December 20, 1812). Anson Sperry wrote the final letter in the collection (September 20, 1813), in which he pleaded to Samuel W. Peet to assist his sick son, Carle.

The Documents and Financial Records series contains six items. The first two documents, dated December 10, 1789, and June 26, 1791, assured payment by Joseph Peet to Samuel W. and Elnathan Peet for support of their widowed mother, Sarah, and allowed her use of specific areas of Joseph Peet's home. Also included are receipts for the sale of a parcel of land in 1799 and for state taxes paid by Samuel W. Peet in 1809, as well as a record of the distribution of Sarah Averill's estate. The link between the latter item and the Peet family is unclear.


Phoenix family papers, 1776-1884 (majority within 1808-1814)

0.25 linear feet

The Phoenix family papers contain correspondence and documents relating to the firm Phoenix, Ingraham & Nixon and its failure in 1811, resulting in Alexander Phoenix's imprisonment for debt. They also include 11 letters from Harriet Beecher to Elizabeth Phoenix, dating to the late 1820s and 1830s.

The Phoenix family papers consist of 67 letters, 32 legal documents, 10 financial records and receipts, 2 drawings of land lots, and a printed bill. The materials span 1776-1884, though the bulk centers on the periods between 1808 and 1814, and 1826 and 1833. Early letters and documents relate primarily to the firm Phoenix, Ingraham, & Nixon. They include a letter from Alexander Hamilton to Nathaniel G. Ingraham, denying him financial assistance because of other obligations (March 5, 1801); the firm's articles of agreement (February 15, 1803); and 27 letters written by Nathaniel Ingraham to Alexander Phoenix concerning business acquaintances and hardships faced by the company, and its eventual bankruptcy (1810-1811). A document of October 11, 1811, gives a full account of the firm's losses.

Between November 1811 and March 1813, nearly all of the 20 letters and documents relate to attempts to free Phoenix from debtors' prison; his attorney, Silvanus Miller, wrote many of them. Also of interest is a manuscript, dated November 1811, containing copied extracts from letters by Phoenix during his imprisonment. In several of the letters, he criticized Albert Gallatin, the Secretary of the Treasury, and discussed other political matters. A copy of a congressional act of March 3, 1813, documents the release of Phoenix and several associates.

Of note is a series of 11 letters written to Phoenix's daughter, Elizabeth, by a young Harriet Beecher in the late 1820s and early 1830s. Many of the letters are undated, but can be traced to this period based on their postmarks. Beecher and Phoenix had been schoolmates at Hartford Female Seminary around 1823, and in her letters, Beecher frequently reminisced about their time at the school, including how strange she must have seemed to the other girls, and discussed mutual friends. Much of Beecher's correspondence is very introspective in nature, and consists of her religious and philosophical thoughts, including a recommendation that Phoenix read the works of Joseph Butler in order to develop her argumentation. Several of the later letters include postscripts written by Catharine Beecher, Elizabeth's teacher in Hartford. A letter of June 11, 1833, mentions their plans to open a "small school" in Cincinnati, where they had moved with their father, Lyman Beecher. Overall, the letters shed light on Harriet Beecher's intellectual and religious development during her young adulthood.

Several items postdate 1836; two of these relate to the estates of Alexander Phoenix and Shearjushub Bourne, a relative of Edgar Ketchum. Two other documents, located in the "Miscellany" series, illustrate land lots.


Pulteney Malcolm papers, 1812-1837 (majority within 1814-1817)

46 items

The Pulteney Malcolm papers contain correspondence and logbooks related to the Royal Navy service of Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm. The correspondence is composed primarily of letters Malcolm wrote home to his wife and sisters, while he was stationed in America during the War of 1812. The logbooks contain records of his service in America, in the Napoleonic wars, and at St. Helena, where he was in charge of the blockade of the island during Napoleon’s exile.

The Pulteney Malcolm papers contain 46 items relating to the service of British admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm, including 43 letters, 3 logbooks bound together in one volume, Malcolm’s service statement, and a miscellaneous document with descriptions of the British attempt to take New Orleans. Most of the items date from 1814-1817.

The correspondence series primarily consists of letters Malcolm wrote to his wife Clementina (and a few to his sisters) from 1814 to 1815. At the beginning of this period, Malcolm was stationed with his fleet at Bordeaux, during the immediate aftermath of Napoleon’s initial abdication and exile. In his letters, he discussed the end of the war with the French, his opinions of the city, major events, and important people. He wrote about his attempts to pacify his captains, who were angry about discovering their assignment to America by reading about it in the newspapers and by hearing about it from other officers (Letters #4 and #5 [May 1814]). By June 1814, Malcolm and his flagship, the Royal Oak, had set out for America, where they would provide naval support for the British forces. His letters from this period document major events from the last part of the war, including the capture and burning of Washington, the Battles of Baltimore and New Orleans, and the peace negotiations. His letters also document his opinions of fellow officers, including Admiral Alexander Cochrane; his desire for peace and to return home; and his views on America. While sailing from Bermuda to the United States, Malcolm wrote: “the Americans will be inclined to Peace, but there is a set of turbulent men amongst them, that will not listen to reason. I believe that a Republick to be great must like the Romans be always at War in order to find employ for the disquiet spirits” (Letter #19, 3 August [1814]). The last letter from this period is from 1815, written onboard the Royal Oak as Malcolm sailed home from America. During the voyage Malcolm learned that Napoleon had just returned from exile on Elba and was once again in France.

The three logbooks in the collection are bound together into one volume. The first logbook, kept from June 1, 1814-May 28, 1816 on the H.M.S. Royal Oak, includes accounts of the bombardment of Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore, and provides a daily record of naval support for the British army during the Battle of New Orleans. The second logbook, kept from June 13-July 25, 1815 on the H.M.S. Tartarus, documents the period Malcolm spent commanding a squadron in the North Sea, while giving naval support to the Duke of Wellington before Napoleon’s final defeat. The final logbook, from the H.M.S. Newcastle, March 28, 1815-August 16, 1817, deals primarily with the blockade of St. Helena, during Napoleon’s exile to that island. The volume also contains two watercolor drawings, two pen and ink drawings, a pencil sketch, five charts, two plans and four maps. Maps within the collection include several maps of the Chesapeake Bay region, as well as two maps of St. Helena. A map of the island of St. Michael, and a second of the American coastline are housed separately within the Map Division.

Other documents include an 1812 supply order from Rear Admiral George Cockburn to Captain Ross of the H.M.S. Marlborough; an incomplete document entitled “Chapter 21” that concerns the British attempt to capture New Orleans; an 1830 letter from Malcolm to Secretary to the Admiralty John W. Croker, in which Malcolm addressed the situation, pay, and unemployment of secretaries to admirals; and a service statement for Malcolm, which details his entire career in the Royal Navy from 1778 to 1837, including ranks, dates, ships, and notes on actions.


Richard and William Howe collection, 1758-1812

48 items

This is a miscellaneous collection of letters to and from members of the Howe family, including British army officer William Howe, British naval officer Richard Howe, and their families.

The Richard and William Howe collection contains 48 miscellaneous single letters and documents, spanning 1758 to 1812. The correspondents were various members of the Howe family, including William Howe, Richard Howe, Mary Hartopp Howe, Mary Juliana Howe, and Louisa Catherine Howe. Brought together over several decades, the group of materials includes miscellaneous items related to military operations, as well as a number of family letters. A handful of items concern the Seven Years War and American Revolution, and over half of the collection postdates 1783. See "Detailed Box and Folder Listing" for a full inventory of the items, including abstracts of each letter.


Richard Oswald collection, 1779-1783

6 items

The Richard Oswald collection contains three of Oswald's memoranda ("Plans for Russian Conquest of the North-West Coast--1781," "London, 9th August 1779--General Observations, Relative to the Present State of the War," and "Supplement to the Papers of August 1779 Relative to the State of the Present War") and three letters to and from Oswald concerning the Revolutionary War.

The Richard Oswald collection contains three memoranda and two letters written by Oswald, as well as a letter written to Oswald by William Pulteney, all spanning 1779-1783.

Volume One contains two memoranda of 1779: the 72-page "General Observations, Relative to the Present State of the War" and its continuation, the 33-page "Supplement to the Papers of August." In the former, Oswald anticipates a prolonged conflict (p. 25: "…if we wish to have a good Peace, we ought to prepare for a long War.") and speculates on the relationship between the Americans and French ("…I am of opinion that we have a much better chance of making France tired of the Contest by taking of America, than of recovering America by dint of our attack upon France." [p. 9]). He also suggests that the British "break the Internal Union amongst these Colonies by Dismembering one part from the other" (p. 27), and recommends that this be accomplished by expeditions into Georgia and South Carolina. In the "Supplement," Oswald doubts the value of "be[ing] so tenacious of every Individual part of these possessions as to suppose that the preservation thereof, in the Interim of this War, may not cost more than it is worth" (p. 2). He also comments further on the French, and emphasizes the necessity of taking possession of Charleston, South Carolina, in order to defeat the Americans (p. 9).

Volume Two of the Richard Oswald collection contains a 1780 letter from William Pulteney announcing the surrender of Charleston, South Carolina, and two letters by Oswald to unspecified recipients. In the earlier of the two letters, dated November 16, 1782, Oswald described the willingness of the Americans to continue fighting ("America would carry on the War with Eng'd for 50 years rather than subscribe to…evidence of their own iniquity…") and treaty negotiations concerning the treatment of Loyalists. In the later letter, dated January 8, 1783, he discussed the conflict over rights to cod fishing in Newfoundland. Also included is a memorandum written by Oswald and dated April 12, 1781, suggesting the formation of a Russo-British alliance in order to attack Mexico and California, and thereby challenge Spain in the New World. The 19-page document, entitled "Plans for Russian Conquest of the North-West Coast--1781," presents the unusual idea as an inexpensive way of "cripling [sic] the power of the Bourbon Family for ever."


Richard Wilson - Orson Welles Papers, 1930-2000 (majority within 1930-1991)

61 boxes, 2 oversize drawers (approximately 63 linear feet)

The collection includes business and personal correspondence, production materials, scripts, photographs, motion picture, and sound recordings related to Richard Wilson and Orson Welles's work in radio, theater, and film from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also included are materials related to each man's later solo careers and personal life.

The Richard Wilson-Orson Welles Papers document many aspects of the two men's creative collaboration in radio, theater, and film for the Mercury Theater and Mercury Productions. Material related to several moments in Welles's post-Mercury Productions solo work and life form part of the collection. Richard Wilson's post-Mercury Productions work is also represented. The collection includes business and personal correspondence, production materials, scripts, photographs, and audio and motion picture recordings.

Materials relating to classic films such as Citizen Kane , The Magnificent Ambersons , The Lady From Shanghai, and Macbeth are included in the collection. The original filming and 1980s-1990s reconstruction, led by Richard Wilson, of the suddenly-terminated Welles film, It's All True (1942) is particularly well-documented.

The Wilson-Welles collection has been divided into seven series: Orson Welles; Richard Wilson; Mercury Theatre/Mercury Productions; Sound; Motion Pictures; Realia; and Bill Krohn: It's All True (1993).

The three primary series: Orson Welles, Richard Wilson, and Mercury Theatre/Mercury Productions have been largely organized by production type (e.g. Theater, Radio, and Film) and then chronologically by project. Completed films, theatrical productions, and radio broadcasts are dated according to their first public showing or general release date. Unfinished or unreleased projects are dated according to the year in which most of the work on the project took place.

Correspondence and business papers for each project are located together under the project name. An important exception to this organizational scheme was necessitated by the fact that Welles frequently worked on several projects simultaneously and a single letter or memo may address several projects. Sets of memos and correspondence are filed with the project to which they are most closely related. Notable examples of overlapping projects and sets of memoranda that address at least two films are Macbeth and Othello (much of the information related to Othello is actually in correspondence in the Macbeth files), and The Magnificent Ambersons and It's All True (much of the information related to The Magnificent Ambersons is contained within the It's All True files).

The Richard Wilson and Orson Welles series also contains material related to both men's families and personal lives.


Robert Case Papers, 1938-1943 (majority within 1941-1943)

0.25 Linear feet

The collection includes typed and handwritten letters by Case to Mary Catherine Damon whom he referred to in most of the letters as Kay Damon. In the letters, Case discusses his reasons for being a conscientious objector and daily life at Public Service Camp 21. The bulk of correspondence is from 1942 until 1943 The Civilian Public Service was made to provide alternative service for conscientious objectors due to religious objections against war. Civilian Public Service Camp 21 was a Forest Service camp located in Cascade Locks, Oregon and run by the Brethren Service Committee a part of the Church of Brethren. Many of the conscientious objectors were from various other Christian religions besides the Church of the Brethren. CPS Camp 21 opened November 1941 and closed July 1946. The men fought forest fires, worked on forest fire prevention and did camp maintenance and construction. Total number of workers who worked in the camp were 579 men.

The February 1943 folder includes two pictures and a postcard of the library fire that occurred January 1943 in the camp. The library included a collection of 2000 volumes, but after the fire was rebuilt and restocked with a new collection of 3000 volumes.


Robert Shaye-New Line Cinema Papers, 1958-2008

5.5 Linear feet (4 records boxes, 1 manuscript box, 2 oversize boxes)

Robert Shaye founded New Line Cinema in 1967. The company began by distributing foreign, kitsch and art house films to college campuses and eventually grew to distribute and produce films in the Hollywood industry. The archive consists of five series: Personal, Business Documents, Projects, Articles and Clippings, and Audiovisual Materials. The documents range in date from 1958-2008.

The collection is divided into five series: Personal, Business Documents, Projects, Articles and Clippings, and Audiovisual Materials. All the series contain many of Shaye’s hand-written notes from notebooks to scraps of paper in which many of his ideas are written. Along with the notes, Shaye included many Post-it notes explaining some of the content. The majority of documents for the Projects series and all the material from the Audiovisual series are from The Last Mimzy, directed by Shaye and released in 2007.

The Personal series includes correspondence between friends and business partners as well as congratulatory cards and notes. The majority of the series consists of Shaye’s speeches made during awards ceremonies, general speeches for company events, movie premiere speeches and speeches for family and friends’ events. Many documents refer to Shaye as L.E. Moko. This reference refers to Pépé le Moko, a 1937 French gangster film directed by Julien Duvivier.

The Business Documents series ranges from 1967-2008 with documents focusing on New Line and consisting of correspondence, shareholder meeting notes, and film catalogs showcasing the variety of movies available for distribution that year. A binder with information on New Line common stock and correspondence can be found in an oversize box.

The Project series highlights some of New Line Cinema’s distributed and produced films. Highlights include storyboards for Nightmare on Elm Street 4: Dream Master, produced in 1988. The majority of documents are production documents for two films directed by Shaye, Book of Love and The Last Mimzy.

The Articles and clippings section consists of personal articles about Robert Shaye as a business entrepreneur and creative director, New Line Cinema articles, and miscellaneous film reviews along with trade magazines with issues dedicated to New Line or Robert Shaye.

The Audiovisual Materials series consists of The Last Mimzy DVD’s and a CD of video clips, trailers and publicity events. The DVD’s include production footage such as alternate beginnings, B-roll footage and different edited versions of the film.


Rochester Ladies' Anti-Slavery Society papers, 1848-1868

100 items

The Rochester Ladies' Anti-Slavery Society papers consist of documents generated by the society as well as correspondence to and from various members of the society about slavery, the conditions of freemen, and other progressive issues.

The Rochester Ladies' Anti-Slavery Society papers contain only a small portion of what must at one time have been a much larger collection. As a society devoted to the immediate abolition of slavery, the antislavery movement forms the context of most of the correspondence in the collection, but the members of the society were individually and collectively involved in the education of freedmen and in other movements, including women's rights. As a result, the collection offers a broad perspective on the mentality and activity of a small group of progressive northern women involved in the reform of what they saw as the worst inequities in American society.

The Society maintained contact with several national-level leaders of the antislavery movements, and provided important financial support to Frederick Douglass, in particular. The nine letters from Douglass in the collection all relate to the assistance provided for publication of his newspaper or are requests from him for direct aid to fugitive slaves en route to Canada. A particularly affecting letter is one that he wrote from England in 1860, while on an antislavery tour. Harriet Tubman, Beriah Green, Lewis Tappan, George B. Cheever, and Gerrit Smith also appear in the collection, either as correspondents or subjects of letters. Among the more interesting of these letters is one from John Stewart, probably a free black man, addressed to Harriet Tubman; a letter from Moses Anderson, also African-American, writing about the importance of Uncle Tom's Cabin in shaping his political consciousness; Jacob Gibb's letter of introduction for a fugitive slave; and William Watkins' report on the number of fugitive slaves that have passed through Rochester into Canada in the year 1857.

British support for the Society was crucial in keeping it viable in the late 1850s, and is documented through the letters of Julia Griffiths Crofts (Leeds, England); Sarah Plummer (Dalkeith, Scotland), and Maria Webb (Dublin, Ireland). The fund-raising efforts of the society can be tracked partly through the list of goods donated for a Festival (1:77), a small collection of ephemera relating to British antislavery societies (1:82), and a list of donations from those British societies (1:28). The most significant item for tracking finances, however, is the account book for the Society (2:20), which covers its entire history. The secretaries of the Society recorded the complete finances of the organization, and provided lists of speakers at their annual events, and carefully delineated money remitted to individual fugitive slaves. Included at the end of the collection are a set of photocopies of the manuscripts (2:21) and supplemental information about the Society and its members, provided by the University of Rochester (2:22).

Freedmen's education was a major concern of the Rochester Ladies' Anti-Slavery Society, and is discussed extensively by several correspondents. The single most frequent correspondent in the collection is Julia A. Wilbur, writing while working with freedmen in Alexandria, Va., 1862-1865. Wilbur writes long and vivid letters describing the miserable living conditions found among the freedmen, their want of clothing and shelter, and she describes several individual cases. Wilbur also met and became familiar with the renowned ex-slave and author, Harriet Jacobs. The situation that Wilbur describes in Virginia verges on the chaotic, with corruption at the highest levels, dissension among those in charge of contraband matters, and many in the military reluctant or unwilling to take any responsibility. She was a perceptive observer of the progress of the war, Southern citizenry, and of the destruction that the war had inflicted upon Virginia. Her official reports to the Society, which are more general and less pointed than her private correspondence, were published in the Society's published annual reports (2:1-13).

In addition to Wilbur's letters, there are six other items pertaining to freedmen's education. Three letters from G. W. Gardiner and one document signed by Lewis Overton, 1862-63, relate to the work of the Colored School, founded for freedmen at Leavenworth, Kansas, and both letters from Daniel Breed, 1863-64, include discussions of the Rochester School for Freedmen in Washington, D.C., named for the Society whose money founded it.

The printed items in the collection include fourteen of the seventeen known annual reports of the Society, a report from the Toronto Ladies' Association for the Relief of Destitute Colored fugitives (2:14), and circulars from two British societies (2:15-16). Three issues of Frederick Douglass' Paper (October 2, 1851, February 19 1858, and July 1, 1859) and one issue of The North Star (April 14, 1848) are included in Oversize Manuscripts. An issue of the Christian Inquirer (New York, July 24, 1858), having no direct relation to the Rochester Society, was transferred to the Newspapers Division. Finally, in two letters written in 1859 and 1861, Rebecca Bailey discusses her father William Bailey's newspaper, The Free South.


Rowland Stephenson Scrapbook, ca. 1767-1840

1 volume

The Rowland Stephenson scrapbook contains numerous clippings, engravings, illustrations, notes, and ephemera primarily related to British banking and finance, the Royal Family, and prominent political and historical figures.

The Rowland Stephenson scrapbook contains numerous clippings, engravings, illustrations, notes, and ephemera primarily related to British banking and finance, the Royal Family, and prominent political and historical figures.

The scrapbook (23 x 18 cm) has brown board covers, is lacking a spine, and contains 184 pages in total. While it is unlikely that Stephenson himself created the scrapbook, it does appear that it may have been compiled by a close associate or relative of Stephenson's. Dated contents range from ca. 1767 to 1840 and generally speaking include numerous engraved portraits of various individuals (mainly royal personages, aristocrats, politicians, military and religious leaders, writers, artists, doctors, scientists, athletes, eccentrics, criminals, and historic figures), engravings and illustrations of buildings and other scenes, handwritten notes and ephemeral materials related to various subjects including royal finances and banking, multiple pasted in signatures, and newspaper clippings regarding various subjects including a reward notice for information on Stephenson's whereabouts after his disappearance following his embezzlement scandal. A number of engravings appear to have been clipped from European Magazine as well as R. S. Kirby’s Wonderful and Eccentric Museum; Or, Magazine of Remarkable Characters. Many undated engravings of pre-18th century historic figures were likely produced prior to 1767.

Items of interest include:
  • Pressed plant life remnants of a “Willow from the grave of Buonaparte at St. Helena. 1838” (pg. 1)
  • Engraved portraits of King George III, Aleksandr Suvorov, and the Duke of Wellington (pgs. 2-4)
  • Handwritten list of debts held by Prince Regent George IV coupled with a newspaper clipping expressing caution about how to deal with being in debt (pg. 7)
  • Engraved portrait of Prince Regent George IV with handwritten notes summarizing "Debts of this King paid by Parliament"; includes juxtaposed clipped engraving of a man with hand-drawn sight lines drawing attention to the total debt amount of £3,113,061 (pg. 8)
  • Handwritten list of expenses for the coronation of King George IV, July 19, 1821 (pg. 9)
  • Invitation to the coronation of King George IV (pg. 10)
  • Printed poem about death of Princess Charlotte of Wales, November 6, 1817 (pg. 13)
  • Handwritten list detailing pensions paid to certain dukes, duchesses, princes, and princesses (pg. 15)
  • Two engravings showing portraits of Queen Victoria (ca. 1837) and the 1st Earl of Munster (ca. 1834) encircled by statistical references regarding “The Population of the British Empire according to the last census” (pgs. 16 & 48)
  • Handwritten list showing stats related to the “Total personal charge of a King of England, on the scale of the reign of George the Third” (pg. 17)
  • Engraved portrait of surgeon Charles Aldis (pg. 19)
  • Engraved view of the comet of 1811 (between pgs. 19 and 20)
  • Clipped handwritten cookery list dated December 29, 1767 (pg. 20)
  • Engraved portrait of “Her late Most Excellent Majesty Sophia Charlotte, Queen of Great Britain,” dated December 1818 (pg. 23)
  • Engraved view of “Frogmore, the favorite residence of Her late Majesty” coupled with smaller engraving of people ice skating (pg. 24)
  • Handwritten notes detailing the history and operations of the Bank of England (pgs. 25, 27, 29, & 31)
  • Three Bank of England checks dated February 14, 1826, Dec 10, 1818, and March 6, 1818, all marked with “Forged” stamps, accompanied by handwritten notes (pgs. 26, 28, & 30)
  • Two unfilled stock certificates for £1 and £10 from the Hibernian Bank, Dublin, illustrated with vignettes (pg. 32)
  • Handwritten statement detailing the Bank of England’s net profits from 1797 to 1816; includes tipped-in engraved portrait from 1803 of Abraham Newland, Chief Cashier for the Bank of England (pgs. 33-35)
  • Handwritten note about scented “love letter paper” made in New Jersey alongside an engraved portrait of Raphael (pg. 37)
  • Engravings including depictions of four honorary medals and views of “The Car on which the Remains of Lord Nelson were conveyed to St. Paul’s Jany. 9, 1806,” the "Palaquin presented by the Marquis Cornwall to Prince Abdul Calic, Eldest Son of Tippoo Sultaun…Sepr. 1796," and "A West View of the Iron Bridge over the Wear near Sunderland" (pgs. 39-41)
  • Handwritten notes detailing the history of the Rothschild Family (pgs. 43 & 44)
  • Engravings of Thomas Coram and the Foundling Hospital as well as a funding solicitation notice seeking contributions for the Foundling Hospital (pgs. 45 & 46)
  • Tickets and other ephemera related to various lotteries (pgs. 49, 50, 52, 54, 55, 56, & 58)
  • Engraved view of the Globe Theater (pg. 53)
  • Clipping regarding election anecdote related to Lord Chief Justice John Holt accompanied by a tipped-in engraved portrait of Holt (pg. 62)
  • Handwritten notes on the "Character of a Good Woman" (pg. 63)
  • Handwritten notes on Freemasonry (pg. 64)
  • Hand-drawn view of the comet of 1811 (pg. 65)
  • Engraved portraits of Benjamin Thompson, the Count Rumford; John Elwes; Joanna Southcott; Thomas Paine; Rev. Thomas Raffles; Richard Carlile; Sir Richard "Dick" Wittington and his cat; Joseph Priestley; Prince Albert; engraver John Rowe; and London eccentric Ann Siggs (pgs. 74-85)
  • Engraved depiction of a sleeping woman named Elizabeth Perkins of Morley, Norfolk, accompanied by handwritten notes detailing her sudden and mysterious entrance into a coma in 1788 (pg. 86)
  • Ca. 1839 advertisement for a showing of Brother Jonathan, the mammoth ox from America (pg. 87)
  • Engraved portraits of boxer James Belcher, eccentric dentist Martin van Butchell, and Madame de Staël Anne-Louise-Germaine Necker (pgs. 88-90)
  • Plan of the King’s Theatre (pg. 94)
  • Engraving showing the three defendants in the 1823 Radlett Murder: John Thurtell, Joseph Hunt, and William Probert (pg. 101)
  • Handwritten copy of a letter sent from Rotterdam, Netherlands, dated August 18, 1817, instructing Stephenson’s firm to pay £100 to someone who was purpsoefully injured by one of their clients (pg. 103)
  • Engraved portraits of Thomas Hobson accompanied by a printed poem, Henry Jenkins of Ellerton in Yorkshire “who lived to the Surpizing Age of 169,” and Thomas “Old Tom” Parr (pgs. 110-112)
  • Engraved view of London and the observatory erected over the cross of St. Paul's Cathedral that was used by Thomas Hornor to create his panoramic view of London accompanied by a handwritten note about an individual nearly falling to their death after slipping on top of the cathedral's dome (pgs. 115 & 116)
  • Engraved portraits of Lady Morgan Sydney Owenson and Charlemagne (pg. 117)
  • Ca. 1840 advertisement for London-based rubbish collector John Allford attached to French cologne advertisement (between pgs. 117 & 118)
  • Clipping regarding Edmund Burke's description of the Bible, an engraved portrait of Burke and an engraving of two Biblical-era priests preparing sacrifices (pgs. 123 & 124)
  • Engraved portraits of Rev. Rowland Hill and George Savile, Marquis of Halifax (pgs. 125 & 128)
  • Cut and pasted signatures of various individuals (pgs. 129-168)
  • Engraved portraits of Governor Joseph Wall, Sir Francis Burdett, Lord Brougham and Vaux, Lord Durham, John Bellingham, T. S. Duncombe, Colonel George De Lacy Evans, Lord Thomas Erskine, George Canning, Granville Sharp, Henry Hunt, Richard Watson, Joseph Hume, William Cobbett, Daniel O'Connell, Charles Lennox the Duke of Richmond, Lord Palmerston, Thomas Spring-Rice, William Henry the Duke of Portland, Sir James Shaw, Lord Bexley Nicholas Vansittart, Sir Matthew Wood, Robert Waithman, W. T. Raynal, Sir Richard Birnie, Joliot de Crebillon, John Gully, Sir John Oglander, John Soane, Sir Nicholas Conyngham Tindal, Hippocrates, Josiah Ricraft, Dr. Herman Boerhaave, Henry Hastings, Marie and Catherine de Médicis, James Cook, Rev. Obadiah Sedgwick, Lord Burghley, King William IV, and Queen Victoria (pgs. 133-183)
  • Hand-colored engraved portrait of Stephenson accompanied by his own clipped signature as well as a newspaper clipping of a reward notice offering £1000 pounds for Stephenson's apprehension following his alleged embezzlement and flight from London (pg. 171)
  • Four tipped-in manuscript items including an undated note from Stephenson quoting "Lev: 12: Blair" about choosing one's path in life; a letter dated January 9, 1804, from B. Pratt to Stephenson regarding the importance of being careful with money; a letter dated August 29, 1827, from “Rody Moroney” to Stephenson thanking the latter for favors; and a letter dated March 23, 1822, from "the Independent Inhabitation of West Looe" to innkeeper Robert Reath inquiring about the whereabouts of Stephenson's friends and remarking on business matters impacted in the wake of a contested election (between pgs. 171 & 172)
  • Clipping of a poem dated January 10, 1829, regarding Stephenson's alleged embezzlement and lamenting the volume of negative newspaper coverage devoted to Stephenson as well as to the Duke of Wellington (pg. 173)
  • Loose letter dated March 19, 1828, from Michael Meredith to Stephenson expressing the former's willingness to work for Stephenson again in Leominster "if it should happen that your Honour should call on me again at any future Election" (between pgs. 173 & 174)
  • Handwritten notes regarding the "Expenses of the Coronation of Queen Victoria" accompanied by a clipping that details the approximate value of the jewels found in Her Majesty's Crown (pg. 184)
  • Engraved view of the passenger steamboat SS British Queen (pasted inside back cover)


R. W. Benson journal, 1905–1906

54 pages

This journal describing a train trip through the South and a winter spent in Florida was compiled by R. W. Benson from letters written to her daughter.

This journal describing a train trip through the South and a winter spent in Florida was compiled by R. W. Benson from letters written to her daughter, Miss Clara Benson of Wellesley, Mass. Mrs. Benson might have copied her letters before sending them, but it seems more likely that she borrowed the letters at a later date in order to create a book recording her winter "dropped into a world of orange trees." Mrs. Benson also pasted in the postcards she sent to her daughter, as well as some wildflowers she had enclosed in one letter.

Seven of the cards are picture postcards of places Mrs. Benson visited. She took pains to place herself within the context of the scene depicted: "We circumnavigated the citadel. We walked where you see a man walking," she noted on the front of the postcard of the Tampa Bay Hotel. On two cards illustrating scenes from Havana, R. W. Benson made intriguing allusions to living in or taking an extended visit to Cuba in 1867. Two of the actual letters to Clara are included as well. There is a gap from January 27, the last copied letter, to April 8, the date of the next, and final letter, indicating that this journal does not represent the complete correspondence. Two calling cards, an envelope of pressed wildflowers, and a New Year's greeting are laid in the volume.

Mrs. Benson's letters do not progress in a linear fashion, but often return to and retell the same stories in quite different ways. Some events obviously upset her. When two ladies dawdled in the dressing-room on the train, she was in an "awful flurry" to dress herself and Lydia before the train reached Tampa. She also mulled over losing her pocket-book at the Hotel minutes before departing for Thonotosassa. More pleasant recollections were also repeated in her letters. She was enraptured by the young William Draper, "the 'saving grace' in our 'Old Folk's Concert,'" often mentioning his willingness to help and his broad shoulders.

Delight in the natural world fills her letters, from more traditional observations of the lovely view of the lake to curious descriptions of how the oranges looked "quite social in the nice top-sail breeze" one day and "sullen and belligerent" in the "glimmering sun" of a still day. She described twilight, "which as usual in southern climes is short," as "a mere wave of the hand." When writing about a walk among "frequent cypresses with their mourning moss trailing," she stopped her narrative of the walk to reflect that while "on the other trees the long trailing moss swaying in the wind seems quite a cheerful decoration, on the cypress it seems like mourning."

R. W. Benson also discussed the temperature in great detail, no doubt reveling in the balmy weather she was experiencing. She often mentioned what layers of underwear she had either removed or put on: "I prophesied we would soon discard all underwear, but when I had taken a sponge bath I found I wanted some underclothes, after all."


Samuel Ripley papers, 1864-1865

64 items

The Samuel Ripley papers contain correspondence from a soldier in the 36th Wisconsin Infantry, describing several months at Camp Randall, participation in the siege of Petersburg, and his feelings about the war.

The Samuel Ripley papers contain 60 letters, spanning February 1864-February 1865, two brief undated notes, and two photographs. Samuel Ripley wrote 58 of the letters between the commencement of his service in the 36th Wisconsin Infantry in February 1864, and his imprisonment at Salisbury Prison in August of the same year. The recipients were his wife Mary and his mother Abigail. Ripley's early letters, between February and mid-May 1864, describe life at Camp Randall near Madison, Wisconsin, including drilling, taking on the responsibilities of company clerk, and leisure activities. Several letters also mention attempts to visit Mary, as well as to bring her to Madison before his departure for the front.

Between June and August, Ripley wrote 37 long, richly-detailed letters, in which he discussed many aspects of the war: his opinions on its progress and how it was conducted, experiences participating in trench warfare during the Siege of Petersburg, attitudes toward fighting and the Union cause, and, to some extent, politics. He also frequently mentioned his ongoing rheumatism and digestive issues, but generally reported experiencing fair health. Correspondence from June 14-23, 1864, vividly depicts the siege of Petersburg, including being grazed by bullets and participating in an undermanned charge through an unprotected melon field (June 19, 1864). In a letter of June 20, 1864, Ripley described the variety of activity in the trenches: "any one fires from the trench who pleases and when they please, so some are firing some eating some cooking some hunting grey backs." Surprisingly, although an undated note in the collection states that Ripley was wounded on June 22, 1864, his letters do not mention such an event.

A strong believer in the Union and in the abolition of slavery, Ripley admitted to disliking warfare (June 27, 1864), but hoped that peace arbitrations would not succeed unless they ended slavery (July 25, 1864). In several other letters, he expressed distaste for "Copper-heads." He also frequently made predictions about movements and on the outcome of the war, which he believed had neared its end.

Ripley's later letters are particularly introspective and frank; on August 22, 1864, he wrote to his mother, describing his reasons for enlisting against the wishes and advice of friends, and alluded to his own shortcomings and disagreements with his deceased father. He also mentioned his distrust of some Union officers, whom he suspected of receiving bribes from Southerners and stealing packages from Union soldiers. In his last letter of August 28, 1864, Ripley notified his wife about his capture. Two letters from military officials, providing details on Ripley's imprisonment and death, close the correspondence.

The Miscellany Series contains lyrics to a Civil War song, a few biographical details, and two photographs of Ripley (one tintype and one carte-de-visite).


Samuel Williams papers, 1814-1856

322 items (0.5 linear feet)

The Samuel Williams papers contain the correspondence, mainly business-related, of the chief clerk in the office of the surveyor-general of the Northwest Territory.

The Samuel Williams papers contain 273 letters, 30 survey records, 11 receipts, 4 maps, 3 ledgers, and a legal document, spanning 1814-1866.

Approximately one-fifth of the correspondence is organized by writer. The John H. Eddy Letters to Samuel Williams series contains three 1817 letters: September 15, concerning John Eddy's comments on drafts of maps of Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan Territory; September 30, regarding a request for corrections to maps using astronomical observations; and December 6, commenting on cartographic scale.

The Samuel Williams Drafts to Lucius Lyon series comprises 20 letters, covering 1841-1849, and containing comments by Williams on cartography and the work of the Surveyor General's Office. Williams wrote to Lyon on such topics as bills concerning his office, surveys in progress, and cartographical issues. On March 3, 1846, he described disagreements within the office, and referred to colleagues' plans to "sabotage" its work. In several other letters postdating 1845, he attempted to tie up loose ends after his resignation; he made ongoing references to missing field notes on Ohio, and to difficulties in establishing the boundary between Michigan and Ohio (March 2, 1847). Williams wrote drafts to several other recipients on the same pages as his drafts to Lyon, and these are also included.

Thirty-one letters make up the Henry S. Tanner Letters to Samuel Williams series, which spans 1818-1836. Letters concern the death of John H. Eddy (August 16, 1818), the exchange of maps of Ohio and Indiana, and the prices and sale of Tanner's publications. On March 3, 1823, Tanner requested assistance in drawing county lines in several states. The letters also document several financial transactions between the men.

Ezekiel S. Haines became surveyor-general in 1838. He wrote 42 letters in the collection between 1838 and 1847, which comprise the Ezekiel S. Haines Letters to Samuel Williams series. The letters are generally brief and business-like, and mainly concern routine office matters such as payroll, business trips, and communications with colleagues.

The Mammoth Cave Drafts and Documents series contains four items: two drafts of narratives of a trip through the cave, and two detailed manuscript maps of the cave. Although the maps are undated and unattributed, the handwriting that appears on them seems to match Williams' own.

The Other Correspondence and Documents series contains 222 items, both incoming and outgoing, spanning 1814-1866. A retained and signed copy of a letter from William Henry Harrison to Edward Tiffin, surveyor general, dated September 16, 1815, reports the signing of a treaty between the United States and members of the Wyandot and other tribes. Harrison commented that "we thought it probable that the Indians did not really understand that the Treaty gave the latitude of location which the words authorized...".

In 2022, the Clements Library added the following letter to this series: Sam[ue]l Williams ALS to Tho[ma]s V. Swearingen, April 10, 1829; Chillicothe, Ohio. 3 pages. The letter pertains to ordering books from New York and from John McClintock. Williams wants John Adlum's treatise on vine cultivation, Henry Tanner's Atlas (for Col. Brown). He asks whether or not Anthony Finley published his "Internal Improvements" maps and what financial discounts Finley would he give booksellers. Williams is sending the money for the books with mapmaker / cartographer Alexander Bourne. Includes a short list of atlases/maps wanted from Finley.

Many of the early letters in this series document the surveying of Michigan, particularly the difficulties of such a task because of fallen brush and timber (December 25, 1817) and unexpected snow (April 30, 1831). Other frequent subjects include updates on surveys in progress of Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan; corrections to maps and atlases; the sale of public land; and comments on Midwestern geography. The most frequent letter writers were Lucius Lyon, who wrote approximately 20 letters; Robert D. Lytle, who contributed approximately 10; John Mullett, who wrote 5; and Samuel Williams himself, who contributed around 10 letters to various recipients. Lyon wrote letters on a number of business topics, including his progress surveying the Michigan Territory (April 30, 1831), soil and minerals in Michigan, business transactions with mutual acquaintances and colleagues, and ongoing issues arising from the transfer of the Office of the Surveyor General from Ohio to Michigan.

The Survey Records series contains 30 undated records for the Michigan Territory, which include latitude and longitude calculations and comments on trees and soil for various areas of the territory. The "Maps" series contains two maps by Alexander Macomb, located in Map Division: [Michigan Territory And the Great Lakes, 1819] and [Saint Mary's River], 1819.


Soldiers' Relief Society of Haverhill and Bradford (Mass.) papers, 1860-1866

0.5 linear feet

The collection contains correspondence, financial records, speeches, reports, and meeting notes generated by Soldiers' Relief Society of Haverhill and Bradford for their charitable efforts, 1860-1866.

The Soldiers' Relief Society of Haverhill and Bradford papers contain 601 items: 58 letters, 517 financial records, and 26 speeches and reports relating to the Society's activities, expenditures, and personnel, 1860-1865.

The Correspondence series contains letters spanning June 1860-June 1865. The earliest correspondence mainly relates to the establishment of the Society and the appointment of its leadership, including several letters from women who declined roles as officers. Other letters reflect personnel changes, such as resignations and the addition of new positions in the organization. Letters also document the types of materials requested from and sent by the Relief Society, as well as the reactions of recipients. Enlisted men wrote approximately one quarter of the correspondence, thanking the organization and describing their pleasure at receiving food, blankets, clothes, and other items. Occasionally, they offered suggestions on the sorts of items that were particularly useful. For example, in a letter of [August] 10, 1861, Captain Luther Day, of the 50th Massachusetts Infantry, wrote that "no gifts to soldiers are more acceptable than nice socks" and suggested that dry feet were essential to the soldiers' happiness. As the war went on, requests for medical supplies, particularly bandages and "lint," became more frequent, and several letters describe the conditions of hospitals and the difficulty of procuring sufficient supplies. One letter, dated September 2, 1864, gives such an account of Campbell Hospital in Washington, D.C. Other relief organizations, such as branches of the U.S. Sanitary Commission and the U.S. Christian Commission, wrote a few of the later letters in order to coordinate efforts and shed light on areas of particular need.

Financial records make up approximately 90% of the collection and span April 1861-October 1866. The records are mainly receipts; they document the purchase of materials used in the production of clothing, bedding, and other supplies for soldiers, as well as the rental of venues for fundraisers and knitting circles. Also present are a number of lists documenting the Society's output and activities, as well as records of charitable donations to the Society. The financial documents illuminate many details of fundraising and the profitability of the Relief Society's many endeavors. Like the correspondence, later financial documents show a shift toward donations of medicine and medical supplies. A receipt of January 12, 1864, lists the medical items purchased by the Relief Society at Emerson & Howe Apothecaries. After the end of the war, financial records show that the organization continued to donate supplies to the sick and wounded who still resided in hospitals.

The Speeches, Reports, and Meeting Notes series contains records of several meetings in 1864-1865 as well as speeches delivered by several officers. The meeting records document debates over the direction of the Society and how to spend its money. One undated 1865 speech, given by Sophia Hill, alludes to "sectarian" tensions among the members. An 1863 printed "Biennial Report" provides background on the formation and composition of the organization and includes its "Articles of Association."


Stanton P. Allen Scrapbook, 1864-1889

1 volume

The Stanton P. Allen scrapbook contains clippings, engravings, maps, and drawings related to a recurring newspaper column titled Down in Dixie written by Allen for the Troy Daily Times in which he recounted his experiences serving with the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry during the Civil War.

The Stanton P. Allen scrapbook contains clippings, engravings, maps, and drawings related to a recurring newspaper column titled Down in Dixie written by Allen for the Troy Daily Times in which he recounted his experiences serving with the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry during the Civil War.

The volume (23 x 14 cm) contains approximately 101 pages and has blue cloth covers with the words "Manual and Report, Board of School Commissioners Troy, N. Y., 1883" stamped in gold on the front. The first item to appear is a pasted in sheet on pg. 5 with the words "Down in Dixie, by Stanton Perrie Allen" printed and "Volume IV" handwritten. The first clipping of Down in Dixie appears on pg. 9 and is marked "34," which coupled with the presence of "Vol IV" on pg. 5 would seem to suggest that Allen created multiple volumes in which the columns were sequentially ordered. These volumes were likely used by Allen to finetune his ideas for how he envisioned publishing his account in book form.

The Down in Dixie clippings are given a visual dimension through the inclusion of numerous clipped engravings that directly relate to people, places, and events referenced in the narrative. Engravings include portraits of leading military figures from both the Union and Confederacy as well as numerous depictions of soldiers, battles, camp life, fortifications, buildings, prisoners of war, casualties, mass burials, etc. Also present are several engravings depicting African Americans (pgs. 52, 54, 58-60, 92, 95, & 97) and Apache Indians (pgs. 10 & 11). Two clipped maps are also included, with one showing a general overview of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey (pg. 9) and the other showing a detailed view of the roads, landmarks, and natural features east of Richmond, Virginia (pg. 77). Only one photograph is present, an unmounted studio portrait of Allen's mother Celia juxtaposed with an anecdotal passage about a Confederate and Union soldier bonding over their deceased mothers (pg. 51).

Of particular note are six original drawings signed by Allen. The first, a pen and ink drawing captioned "Down in Dixie Turning Out For Stables," shows a Union cavalryman (presumably Allen) at camp laden with horse care equipment (pg. 20); the second, a watercolor captioned "Down in Dixie. 'How Is That For Beef?' From Memory 1889," shows three Union cavalrymen eating a meal at camp (pg. 25); the third, a watercolor captioned "A Stag Dance. Four Hands Round," shows a group of four Union cavalrymen dancing while another plays the fiddle as two others (including an African American cavalryman) look on (pg. 26); the fourth, a pen and ink drawing captioned "The Sutlers Whisky Barrel Tapped At Both Ends. Down in Dixie," shows a large group of Union cavalrymen getting drunk on whisky after secretly tapping into the sutler's barrel from the outside of his tent (pg. 27); the fifth, a pen and ink drawing captioned "'The Tables Turned.' - Beaver Dam, Va., May, 1864," depicts the anecdotal interaction between a Union soldier and Confederate prisoner who realize they had both stolen rings from each other that had belonged to their deceased mothers (pg. 49); the sixth, a watercolor captioned "Sheridan's Raid - 1864. - Walking to Rest the Horse. - From Memory - 1889," shows a Union cavalryman leading his horse.

A loose two-page typescript draft of a consolation letter dated June 20, 1897, written by Allen to Charles S. Francis after the death of the latter's father John M. Francis can also be found tucked inside the back cover. Allen knew both John and Charles from having worked for the Troy Daily Times, which was founded by John in 1851.


Stew Albert and Judy Gumbo Albert papers, 1938-2006 (majority within 1968-2006)

24 boxes, 2 oversize boxes (approximately 28 linear feet)

Stew Albert, a founding member of the Yippies, was a political activist, writer, journalist, and unindicted co-conspirator in the "Chicago Seven" case in 1968. The Stew Albert and Judy Gumbo Albert Papers offer insight into the lives of two activists who were involved in anti-Vietnam war protests, members of the Youth International Party (Yippies), and had ties to groups such as the Black Panther Party and the Weather Underground. The collection contains a variety of materials, including manuscripts, FBI files and court documents, photographs, slides, and negatives, artwork, audiovisual material, realia, scrapbooks, and posters.

The Stew Albert and Judy Gumbo Albert Papers offer insight into the lives of two activists who were involved in anti-Vietnam war protests, members of the Youth International Party (Yippies), and had ties to groups such as the Black Panther Party and the Weather Underground. This collection contains a variety of materials, including manuscripts, FBI files and court documents, photographs, slides, and negatives, artwork, audiovisual material, realia, scrapbooks, and posters. Besides documenting their lives and activities, the collection also offers a glimpse into an aspect of American activism in the 1960s and afterwards, including antiwar protests and the women's liberation movement. The Alberts had close ties to other prominent figures in the movement, such as Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, who are well-represented in this collection through writings, correspondence, photographs, and audio interviews.

With roughly 28 linear feet of materials, the Stew Albert and Judy Gumbo Albert papers are divided into 12 series: Manuscripts and Writings; Name and Correspondence; Personal; Topical Files; FBI Files; Court Documents; Photographs, Slides, and Negatives; Artwork; Audiovisual; Realia; Scrapbooks; and Posters. Researchers should note that books have been separated from the collection and cataloged individually.


Swearingen-Bedinger papers, 1759-1948 (majority within 1770-1795)

0.25 linear feet

Correspondence, Revolutionary War military documents, land and financial documents, and maps pertaining to several generations of the interconnected Swearingen and Bedinger families of present-day Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky.

The Swearingen-Bedinger papers contain 44 letters; 41 land, legal, and military documents; 126 financial documents and receipts; 5 printed items; 3 genealogical documents; 2 maps; and 7 miscellaneous document wrappers. The materials span 1759-1941, with the bulk concentrated around 1770-1795.

The Correspondence series spans 1759-1793 and contains letters to and from many members of the Swearingen and Bedinger families. Several of the earliest items are incoming to Van Swearingen (1719-1788) and concern financial matters, including the collection of debts and rents. During the Revolutionary War, many of the letters pertain to war efforts and the military service of several family members their friends. On February 18, 1779, Captain Abraham Shepherd of the Virginia Rifles wrote to Lieutenant Henry Bedinger, Jr., from Camp Middlebrook, New Jersey, attempting to settle accounts between them, describing his efforts to get the imprisoned Bedinger exchanged, and giving news about their friends and families. In a letter written from "Long Island Graves End" shortly thereafter, Bedinger informed his mother, "the prospect of an exchange of Prisoners taking place, appears much nearer and favourable than formerly." In the same letter, he also noted a consequence of his time as prisoner of war: "I am much hardened and Can undergo almost Anything" (March 29, 1779). Another highlight is a letter from the Marquis de Lafayette to Henry Bedinger, Jr., whom Lafayette addressed as the "County Lieutenant of Berkley." In the item, dated June 9, 1781, Lafayette noted, "I am on my way towards the Enemy and request the Riflemen of your County, armed with their own Rifles, and so many of them mounted…as possible may join me with all possible expedition." Days before the beginning of the Siege of Yorktown, a letter from Deputy Quartermaster Thomas Magill to Colonel Van Swearingen of the Berkeley County Militia relayed orders to impress 12 wagons and their gear for the Virginia forces (September 22, 1781).

Many letters in the collection, including several from prominent figures, address financial and land dealings. George Washington's brother, John Augustine Washington, wrote to Thomas Rutherford concerning an estate and the division of lands among living family members (September 14, 1786). Also included is a letter to unknown recipient from Stevens Thomson Mason, apologizing for being unable to find particular legal documents among his late father's papers (August 10, 1792). Other correspondence items shed light on the purchase of grain, spirits, livestock, and other items.

The series also contains several letters that refer to relations between Native Americans and white settlers. On November 9, 1785, Van Swearingen wrote to a friend, conveying news that 14 out of 17 of the "western Indian Nations," had refused to sell their land or agree to a treaty on any terms. He also commented, " the indians make two much of a practiss of murdering & robing of our defenceless fruntiers." In other letters, he discussed skirmishes between settlers and the Shawnee and Wabash (March 17, 1786) and further complained about Native Americans' refusal to give up their lands to the U.S. Congress (December 16, 1787).

The Land, Legal, and Military Documents series contains 41 items spanning 1759-1794. It consists mainly of land indentures pertaining to the Swearingen and Bedinger families and their land holdings in present-day West Virginia. Also included are several legal documents concerning slaves owned by the Swearingen family, and documents relating to the survey of land by Josiah Swearingen. A few items in the series concern the Revolutionary War. These include two oaths of allegiance to the patriot cause taken by Thomas Swearingen (September 1777; November 18, 1777) and a register of recruits enlisted by Capt. Henry Bedinger, Jr. (1782). The latter document gives a physical description of each recruit, as well as their counties and countries of birth, and dates and terms of enlistment. An additional undated oversize item is a list of 150 Revolutionary War soldiers, drafts, and substitutes serving in companies commanded by captains Anderson, Rankins, Sackson, Worthington, Omtross, McIntire, Campbell, and Nobles.

The Financial Documents series contains items spanning 1759-1795. The vast majority of items are receipts recording monetary transactions involving Van Swearingen, Josiah Swearingen, and Hezekiah Swearingen. They include papers related to the disbursement of several Swearingen estates, as well as records of purchases and sales.

The Printed Documents series contains five items: four newspaper clippings related to the family and a typed poem addressed to H.B. Swearingen and postmarked 1941. The poem, which is unattributed, harshly criticizes Franklin D. Roosevelt's actions as president and compares him to the devil.

The Maps series contains two manuscript maps:
  • Map of "St. Clairs battle ground" at St. Clair's Defeat, November 4, 1791, shows various battalions, including the one led by George Michael Bedinger, near present-day Fort Recovery in Ohio. Bedinger himself drew the manuscript map.
  • [Survey of Lands in Pickaway County, Ohio] was drawn ca. 1820 and shows land boundaries in Pickaway County.

The Genealogical Documents series contains three undated documents pertaining to family history, which appear to have been compiled in the 19th century. The materials record birth, marriage, and death dates for members of the Swearingen, Bedinger, Slagle, and Strode families. Also included is a small amount of information on the areas in which various family members lived and the locations of several of their graves.

The Miscellaneous series contains seven wrappers for documents, which could not be positively matched to specific materials.


Tad Tekla Papers, 1933-1964

1 linear foot

Socialist and pacifist active in labor, civil rights, cooperative, and world government movements. The papers comprise scattered meeting minutes of various organizations, notes (some very detailed) on speeches and other social functions attended by Tekla in the Cleveland area in the 1930s, carbon copies of outgoing correspondence, and a collection of mailing lists. There is a considerable amount of print and nearprint material -- single issues of labor periodicals, newspaper clippings, for m letters, flyers, etc. The papers reflect to varying extents Tekla's activities in North Dakota as an organizer for the Civilian Public Service Union, a national organization of conscientious objectors performing alternative service during World War II; his efforts to recruit Cleveland auto workers for the Socialist Party in the late 1930s; and his membership on the national executive committee of the Socialist Party, the executive committee of the War Resisters League, the policy committee of Democracy Unlimited (ca. 1952-56), the Cleveland Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and the Committee for a Socialist Program and Action (ca. 1959-64). Tekla was heavily involved in the cooperative movement in Cleveland and to a lesser extent in the Saskatchewan Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in the mid-1940s.

The collection consists of material created and collected by Tad Tekla, individually and in various roles in socialist and labor organizations.The collection has been arranged alphabetically by topic.The most voluminous material includes: minutes and other records of the Socialist Party and the Socialist Party-Social Democratic Federation, ca. 1945-1958, including records relating to the Committee for a Socialist Program (founded by critics of the Socialist Party who wanted to serve as an "educational and organizational center within the Party"); records and other material relating to labor unions and labor issues, including records of the Civilian Public Service Union, 1946, and records relating to a crisis in the United Auto Workers and efforts by the Socialist Party to recuit auto workers, ca. 1939; "public meeting notes" by Tekla, which include typewritten notes and diaries relating to a wide variety of meetings and events, 1933-1955 (bulk, 1933-1936); material relating to the world citizenship movement, ca. 1945-1958; material relating to the cooperative movement, ca. 1936-1954; records of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), ca. 1948-1952; and outgoing correspondence, 1961-1964.


Theodore R. Bohn Papers, 1942-1983 (majority within 1950s-1960s)

0.4 linear feet

Papers of Honorable Theodore R. Bohn, a Michigan Democratic politician and judge for the 3rd Circuit Court of Wayne County, including civil rights legislation and legal materials regarding immigration reform and labor union organizing from the 1950s-1960s.

The Theodore R. Bohn papers is comprised of fourteen folders. The first nine folders contain a variety of materials and formats. The final five folders all contain photographs. This collection contains political correspondence, campaign election materials, photographs, ballots and ephemera from the career of Judge Theodore R. Bohn. Re-election materials and correspondence from Bohn's colleagues are also included, especially material from G. Mennen Williams' various campaigns.

A small run of the Bulletin of the Michigan Committee on Civil Rights is also included, both the state chapter and the Detroit chapter, between the years 1950-1952. In addition, the collection contains pamphlets, speeches and mailings on the subjects of labor organizing, civil rights struggles and resulting anti-discrimination legislation, and immigration policy reform. Also included are newspaper clippings pertaining to the arrests and trials of union leader Jimmy Hoffa in 1967 and 1971.


The Roberta Keniston Postcard Collection, 1900-2000 (majority within 1907-1918; 1960-1980)

Approximately 3700 postcards, 6.5 linear feet

The Roberta Keniston Postcard Collection contains six boxes of postcards and other visual ephemera from the 20th century. The collection focuses mostly in European architecture and painting. The majority of the postcards are blank, but some do include correspondence.

The Roberta Keniston Postcard Collection contains six boxes of postcards and other visual ephemera from the 20th century. The boxes are first organized by donor, and then very broadly divided by the type of architecture or artwork depicted on the postcards. These subdivisions are arranged by geographic region, media, and/or subject of the work shown on the postcard.

The majority of items in this collection are postcards dating from 1900-1918, which was during the “golden age” of postcard collecting, lasting from about 1895 to 1915. Other items, including photographs, souvenir photo books, greeting cards, and exhibition announcements in this collection were published throughout the 20th century. Correspondence to and from History of Art faculty and staff appear on some of the postcards.


Thomas Hughes papers, 1862-1864

11 letters, 2 photographs

Thomas Hughes was a lieutenant in the 28th Iowa Infantry Regiment. He served in Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana and participated in both the Vicksburg Campaign and the Red River Campaign. The eleven letters in this collection describe the harsh living conditions Hughes faced as soldier.

The eleven letters in this collection describe the harsh living conditions Hughes faced as soldier. Ten of the letters are addressed to Hughes's wife. An account of an artillery barrage during the siege of Vicksburg and his account of his participation and capture in the Battle of Mansfield are noteworthy.

The collection also includes two photographs.


Thomas Jefferson collection, 1780-1881

54 items

The Thomas Jefferson collection contains 54 miscellaneous letters written by or to Jefferson, 1780-1826, and an 1881 letter from Jefferson's granddaughter, Septimia Meikelham, concerning him.

The Thomas Jefferson collection contains 53 miscellaneous letters to or from Jefferson, dated 1780-1826, as well as an 1881 letter concerning him, written by his granddaughter, Septimia Meikleham. The letters address numerous topics, including fundraising in Europe for the American Revolution, various scientific subjects, the Louisiana Purchase, trade, and political appointments. For more information, see the inventory located under the "Detailed Box and Folder Listing" heading.


Thomas Smith Collection, ca. 1820-1826

26 sketches, 3 letters

The Thomas Smith collection includes a disbound sketchbook of eighteen watercolors and six drawings depicting scenes in the northeastern United States and Canada made between 1820-1826 as well as three letters written by Smith between 1820-1822.

The Thomas Smith collection includes a disbound sketchbook of eighteen watercolors and six drawings depicting scenes in the northeastern United States and Canada made approximately between 1820-1826 as well as three letters written by Smith between 1820-1822.

The Visual Materials series contains eighteen watercolors and six drawings from a disbound sketchbook that depict scenes in the Eastern United States and Canada. While the watercolors and drawings themselves contain no exact information on their precise dates of creation, there is one unfinished pencil sketch of Fort Niagara that shows architectural features that were only in place from 1818 to 1823. Additionally, two pages contain watermarks in the paper that read "Turkey Mills J. Whatman 1818," while an inscription on the inside of the detached front cover also reads: "Thomas Smith. American Sketches 1820 to 1826." Smith is known to have made one trip to New York in the late spring and summer of 1820 and also returned from another trip there in the fall of 1821. Although presumably an amateur artist, Smith showed an uncanny eye for accurate detail, a keen ability to depict the scale of landscapes, and a vivid sense of color and light.

The following represents a complete list of illustrations present in the collection. Items lacking titles have been provided titles in brackets:
  • 1) [Unidentified building] (fragment on oval sheet; pen and ink)
  • 2) [Portrait of unidentified man] (fragment; pencil)
  • 3) Point - Entrance of Chaudiere (pen and ink)
  • 4) Palmetto trees East side Sullivan's Isld. South Carol,,a
  • 5) Wappoo, Cooper River, S. Carolina
  • 6) [Niagara Falls]
  • 7) River Delaware. Fort Gaines to the left, to the right Fort Mifflin
  • 8) [Presumed to be Delaware River]
  • 9) Unfinished
  • 10) [Niagara from the American side]
  • 11) [Estuary with a Rowing Boat]
  • 12) [The Mouth of the Niagara River at Fort George, Ontario] (pencil)
  • 13) [Quay on an Estuary]
  • 14) [Thousand Islands, Ganaoque (near Kingston), Ontario]
  • 15) Cohos Falls, Mohawk River
  • 16) [Niagara Gorge from Goat Island]
  • 17) [Hudson River landscape]
  • 18) Entrance of the Patapsco River into Chesapeake Bay near Baltimore Maryland
  • 19) New York Harbor
  • 20) [Queenston Heights - looking down the Niagara River towards Lake Ontario]
  • 21) [New York Harbor]
  • 22) [Town on an Estuary] (pencil)
  • 23) [Niagara Falls from below]
  • 24) [Landscape with a Waterfall] (pencil)

The Correspondence series contains three letters written by Thomas Smith to family members. The first letter, dated April 1820, is addressed to Smith's sister Eliza Elizabeth "Betsey" Smith (1802-1876) and bemoans her general lack of communication before discussing differences between American and English women, mentioning acquaintances including a "Mr. Lucas" and a "Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell", and describing events related to the wedding of a "considerable" rice planter and "Miss Mrs. Cordes" that took place in Charleston, South Carolina in March. This was likely the wedding of James Jameison Cordes (1798-1867) and Mary Lucas (1802-1873). Smith also makes reference to a bridesmaid named "Miss McLeod...a lady of large fortune worth as these things are estimated in S Carola: 300 negroes" while stating that "negro servants" accompanied the wedding party on horseback on their way to Middleburgh plantation. The second letter, also dated April 1820, is addressed to Smith's brother Joseph Smith VI (1800-1876) and contains a description of deer hunting conducted in the "American mode" in which several concealed hunting stands were occupied "100 to 150 yards apart" before "the negroes are sent with the hounds to drive the swamps or ponds where the deer generally conceal themselves." Smith elaborates on an unsuccessful hunting trip led by a planter named "Mr. Bryan" in which the party consisted of "Mr. Bryan, Mr. Lucas, Mr. Cordes, Mr. Hume & myself, with 2 negro slaves, all on horseback" during which Smith and Mr. Hume managed to become briefly lost in the woods. Also included are mentions of various wildlife encountered in the countryside, references to regional flora Smith intends to procure seeds of, and a description of typical South Carolinian cuisine had for breakfast, lunch, and dinner during different times of year. The third letter, dated February-March 1822 and partially written from aboard the steamship Robert Fulton while in the Gulf of Mexico, is addressed to Betsey (now "Mrs. Alfred H.") at "Messr: Jos. Hardcastle & Sons London." Betsey married Alfred Hardcastle (1791-1842) in 1821. This letter describes Smith's return to Charleston in Novemeber of 1821 following a trip to New York, spending the Christmas holiday period at Mr. Lucas's plantation, a four-day excursion in Havana, Cuba, made during the present voyage while en route from New Orleans to Charleston, and avoiding a close encounter with a "suspicious looking Schooner" off the Cape of Florida.


Tom Hayden Papers, 1960-2015 (majority within 1980-1990)

120.0 Linear feet (221 manuscript boxes, 7 record center boxes, 4 oversize boxes and 10 oversize folders. )

The Tom Hayden Papers largely consist of materials generated while Hayden was in the California State Assembly and Senate during the 1980s and 1990s as well as the research he conducted for many of his books.

FBI Files: The FBI files are files Hayden petitioned to be released through the Freedom of Information Act in the 1970s. The bound documents are not in strict chronological order with many dates overlapping, since many of the documents are reports from various field offices from different parts of the U.S. reporting to central headquarters in Washington D.C. Different types of source materials such as photocopies of newsletters, newspapers clippings, pamphlets or any other relevant information are attached to some reports. Some pages are redacted in the reports and not all files are complete with pages missing. Some pages are marked by Tom Hayden with Post-It notes and other notes possibly used for his writings.

Files of interest include a transcript of Hayden’s testimony before the House Committee on Un-American Activities in Washington, D.C. in regard to the Chicago riots during the Democratic National Convention in December 1968. Other documents of interest include reports on Tom Hayden’s first trip to Vietnam in 1965, and transcripts of phone calls between Hayden and Black Panther members during 1969-1971.

The FBI indexes contain a list of document numbers or pages generated in relation to Tom Hayden, a brief description of the document, a description of deletions made or information withheld from documents, exemptions to the deletions and cross references to other pages. The indexes do not match or list all the pages found in the archive. Referral documents means information or specific pages sent to other field offices or agencies such as the CIA.

In the Counter Intelligence Program and New Left folders the FBI the documents were generated either from headquarters (Washington D.C.) or different field offices. COINTELPRO and New Left locations are from different field offices throughout the US, and from Japan and Puerto Rico. The documents show the FBI’s monitoring and infiltrating of colleges and student organizations and their publications, activities and whereabouts. Included in the reports are examples of student publications and copies of articles in these publications and correspondence on how to counteract student organizations and their political activities from 1968-1971.

In the Jane Fonda FBI section, the Reports and Reactions folders contains reports from agents in regard to the Jane Fonda anti-Vietnam war FTA tour/show ( seen under various names such as Free Theater Associates or Free the Army and also the Peace Tour), which later became part of a larger peace tour in locations such as Okinawa, Japan and Manila, Philippines. Documents include reports of itineraries and names of people involved in the tour. Also included is correspondence received by the FBI from the public expressing negative reactions to Jane Fonda's FTA show and comments she made in public captured by the press.

The Freedom of Information Act folders include requests submitted by Tom Hayden and Jane Fonda’s lawyers for any government documents with information pertaining to them in the FBI, CIA, U.S. Department of Justice or NSA files. Subsequently, a lawsuit was filed in 1976 after certain documents were withheld by the CIA. Correspondence between their lawyers, Ira M. Lowe and Martin Echter and various government agencies can be found as well as correspondence addressing both Tom Hayden and Jane Fonda since they filed FOIA requests jointly. Any correspondence or law documents referring to both Tom Hayden and Jane Fonda have been filed under Tom Hayden and any documents referring only to Jane Fonda are in the Jane Fonda FBI section. Cases such as Joan C Baez v. U.S. Department of Justice and other cases are included.

1960s-1970s: The Writings folders contain articles written by Hayden in the 1960s-1970s. This is not a comprehensive list of all his articles written during this time period. The majority of the articles are not originals or drafts but photocopies.

The Notebooks section contains spiral bound notebooks of various sizes Hayden used to jot down notes, ideas, outlines for articles and meeting notes. Some of the notebooks outline his trips to North Vietnam. The notebooks are organized according to identifying information on each notebook such as year or location of when the notebook was initially used. Many of the notebooks include various loose sheets of paper or items such as stamps or business cards folded into the notebook. These items have been included in the same folder.

The Students for a Democratic Society section contains bulletins, reports, newsletters and publications under SDS from 1961-1964 and some undated documents. The Indochina Peace Project section has a selection of publications by the organization from 1972-1975 and some undated material.

Personal: The personal section reflects Hayden’s childhood, family, and interests. The files in this section include ancestry information, Royal Oak Dondero High School materials, University of Michigan materials, family greeting cards, and baseball clippings and photographs. The largest file in the Personal section includes ancestry reports Hayden had conducted in 1986 outlining and researching his family history and heritage.

Political Career: The Political Career section is organized according to year and type of campaign. In 1976 Hayden ran for U.S. Senate against John V. Tunney in the Democratic primary. He lost the Senate campaign, but later won the 44th State Assembly seat for the Santa Monica area in 1982. He later went on to serve 18 years in the California assembly and senate. Hayden served five terms in the California State Assembly from 1982-1992 and two terms in the California State Senate from 1992-2000. In 1997, he ran for Mayor of Los Angeles against Republican Richard Riordan and lost. In 2000, he considered a bid for the 42nd California State Assembly District Campaign, but reconsidered and instead ran unsuccessfully for City Council in Los Angeles. He also served as California’s first energy official.

As part of the California State Assembly, he served as Chair of the Assembly Subcommittee on Higher Education and Chair of the Assembly Committee on Labor. As part of the California State Senate, he served as Chair of the Senate Natural Resources Committee and member of the Senate Committee on Education, the Senate Budget Committee on Natural Resources and the Joint Committee for Review of the Master Plan.

The correspondence folders contain letters sent to Jane Fonda in regard to Hayden’s campaign which she supported through various fundraisers and campaigning. Also included are "thank you" notes addressed to Tom Hayden and a folder on business cards.The general correspondence section has various letters from constituents and from his political networks throughout the United States. Highlights include correspondence with Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter. Each campaign has a folder labelled propaganda which refers to campaign propaganda such as flyers, pamphlets and mailers used for each campaign.

Of note is the Campaign for Economic Democracy folders, an independent political movement started by Tom Hayden that led the way in progressive issues such as environmental protections, solar energy and renters rights. CED led the campaign for Proposition 65 in 1986 requiring labels on cancer causing products.

The press clippings sections includes clippings Hayden and his staff were reading or collecting during each campaign to research and measure public opinion.

Legislation: This section is divided into general correspondence, budgets, press releases and different types of bills. The Education, Environment and the the Metropolitan Transportation Authority(MTA) sections are three areas in which the archive has the most documents in which Hayden actively researched, authored or co-authored bills. The Senate and Assembly bills folders are legislation that Hayden authored or co-authored while in the Assembly and Senate. The folders are arranged alphabetically according to topic and some single subject folders contain several bills for that one topic. At the end of the alphabetical section the bills are organized by year.

Education: The education section contains correspondence, bills and drafts, and clippings about California’s education system. The higher education section focuses on the University of California and California State University systems as well as independent and community colleges. Admissions contains information about affirmative action across California’s higher education institutions as well as accusations of favoritism at UCLA. Other notable topics include governance, the cost of higher education and legislation aimed at making college more affordable, and the enrollment crisis, which documents how California’s higher education system struggled to handle an increase in the college-aged population. K-12 contains information about the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). Notable topics include the potential breakup of LAUSD into multiple districts as well as the Equal Opportunity to Succeed initiative. Information on Toxic Schools and the Belmont Learning Center can be found in the environment section of legislation.

Environment: The environment section contains correspondence, clippings, bills, booklets, and notes about environmental legislation in Califorinia. One of the major issues Hayden tackled in the 1990s was toxic schools, which demonstates his concern for both the environment and education. Materials are arranged by theme, and the themes are then organized alphabetically. The six boxes are comprised of smaller bills that are arranged alphabetically. While there are no subheadings on the folders, materials within boxes are futher grouped by format, and the clippings and correspondence are in chronological order. There are materials in both English and Spanish.

MTA: These files contain information of multiple bills associated with the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). The files contain correspondence, general information, bill information, and clippings regarding MTA legislation. The files are organized by date with undated materials at the end of each section.

Publications: The Publications folders contain correspondence, drafts, book tour schedules and reviews of Hayden’s books. This section is not a comprehensive listing of all of Hayden’s book publications or articles. He contributed to a variety of newspapers and journals from 1980-2000 (please see the 1960s-1970s section for writings from that decade).

In the articles section folder sections are organized alphabetically according to topic and another group of folders are organized by year. These folders and their headings are topics created by Hayden and his staff for reference files much like the name and topical files.

International Interests: This section includes other countries Hayden was involved with or interested in besides Vietnam. Hayden’s Vietnam War activism can be found in the 1960s-1970s section.

One of the largest sections, Ireland, includes correspondence, clippings, and notebooks of notes he took while on several trips to Ireland. Please refer to the Publication section to see a section on his writings about Ireland as well.

The El Salvador section contains general information on El Salvador as well as folders on the Alexander Sanchez case. Alexander Sanchez is an ex-gang member from Los Angeles with ties to El Salvador and accused of racketeering and conspiracy to commit murder. Charges against him were dismissed. Documents in this section include court documents, court transcripts and notes on the case.

Name and Topical Files: These files contain Hayden’s reference files for people and topics around the world. Several of the topics in this section were later referenced in his writing and legislation. Included in these files are newspaper clippings, reports, and correspondence. Notable topics are President Bill Clinton correspondence and Chicago 7 Trial newspaper clippings. Particularly well documented topics include Kosovo, Corcoran State Prison, and salmon protection.

Los Angeles Name and Topical Files: These files contain Hayden's reference files for people and topics in the Los Angeles area. Files include newspaper clippings, reports, and brief correspondence on people, administrative bodies and various topics relevant to LA. The construction of new buildings in the LA area is particularly well-documented, including especially sports stadiums and arenas such as the Coliseum. Other topics that receive substantial coverage include earthquakes, water policy and the riots and subsequent Rebuild LA effort following the Rodney King police brutality incident.

Photographs: The photographs contain Hayden's family photos and trips and pictures with various political figures including Bill Clinton, Jimmy Carter, John Kerry and Jerry Brown. Many of the pictures depict Hayden's involvement in social justice and environmentalist movements including his participation with Students for a Democratic Society and trips to Ireland and Vietnam. The unidentified folders contain more pictures of political events and protests between the 1960s and 1980s. Clippings: The clippings include articles from 1965 to 2009 that document Hayden's political career, literary pursuits,personal life, and interests. Many of the clippings contend with themes such as reflections on his time as a radical activist, political campaigns, environmentalism, and the MTA strike. There are also articles that pertain to general news events. Several of the clippings are in Spanish and one is in Japanese.


United States War with Mexico collection, 1845-1894

0.25 linear feet

The United States War with Mexico Collection contains miscellaneous letters and documents related to the war between the United States and Mexico, 1846-1848. Topics covered by the collection include army strategy and logistics; the battles of Buena Vista, National Bridge, Vera Cruz, and Cerro Gordo; guerilla warfare; efforts to restore peace; American impressions of Mexico and its inhabitants; and many others.

The United States War with Mexico Ccollection spans March 19, 1845, to [after 1894], with the bulk concentrated around 1846 to 1848. Topics covered by the collection include army strategy and logistics; the battles of Buena Vista, National Bridge, Vera Cruz, and Cerro Gordo; guerilla warfare; efforts to restore peace; and American impressions of Mexico and its inhabitants. See the "Detailed Box and Folder Listing" for an item-level inventory of the collection.


Victor Bockris Papers, 1960-2002 (majority within , 1977-2002)

44.5 Linear Feet (45 total boxes: 36 record center boxes, 7 manuscript boxes, and 2 oversize boxes) — Printed material in boxes 1-33, and oversize printed materials in boxes 42-44. Photographic material in boxes 34-35, oversize photographic material in boxes 43-44. Audio material in boxes 36-39 (cassettes, CD), and 41 (LPs). Videotapes in box 40. Boxes 45-47 contain CD use copies of reformatted materials from boxes 36 and 38.

American biographer; participated, researched, and wrote about individuals involved in movements central to New York City's Lower East Side, including the Beats and the Punks. Papers include correspondence, notes and notebooks, clippings, other resources, manuscripts (drafts, proofs, galleys), photographs, and audiovisual materials.

The Correspondence series is comprised of approximately 2.5 linear feet of material, foldered alphabetically by author with individual letters and cards within each folder arranged chronologically. The majority of the correspondence discusses Bockris' professional endeavors, including correspondence between publishers, lawyers, and sources. Additionally included are some personal correspondence such as letters, notes, and cards. Within the series are several notable, lengthy correspondence partners including Isabelle and Jean Louis Baudron, 1984-1997 (5 folders); Gerard Malanga, 1977-1996 (10 folders); Miles, 1977-1998 (7 folders); Elvira Peake, 1984-1999 (5 folders); Claude and Mary Beach Pelieu, 1983-1996 (5 folders); and especially Ingrid von Essen, 1983-2001 (31 folders); Christopher Whent, 1985-2002 (7 folders); and Andrew Wylie, 1974-2000 (41 folders). Correspondence with von Essen is of particular note as she was both a professional collaborator and personal friend of Bockris, and in addition to incoming correspondence, outgoing correspondence from Bockris to von Essen, 1977-2001 (17 folders), is included in the series.

The series also includes correspondence from notable individuals, poets such as Anne Waldman and Allen Ginsberg, John Giorno, Jeff Goldberg, artists and personalities including Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Art Garfunkel, Bobby Grossman, John Waters, Aram Saroyan, and book subjects Bebe Buell, William Burroughs, Debbie Harry, and Terry Southern.

The Notebooks and Journals series is comprised of approximately .5 linear feet, and consists of 17 volumes or items (including one that is oversize). The volumes' contents seem to span the range of Bockris' subjects, although it is difficult to discern the exact contents given the handwriting.

The Topical Files series is approximately .25 linear feet, and contains materials surrounding important topics and persons to Bockris' work. Included in the files are coverage on the subject matter of writing biographies, manuscript fragments, and information on various personalities including those that were featured in some of Bockris' work, like Lydia Lunch, collaborators including Andrew Wylie and Gerard Melanga, and individuals whom Bockris pursued as potential biography subjects such as Art Garfunkel.

The Events series is approximately .1 linear feet, and contains gallery invitations and speaking engagements sent to Bockris. These materials do not correspond specifically to any of Bockris' works, nor do they involve him as an artist or speaker, and thus are separated into their own series.

The Muhammed Ali series is approximately .5 linear feet and pertains to the works that Bockris wrote about Muhammed Ali. Although one of the smaller series of Bockris' works within the collection, it still contains a multitude of information, and is broken down into six subseries: Correspondence; Notes and Notebooks; Scrapbook; Clippings and Articles; Manuscripts; and Reviews. The correspondence is primarily from 1993-2002 and consists of letters between Bockris and his publishers. Within this subseries, items are arranged chronologically by date. The Notes and Notebooks, and Scrapbook subseries both contain Bockris' thoughts and collections of information he gathered on Muhammed Ali. Similarly, the Clippings and Articles subseries contain assorted clippings and photocopies of text about Ali. The Manuscript subseries contains drafts of four works that Bockris wrote about Ali, and the Reviews subseries contains clippings and photocopies of reviews of these works.

The Beat Punks series is approximately 1.5 linear feet, and contains materials related to the subjects within Bockris' Beat Punks book (also published as NYC Babylon) and related works. Correspondence within this series is primarily from Bockris' publisher. The series contains significant information on Allen Ginsberg, including a scrapbook, clippings and articles, and the National Arts Club Literary Aware Dinner manuscript. Other notable individuals mentioned in this series include clippings and articles related to Lydia Lunch and a transcript documenting an interview between Bockris and Legs McNeil.

The Blondie/Debbie Harry series is approximately 2.25 linear feet, and its contents pertain to both Blondie and its lead singer Debbie Harry. Also heavily represented is Blondie member (and Harry's former partner), Chris Stein. Although the Correspondence subseries mostly concerns the book and publishers, there is a handwritten letter by Debbie Harry. The Transcripts subseries features numerous transcriptions of interviews and conversations featuring both Harry and Stein. Other resources noted within the series include both song lyrics and visual materials such as images of both Harry and Blondie.

The manuscript series fastidiously documents the evolution of the Making Tracks monograph written by Bockris, Harry, and Stein. Included are multiple, often annotated drafts of the manuscript beginning with when it was still referred to as Above Fourteenth Street. This documented evolution continues even after the manuscript was renamed to Making Tracks, and includes not only drafts but galleys, sample layouts, second blues, and book covers. In addition to this manuscript, also included are drafts of From Eat to the Beat to Autoamerican and Meeting Famous People.

The smallest series (.2 linear feet) within the collection documenting one of Bockris' works, the Bebe Buell series documents Bockris' and Buell's biography, Rebel Heart. The Correspondence subseries is comprised of two handwritten letters to Bockris from Buell. However, the most notable items within the series are a series of photocopied love letters written by Elvis Costello to Buell. Additionally included are several drafts of Rebel Heart, and documentation of legal issues concerning quotes within the book.

The William Burroughs series is 1.25 linear feet and contains an assortment of materials used by Bockris to write his works on Burroughs. The Correspondence subseries includes letters from publishers and sources, as well as from Burroughs himself, including a small painting sent to Bockris as a Christmas card. The Events subseries includes several gallery invitations specifically sent to Bockris, as well as postcards of his own speaking engagement, In America All We Do is Work.

The Transcripts subseries includes transcripts featuring a wide breadth of individuals such as William Burroughs, James Grauerholz, Richard Hell, Debbie Harry, Christ Stein, Allen Ginsberg, Jean Michel Basquait. Also found in this subseries are transcripts from Burroughs interviewing Patti Smith.

Finally, the Manuscript subseries includes several drafts of many of the works Bockris wrote about Burroughs (including A Report from the Bunker and With William Burroughs). Also included are drafts of shorter works, including the cover, back copy and page mock ups of William Burroughs Cool cats, furry cats, and aliens, but no purring, which Bockris printed in a limited edition of only 100 copies, each of which he signed and numbered.

The John Cale series is .75 linear feet and documents the writing of Cale's biography, as well as the related disagreements about its publication between Cale and Lou Reed.

The Correspondence subseries primarily consists of letters from Lou Reed, Sylvia Reed, and Chris Whent, documenting legal issues and disagreements between Cale and Reed, concerning their past as members of the Velvet Underground, and potential future as collaborators. Also of note are items from Mo Tucker (another member of the Velvet Underground).

Also included is the Other Resources subseries, which contains papers about Cale, his assorted lyrics and writings, and album covers. The Manuscripts subseries provides insight into Cale's biography from proposal, to early draft, to proof, to galleys. The series concludes with clippings and photocopies of What's Welsh for Zen reviews.

At approximately 12.5 linear feet, the Lou Reed series is the largest within the Bockris Collection. Each of its subseries, Correspondence; Notes and Notebooks; Clippings and Articles; Events; Sketchbooks; Transcripts; Other Resources; Manuscripts; and Reviews are sizeable and detailed, providing an enlightening look into Bockris' research and writing processes.

The Correspondence subseries contains numerous letters both from publishers and sources, the most notable of whom include Shelley Corwin (nee Albin), Reed's former girlfriend, Elizabeth Kronstad, Reed's first wife, and Andrew Wylie, Bockris' agent and former collaborator who struck up a friendship with Reed. The Notes and Notebooks subseries is extensive, containing a variety of notes, some of which were arranged by Bockris by subject, and others which were arranged by year. Bockris also participated in several speaking engagements related to his Lou Reed book, the promotional materials for which are documents in the Events subseries.

In addition to notes, Bockris's research also generated a vast quantity of clippings and articles (11 folders), serials and books (7 folders), and an assortment of Lexis-Nexis article print outs, spanning the years 1950 – 1989. Bockris also filled seven volumes of sketchbooks (the Sketchbooks subseries) with Lou Reed Content. Also utilized as source material, Bockris conducted numerous taped interviews, many of which were transcribed and are contained within the Transcriptions subseries. Interviewees of note include Shelley Corwin (nee Albin), Roberta Bayley, Legs McNeil, Richard Mishkin, Billy Name, Bob Quine, Lou Reed, Maureen Tucker, Chris Whent, and Andrew Wylie.

Other Resources also played a role in Bockris' research, and may be found in the subseries of the same name. Included are Reed's college magazine, The Lonely Woman Quarterly, Lou Reed: The Collected Lyrics, and information from Lou Reed's fan club. However, the most extensive portion of this series is the Manuscript subseries which documents Bockris' Transformer: The Lou Reed Story from early proposal all the way to U.S. galleys as well as the U.K. edition galleys, providing a meticulous documentation of the book's evolution. The drafts are organized based on the various arrangements that Bockris utilized. Similar to the arrangement of the Notes and Notebooks subseries, this results in some of the drafts organized chronologically by year range, and others organized by subject or chapter. Numerous final drafts are also included, which reveal different versions of the monograph in its entirety. The series concludes with the Reviews subseries, containing clippings and photocopies the book's reviews.

The Keith Richards series is approximately 3.75 linear feet, and documents Bockris' writing of Keith Richards. Most of the Correspondence subseries is comprised of communications from publishers and fans, however, there are several handwritten letters from Richards' former girlfriend, Anita Pallenberg, although they merely describe materials she sent to Bockris as well as signed certification that the information she provided is truthful. The arrangement of the Notes and Notebooks subseries remains as Bockris sent it, chronological and divided by year. Additional background materials may be found in the Sketchbook, Scrapbook, and Clippings and Articles subseries, the last of which includes copies of Rolling Stones newsletters Beggars Banquet and Basement News. Bockris also made use of taped interviews, the transcripts of which are provided in the Transcripts subseries, including one between him and Marianne Faithful. The Manuscript subseries contains an assortment of drafts of Bockris' work on Richards. These range from drafts focusing on specific people or time period to edited galley proofs and book covers. This broad spectrum of the manuscript provides a view inside Bockris' writing process and style. Finally, the Reviews subseries includes clippings and photocopies of reviews of this work.

The Patti Smith series is composed of approximately .75 linear feet of materials, documenting Bockris' writing of Patti Smith: A Biography. The Correspondence series primarily documents the communication between Bockris and his publisher, Fourth Estate. The remaining subseries, Notes and Notebooks; Scrapbook; Events; Clippings and Articles; and Other Resources all provide background materials for Bockris' writing.

The Manuscript subseries recounts Bockris' writing process, beginning with the early draft of Smith's biography, and ending with several portions of the finished work including the unbound galley, index, cover image, and image galleys. Also included are several drafts documenting the process Bockris underwent to get from early draft to completed galley. The final subseries, Reviews, provides clippings and photocopies of the book's reviews.

At .25 linear feet, the Terry Southern series is one of the smaller series in the collection that describes one of Bockris' works. Correspondence in this series includes a letter written by Southern, as well as several letters by Lee Hill (a Terry Southern biographer) written to Bockris. Also included is a Transcript subseries which features the transcript of a conversation between Southern and William Burroughs. The largest portion of the series is the Other Resources subseries containing several works by Southern and Hill. Unlike the other series documenting Bockris' works, the Southern series provides very little Manuscript subseries content. Indeed, the only item is an untitled early draft. Thus, in this case, little insight is provided into Bockris' writing process or the final work.

The Velvet Underground series is approximately .5 linear feet, and documents the making of Bockris' Uptight: The Story of the Velvet Underground. The Correspondence subseries mainly contains communication from publishers. The bulk of the contents in this series are research materials, including subseries Notes and Notebooks; Clippings and Articles; and Other resources which includes an interview with former Velvet Underground member Moe Tucker. The Events subseries provides information on several speaking engagement of which Bockris was a part.

The Manuscript subseries has two drafts, but is primarily composed of galleys, both for the U.K. edition in 2002 and the new edition. The Reviews subseries contains numerous clipped and photocopied reviews of the book. Also of interest is that some of Bockris' materials, ranging from notes to drafts also appear to have been referenced and utilized during the writing process of his Transformer: The Lou Reed Story book. The Andy Warhol series is approximately 3.5 linear feet. The bulk of the Correspondence subseries is comprised of communication between Bockris and his publishers. However, there are two letters of note, both from Warhol's brother, John Warhola, written directly to Bockris. Also included with one of these letters is a photograph of Bockris at Warhol's grave, taken by Warhola.

Much of the background research for the work is found in the Notes and Notebooks, Clippings and Articles, and Other Resources subseries. The Events subseries includes promotional materials for several speaking engagements made by Bockris as well as student feedback on a lecture presented by Bockris. The Manuscripts subseries documents the evolution of Bockris' The Life and Death of Andy Warhol from original manuscript to page proofs. Additionally included are drafts of related pieces written by Bockris including How I wrote a Biography of Andy Warhol and Pittsburgh Andy. Also included is the Reviews subseries which provides numerous clippings and photocopies of reviews of Bockris' pieces on Warhol. The series concludes with the Scripts subseries which includes several scripts based on Warhol's life and Bockris' biography. These include a potential script for Andy Warhol the Motion Picture and several annotated copies of the script Pop.

The Proposals and Drafts series is approximately .75 linear feet and documents an assortment of research on proposed subject including Ornette Coleman, Dennis Hopper, Fred Hughes, and Charles Plymell. Also included are collaborative pieces with Andrew Wylie like Which Way Did Doris Day Go? drafts of Bockris' shorter works such as Negative Girls and some of his Gadfly pieces. The Photographs series is approximately 2.25 linear feet. The photographs are primarily arranged by subject, including many of the subjects of Bockris' books (Ali, Blondie/Debbie Harry, Burroughs, Cale, Reed, Richards, Smith, the Velvet Underground, and Warhol). Photographs featuring unidentifiable or multiple subjects were filed under "Various." Additionally, there is a folder of negatives. Also included are three volumes of Bockris Contact sheets, chronologically divided into three binders, and covering 1972-2001 in total. Three more binders create the three volumes of Photographs by Victor Bockris, with each binder focusing on a different subject, Burroughs, Warhol, and Ginsberg respectfully. Finally, additional photographic materials may be found in the two oversize boxes, including the AliWarhol 24 Panel Piece, a Debbie Harry photograph, and various photographs. The Audiovisual subseries is approximately 2.5 linear feet, primarily containing cassettes of taped interviews conducted by Bockris. Of particular interest are interviews including Burroughs, Jaguar, Warhol, Ali, John Warhola (Warhol's brother), Buell, Harry, Stein, Cale, the Allen Ginsberg Memorial at the Poetry Project, Gerard Melanga, Legs McNeil, Roberta Bayley, Chris Whent, and Sterling Morrison. Also included among the cassettes are various published materials such as Lou Reed albums. In addition to the cassettes, a Terry Southern CD is also included. The VHS tapes found within this series are primarily published and feature Lou Reed. Similarly, the LPs in this series are all published. Most of these records feature Bockris' subjects including Blondie/Debbie Harry, Cale, Reed, and the Velvet Underground. Other notable individuals include Susan Sontag and Maureen Tucker. Cassette tapes from boxes 36 and 38 have been reformatted and CD use copies have been created. Use copies are located in boxes 45-47


Voltairine De Cleyre Papers, 1876-1914

1 manuscript box, approximately .4 linear foot

Voltairine De Cleyre was a prominent anarchist poet, lecturer, and writer. This collection spans the years 1876 to 1914 and is made up of correspondence, manuscript and print poems and essays, and one photograph.

The Voltairine De Cleyre Collection is organized in four series: Correspondence, Manuscripts, Printed Materials and Photograph.


Washington Irving Snyder collection, 1862-1898

25 items

The Washington Irving Snyder collection contains several letters and diaries relating to the Civil War service of Washington Irving Snyder, of the 11th Michigan Infantry, and his brother, James Madison Snyder, of the 25th Michigan Infantry. Also included are several miscellaneous pieces of 19th-century ephemera.

The Washington Irving Snyder papers, 1862-1898, contain 25 items: 2 letters, 2 diaries, 13 offprints from Photographic History of the Civil War, and 8 pieces of ephemera.

James Snyder wrote the first letter on January 23, 1863, to his brother (presumably Irving Snyder), describing the poor health of his regiment (25th Michigan Infantry), his impressions of Bowling Green, Kentucky, and some orders which he found peculiar. The second letter, written by W. Frankish to Snyder's parents, is a notice of Irving Snyder's death and the circumstances surrounding it (October 5, 1863).

Also included in the collection are eight ephemera items: an illustration of Major-General John Logan; a photograph of Borden M. Hicks of the 11th Michigan Infantry; an 1864 dance card for a "May Party" held in Elgin, Illinois; an undated postcard from Havana, Cuba; an order for the 33rd Michigan Infantry during the Spanish-American War, dated August 1, 1898; and a souvenir program for the inauguration of President Benjamin Harrison. The last four items have no direct connection to the Snyder family.

The Diaries series contains two pocket diaries kept by Irving Snyder during his service in the 11th Michigan Infantry. The first contains 194 pages covering January 1-December 31, 1862. In it, Snyder described movements around Kentucky and Tennessee, duties, health, and interesting incidents in very brief, near-daily entries. He did not write between September 15 and November 8. In his March 12 entry, Snyder wrote about a visit to Sulphur Springs near Shepherdsville, Kentucky, where he was treated to good whiskey by a generous saloonkeeper. On April 11, he described his arrest of two soldiers for getting drunk and abusing superior officers while on duty. Throughout the year, he kept meticulous records of letters sent and received.

The 1863 diary contains 30 pages of very short entries, for January-March and September of 1863. In early January, Snyder wrote briefly about the Battle of Stones River (Second Battle of Murfreesboro), noting that he took part in driving the Confederates across the river (January 2, 1863). Entries become somewhat more detailed and frequent beginning September 1, including descriptions of time spent in the woods for several days, of wounds sustained during the Battle of Chickamauga (September 20, 1863), about his transfer to a hospital, and about updates on the wound that killed him on October 5, 1863, five days after his last entry.


William and Charlotte Kaufman Papers, 1911-2005 (majority within 1932-2002)

38 boxes, 5 oversize drawers (approximately 45 linear feet)

William Kaufman, M.D., Ph.D (Physiology), discovered that niacinamide (vitamin B-3) can effectively treat symptoms in arthritic patients. This collection documents Kaufman's niacinamide research, his work as an author of academic and popular medical articles, and his personal life. William's wife's, Charlotte (Schnee) Kaufman's papers are also included, especially those relating to the Family Life Film Center of Connecticut.

The William and Charlotte Kaufman Papers document many facets of both William and Charlotte Kaufman's professional and personal lives. The collection has been arranged into fourteen series: Niacinamide, Other Medical Topics, Other Writings, General Correspondence, Professional Organizations, Personal, Charlotte Kaufman, Patient Records, Computer disks, Artwork, Audiovisual, Slides, Photographs and Negatives, and Realia.

William Kaufman's research in the therapeutic use of niacinamide and its effect on arthritis is documented by professional correspondence, correspondence with interested members of the public, patient records, published and unpublished writings, notes, photographs and negatives, and relevant writings by others. Kaufman's involvement in various medical organizations and his work as an author of popular and academic articles are also well represented. Drafts of plays and poems, an autobiography, sketchbooks, and paintings show William's creative work as an amateur artist, playwright, and poet. Papers relating to Kaufman's personal life are also present in the collection.

Material relating to Charlotte Kaufman mostly stems from her work as Executive Director of the Family Life Film Center of Connecticut, Inc. A wide range of materials document the workings of the Film Center: correspondence, leaflets, memos, discussion notes, training materials, posters, newspaper clippings, and photographs. Charlotte's activity in other community organizations and her personal life are represented by photographs, schoolwork, biographical material, creative writings, invitations, newspaper clippings, and correspondence.

Series Level Scope and Contents Notes:

The Niacinamide series consists of approximately 4.5 linear feet and provides insight not only into Kaufman's research and writing on niacinamide as a therapy for arthritis but also into his research's impact and general reception. This series includes data such as charts and summary results, but please note that some niacinamide study data is in other parts of the collection: forms recording individual patients' joint measurements are in the Patient Records series and are mostly restricted due to the presence of personally identifiable health information; a significant number of photos, slides, and negatives of Kaufman's patients who participated in the niacinamide studies are part of the Photographs and Negatives series and many of these visual materials are also restricted.

Niacinamide correspondence constitutes the largest group of material in the Niacinamide series and this correspondence is subdivided into three groups: professional correspondence and name files (exchanges with doctors and other health care providers, companies, government agencies, etc.); requests for niacinamide or arthritis advice or treatment testimonials from members of the public; and simple requests and delivery confirmations for Kaufman's articles and books on niacinamide. The professional correspondence includes exchanges between Kaufman and important medical figures such as Linus Pauling, Abram Hoffer, Jonathan Wright, Andrew Saul, and others. Researchers interested in Kaufman's niacinamide work may also want to consult the General Correspondence series as it contains a small amount of correspondence mentioning niacinamide.

The Niacinamide series documents Kaufman's niacinamide work in several other ways: through drafts, publications, notes, press notices on Kaufman's two monographs, material related to Kaufman winning the Tom D. Spies Award, as well as material related to Kaufman's role in a 1942-1943 study at the Bridgeport Brass Company, in which workers were given vitamin supplements and the effect on their overall health and mental state was assessed.

The Other Medical Topics series is composed of roughly 2 linear feet of material directly related to Kaufman's medical writings (those not about niacinamide). The writings cover a wide range of topics, from electrocardiography to psychosomatic eating problems and are intended for a wide range of audiences, from medical specialists to members of the public. Drafts, copies of Kaufman's publications, and notes make up the bulk of the series. There is also correspondence, published background material, drafts, and notes related to the Béla Schick Festschrift (1958) , which Kaufman edited, and about the Lowenfeld Mosaic Test (the test, which consists of a set of colored plastic shapes that the subject is supposed to arrange into a pleasing pattern, is part of the Realia series).

Other Writings consists of about 6 feet of mostly unpublished material directly related to Kaufman's writings that are neither medical nor niacinamide-related in subject. They are divided into four subseries: creative writing, money, autobiography, and miscellaneous.

The creative writing subseries consists of drafts, publications, and notes and fragments of Kaufman's short stories, poems, plays, and novels. This subseries also contains a small amount of correspondence and other material related to Kaufman's efforts to publish and publicize his creative writings.

Kaufman's interest in money led to the publication of a few articles, most notably "Some Emotional Uses of Money," primarily about what Kaufman termed "psycho-economic behavior." The money subseries contains drafts, publications, notes, source material for Kaufman's articles, and an unpublished book on money. The subseries also includes letters expressing readers' reactions to Kaufman's money pieces, as well as requests for advice.

Two draft versions and some notes and fragments of William Kaufman's autobiography, Snippets , make up the autobiography subseries. The miscellaneous subseries consists of drafts, notes, and publicity on writings of Kaufman's that don't fall into any of the above categories (i.e. are neither medical, nor creative pieces, nor money-related), for example, an opinion piece on writing obituaries .

The General Correspondence series (roughly 3 linear feet) is divided into two groups: personal correspondence between William and Charlotte Kaufman and general correspondence (correspondence that doesn't primarily concern niacinamide, the business of William's professional organizations, or William's employment) between William and others.

The correspondence between William and Charlotte Kaufman spans their relationship from their first meeting in Ann Arbor in 1936 until just before William's death in 2001. The early correspondence also includes a fair amount of attachments, including creative writings by both William and Charlotte, letters from others, and some sketches by William. The bulk of the letters date from 1938 and 1939, the years just before Charlotte and William were married. Their correspondence is arranged chronologically by, but not within, year.

The general correspondence subseries ranges in subject from personal to medical and includes correspondence with: Dave Brubeck, Luke Bucci, Rodrigo Carozo, William Crook, Thomas Dorman, Carlton Fredericks, John Fulton, Anna Freud, Bernard Halpern, David Harley, Fred Hodges, Paul Kallós, Heinz Karger, Sam Kaufman, John Leonard, Marshall Mandell, Theron Randolph, Samuel Schnee, Béla Schick, Nicholas Spinelli, Frank Wilson, and White House staff members during the Franklin D. Roosevelt and Dwight Eisenhower administrations.

The Professional Organizations series (approximately 1 linear foot) details Kaufman's involvement with various medical organizations, including as American Editor-in-Chief of the International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology , President of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, and in various posts in the American College of Allergists and other organizations. The series consists primarily of correspondence and memos. It also contains programs, menus, schedules, some newspaper clippings, and meeting minutes.

The Personal series consists of about 3 feet of papers that relate to William Kaufman's personal affairs. The material falls in nine groups: biographical, education, employment, family, finances, health, homes, inventions and copyrights, and articles and press releases.

A broad swath of material documents Kaufman's basic personal information. Included are passports, a diary, and Who's Who entry material. William Kaufman's academic achievements are well represented and span from Pottsville High to University of Michigan Medical School to continuing education courses. His academic life is reflected in grades, notes, yearbooks, newspaper clippings related to scholarships and honors, fraternity materials, student identification cards, financial records, graduation programs, and alumni correspondence and reunion materials.

Periods of William Kaufman's employment in hospitals and New York pharmaceutical advertising agencies are documented in memos, drafts of industrial writings (interpretation of FDA regulations, drug labeling, promotion and education, etc.), announcements and press about Kaufman's professional appointments, and other business papers. The family material documents particular episodes in the lives of the Schnee and Kaufman families. These papers were originally grouped together and have been retained in this order. Besides these few groups, all correspondence with members of the Schnee and Kaufman families is part of the General Correspondence and Charlotte Kaufman series.

The remainder of the Personal series is composed of two smaller groups: information related to the selling, buying, rezoning, taxation, and insuring of the Kaufmans' homes; and certificates of copyright, letters patent, legal paperwork, correspondence, and design plans related to the construction of Kaufman's joint measuring instruments.

The Charlotte Kaufman series is 7 linear feet of Charlotte Kaufman's files. The bulk of the series arises from Charlotte Kaufman’s role as Executive Director of the Family Life Film Center of Connecticut (established February 22, 1967). The Family Life Film Center papers overlap with Charlotte’s involvement with other citizens’ groups championing causes such as better schools and better police-community relations. Charlotte’s original topical folder organization, where present, was retained and most folder labels are hers. All dates assigned to the folders are rough bulk dates and not necessarily comprehensive. There is a significant amount of material related to a grant given to the Family Life Film Center by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social & Rehabilitation Service to conduct a pilot program designed to raise awareness of career options for handicapped individuals.

Also included in the Charlotte series are materials relating to Charlotte's other community activities (such as her involvement with the Alliance Française du Comte de Fairfield), correspondence between Charlotte and other individuals (not related to niacinamide--those letters have been included in the Niacinamide series), and personal materials, which include biographical material, papers relating to Charlotte's education, employment, family, and health. A highlight of the personal Charlotte material is a folder of material about her 1939 trip to Alaska and Charlotte's interest in Alaska becoming a place for resettlement of refugees from Hitler's Europe.

The Patient Records series (one linear foot) consists primarily of joint measurements of and case histories of patients, most likely collected as part of William Kaufman's niacinamide studies in the 1940s. A few patients have more extensive files that may include correspondence or additional charts. Due to the presence of personally identifiable health information, much of the material in this series is closed to researchers and consultation with Special Collections staff is required before accessing this series. Original binder and folder titles have been retained where present. This series contains a few photographs, but most patient photos have been transferred to the Photographs and Negatives series.

The Computer Disks consists mostly of 3.5 inch floppy disks that contain backups of emails and files the Kaufmans had on their home computer. The majority of the disks are indexed and organized in binders and their original order and housing has been retained. The series also includes 3 CDs.

The Artwork series is comprised of William Kaufman’s drawings, sketches, and paintings. This includes a series of mostly black-and-white drawings of imaginary creatures titled “Kaufman’s Kritters.” Documents complementing the artwork are also in this series and include Kaufman’s efforts get his artwork published and his entries into various shows and contests.

The relatively small Audiovisual series is comprised of cassette tapes, including a 1978 interview William Kaumfan did with Carlton Fredericks, and film in various formats including 16mm motion pictures reels, microfilm, and canisters of 36mm film. Among the films is a short film, A Day in the Life of P. T. Barnum, that Charlotte Kaufman produced.

The Slides series consists of a few thousand color slides, including a small number of glass-plate slides. The patient studies slides, which are mostly images of mouths, tongues, eyes, and, to a lesser extent, other body parts, make up the largest part of the series. It is very likely that these slides were produced as part of William Kaufman's niacinamide studies. The patient studies slides are divided into three groups: boxed, sleeved, and glass-plate. All three groups are organized alphabetically by patient name. Most of these patient slides are closed due to the presence of personally identifiable health information. Researchers interested in the slides should consult Special Collections staff. Additionally, there are a small number of personal and other slides.

The Photographs and Negatives series is divided into three subseries: Photographs, Negatives, and Photographs and Negatives (the Photographs and Negatives subseries, while redundant, is used because some photographs were bundled together with their original negatives and these were kept together). All three subseries contain a variety of sizes and formats. The Photographs subseries and the Negatives subseries both include a substantial number of patient images, mostly demonstrating the flexibility of a particular joint. While some of these photographs are restricted (please consult with Special Collections staff if interested), some do not contain personally identifiable information and are open for research. All three subseries contain personal images (which include portraits, images of homes and artwork, as well as travel and conference pictures). The Negatives subseries also encompasses color transparencies, many of which are images associated with the Lowenfeld Mosaic Test .

Finally, the Realia series contains three dimensional artifacts, mostly metal medical instruments that William Kaufman invented and used in his niacinamide studies. In particular, many of the objects are goniometers, or instruments for measuring flexibility. The Lowenfeld Mosaic Test , in its original green case, is also part of this series.


William and Isaac Perkins papers, 1784-1794

0.5 linear feet

The William and Isaac Perkins papers contain correspondence written between brothers William Lee Perkins and Isaac Perkins, 1784-1794, concerning politics, their careers, and family news.

The William and Isaac Perkins papers contain 18 letters written between brothers William Lee Perkins and Isaac Perkins, of Ashford, Connecticut, and Kingston upon Thames, England. Their correspondence, written from 1784 to1794, frequently touched on politics, including a fairly long account of Shays' Rebellion (January 25, 1787), mention of the Constitutional Convention (May 28, 1787), and speculation by William on the chances of a reunion between the United States and Great Britain (May 14, 1787).

Also present are comments on Loyalists, the national debt, and news concerning their families and careers. In his letter dated April 4, 1788, William Lee Perkins commented on his medical writing, including attempts at "arranging and distinguishing diseases, which I am contributing my poor Endeavours to introduce in this Country." He also gave medical advice in several letters.


William A. Reuben Papers, ca. 1946-2000 (majority within 1946-1996)

27.25 linear feet (28 boxes) — Posters in Box 28. — Audio cassette in Box 11. — Newspapers clippings are scattered throughout the collection.

William Reuben is an investigative reporter and author who wrote, most notably, about the Rosenberg espionage case and the Alger Hiss-Whitaker Chambers libel and perjury trials. The Collection includes correspondence, research and interview notes, drafts of books and articles, published and unpublished, on the trials of the "Trenton Six," Morton Sobell and Robert Soblen, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, and Alger Hiss, with much research on Whittaker Chambers.

In general, most of the series consist of similar kinds of material: Reuben's research notes, drafts of his writings, correspondence, clippings, and reviews of other writings about the case or individual. Some of the series have further value because they include Reuben's collection of printed material about the case. For example, Reuben was particularly active in the Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, and the Rosenberg series includes some of the printed matter put out by this organization. Reuben also collected correspondence of the Civil Rights Congress, a major organization lobbying on behalf of the Trenton Six.

In many ways, the Reuben papers are an assemblage of secondary material. Reuben had little first-hand dealings with either the Rosenbergs or the Trenton Six. Nevertheless, the files have value for their documentation of the manner in which this one investigative reporter worked. Reuben was a meticulous and persistent researcher, who tracked down a variety of leads in a story, first analyzing the available court transcripts and other official records, then corresponding as much as he was able with the people involved in the case (including other writers like himself), and finally monitoring the amount and kind of press coverage given to the case. Unfortunately, Reuben did not gain as much first-hand contact with the principals in his investigations as he would have liked, and thus the collection is not as substantive as the researcher might like. Reuben 's correspondence, furthermore, is often superficial and anecdotal in character. Another disappointment of the collection are Reuben 's notes and drafts, which because they are fragmentary or unidentified, are difficult to use and of questionable research value.


William L. Culbertson, Jr., Scrapbook, 1905-1918

1 volume

The William L. Culbertson, Jr., scrapbook consists of one volume containing numerous newspaper clippings, documents, photographs, hand-drawn maps and illustrations, correspondence, and various ephemeral items related to the career of US Navy officer CDR William Linn Culbertson, Jr., between 1905 and 1918.

The William L. Culbertson, Jr., scrapbook consists of one volume containing numerous newspaper clippings, documents, photographs, hand-drawn maps and illustrations, correspondence, and various ephemeral items related to the career of US Navy officer CDR William Linn Culbertson, Jr., between 1905 and 1918.

The volume (25.5 x 19 cm) has 146 pages and is bound in red marbled paper covers. The covers and spine are in poor condition. Inside of the front cover there is a loose diplomatic passport for Culbertson, Jr., issued by the U.S. Embassy in Paris, France, from August 1916 that contains personal descriptive information as well as a photographic ID portrait. The scrapbook begins with newspaper clippings from ca. 1905 and subsequent materials proceed in chronological order for the most part. Numerous items collected during Culbertson, Jr.’s time abroad contain text in foreign languages including French, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Chinese, German, Arabic, and Greek.

Items of particular interest include:
  • Hand-drawn portrait of a man playing cards and smoking a pipe (between pgs. 2 & 3)
  • Clipping related to court martial of Iowan midshipman Charles M. James for alleged involvement in hazing (pg. 5)
  • Photomechanical image of the U.S.S. Missouri (pg.7)
  • 1906 New York herald clipping with full page illustrated article titled "At Sea with the Naval Cadets Annual Cruise of the Boys to Learn Practical Seamanship" (pg. 9)
  • An order from Lt. CDR Cleland Davis of the U.S.S. Missouri dated May 24, 1906 instructing Culbertson, Jr., to "take charge of the remains of J. J. Molloy, fireman 1st class" who died from asphyxiation while ashore in New York City (pg. 11)
  • A letter received March 27, 1906 while the U.S.S. Missouri was in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, regarding Culbertson, Jr.'s request to be assigned to a torpedo boat that will "make the trip to the Asiatic Station" (pg. 17)
  • Ca. 1906 clipping regarding Culbertson, Sr.'s real estate dealings (pg. 19)
  • Typescript copies of the "Plan for the Occupation of St. Marc, Hayti" dated February 1916 (between pgs. 30 & 31)
  • Program for the "Memorial Service in memory of the Culbertsons, of 'Culbertson's row' and their descendants who served in the War of the American Revolution" held at Rocky Spring Presbyterian Church, Franklin County, Pennsylvania on September 15, 1907 (pg. 37)
  • Pamphlet detailing "Facilities for American Seamen on shore leave in Rio de Janeiro, January, 1908" which includes a map of Rio's commercial district (pg. 41)
  • Clippings of an article regarding Surgeon General Presley M. Rixley's opinion that medical officers be placed in command of hospital ships (pg. 44) and a satirical cartoon titled "When the Navy puts doctors in command of the hospital ships" (pg. 45)
  • A humorous mock notice issued to Culbertson, Jr., in September 1908 while aboard the U.S.S. South Dakota sent by "Neptune Rex" and undersigned by "Secretary to his Majesty Davy Jones" (pg. 52)
  • A manuscript map detailing features of American Samoa (pg. 53)
  • Clippings of three cartoons from a series titled "Trials of a First Baby" (pgs. 54-57)
  • Letter from oiler J. J. Murphy dated May 23, 1907, requesting permission to purchase his discharge from the U.S. Navy in order to return home to Ireland following the deaths of two brothers; obituary clipping attached (between pgs. 68 & 69)
  • Manuscript item in Japanese (pg. 73)
  • New York herald clipping giving Culbertson, Jr.'s account of what he saw in the aftermath of the 1907 earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica (pg. 76)
  • Manuscript map detailing the valley of the Artibonite River in Haiti, likely ca. 1915/1916 (between pgs. 86 & 87)
  • Manuscript map detailing prospective plan of attack on St. Marc, Haiti, relative to the U.S.S. Des Moines, likely ca. 1916 (pg. 99)
  • Passport for Culbertson, Jr., issued by the American Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt, on December 31, 1915 (pg. 115)
  • Clipping of a humorous joke anecdote about a woman from San Francisco who contacted her deceased husband "John" with help from a spiritualist medium only to find he was much happier being dead than he ever was living with her (pg. 118)
  • Memorandum dated October 13, 1915, regarding damages to the U.S.S. Brutus and U.S.S. Des Moines (pg. 129)
  • Two French travel permits for Culbertson, Jr., issued by the Departement des Alpes-Maritimes in 1916 (pgs. 136 & 137)
  • Numerous playbills, tickets, receipts, stamps, business cards (including cards for foreign naval officers), schedules, menus, advertisements, event invitations, social club notices, and other ephemeral items collected at various ports of call including Rio de Janeiro, Lima, Shanghai, Yokohama, Buenos Aires, San Francisco, New York City, Alexandria, Cyprus, Naples, etc. (passim)
  • Numerous clippings related to World War I (passim)


William Lee papers, 1862-1955 (majority within 1862-1911)

57 items

The William H. Lee papers are primarily comprised of correspondence and documents relating to Lee’s service with the 8th Missouri Cavalry and the 3rd Arkansas Cavalry, Union Army. A few items document his family life and career after the war.

The William Lee papers contain 57 items spanning from 1862 to 1955, including 49 letters and 8 documents. The earliest items in the collection are 16 letters written by Lee to family members during his service in the 8th Missouri Cavalry and the 3rd Arkansas Cavalry. In his letters of this period, Lee gave detailed accounts of marches, battles, and skirmishes and shared his opinions on several political subjects. His letter of September 11, 1862, contains an account of the Battle of Prairie Grove: “…we marched up on the right wing of our army & in two hours after our artillery commenced firing the day was ours. This is given up by all to be the hardest fought battle of the west & the most decisive.” Lee’s descriptions were frequently accompanied by numerical counts of forces and casualties.

Also of interest is Lee’s perspective on the conflict between North and South, which he expressed in several letters to his mother. Despite residing in Arkansas at the outbreak of the war, Lee strongly identified with the North, and his sentiments seemed to deepen over the course of the war. He expressed deep anger at Southerners (April 22, 1863) stating, “…if every one of them were today occupying a tract of land 6 by 3 feet under the sod I think they would have their Southern Rights…” He also cheered the changes to the Arkansas Constitution forbidding slavery and Confederate “brushwacking” (January 30, 1864). After his February 4, 1865, honorable discharge, the theme of Lee’s letters quickly turned to the courtship of his future wife, Mary, whom he calls “Mollie.” Included in the collection are six invitations to from Lee to “Miss Mollie,” and a letter written on the morning of their wedding day, April 18, 1865, expressing his wish for “a quiet family thing of it.”

Later letters document Lee’s business travels and family life. A letter from Mary to her mother (January 26, 1876) gives substantial information on the Lee children, the adjustment to living in Tennessee (“the society is not of the best”), and the difficulty of finding a school. The 20th-century letters mainly document efforts to put up a new gravestone for Abner Lee, William Lee’s grandfather.

The “Documents” series contains a variety of materials, including Lee’s army discharge papers, a brief autobiography with clippings on William and Mary Lee, and three photos, one of which may portray Lee as an elderly man.


William R. Day Collection, 1788-1942

1.5 Linear feet (1 record center box; 1 flat storage box (medium))

The bulk of the William R. Day Collection concerns the life and work of William Rufus Day. There are also materials related to other immediate and extended family members. Some of the topics covered in the William R. Day Collection are the Spanish-American War; the United States Peace Commission; the Mixed Claim Commission concerning reparations from Berlin, Germany; and William Day's career as a lawyer and diplomat. Materials represented include correspondence, newspaper clippings, publications, and manuscripts.

This collection contains a variety of materials including correspondence, newspaper clippings, publications, and manuscripts. Although the bulk of the collection concerns William Rufus Day, there are materials related to other immediate and extended family members. Some of the topics covered in the William R. Day Collection are the Spanish-American War; the United States Peace Commission; the Mixed Claim Commission concerning reparations from Berlin, Germany; and William Day's career.

The Correspondence and Papers series consists of 3 subseries: William Day, Family, and Miscellaneous.

The William Day subseries is organized by date and includes correspondence related to the Spanish-American War, Cuba, Germany and the Mixed Claims Commission. In 1896 there are materials related to the Monroe Doctrine, silver and gold, and Venezuela and Cuba. The 1897 folder primarily has correspondence related to Spain and Cuba. The 1898 folder contains materials related to Cuba, Spain, Germany, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The 1899 folder contains congratulations William Day received upon being appointed a judgeship as well as speaking requests. 1900-1911 contains remarks, information about a Day family land transfer, Day's McKinley manuscript, a map of Washington, DC, and a European military map. 1920-1923 has correspondence and papers related to the 18th amendment (prohibition), the Berlin agreement by the Mixed Claims Commission, and Day's retirement from the Commission. Biographical materials include biographies, a genealogy, ancestry from the Mayflower, and a memorial. The scrapbook contains newspaper clippings related to William Day's work and life as well as that of his wife, Mary Elizabeth Schaefer, and his son, Luther Day. Topics are related to William Day's political and judicial career including the Spanish-American War, Cuba, and the Philippines, and Luther Days' career as a lawyer and politician.

The subseries Family includes four files. The folder for Luther Day, father of William R. Day, contains correspondence to Luther as well as papers related to him being elected a prosecuting attorney. The folder for Emily Spalding Day, mother of William R. Day, contains letters from her mother, sister, and cousin, as well as one letter from Emily to her mother. The folder for Louis Schaefer, father-in-law of William R. Day, contains letters to Louis from members of the Meiklehaus family and one letter from Louis Schaefer to his daughter on Schaefer's Opera House stationary. The Other Members folder contains letters and papers for other members of the Day family including Ellen Day, Laura Lyman, Frances Day, Lucretia Spalding, Honorable Spalding, Ida Barker, Luther Day (William R Day's son), Asa Spalding, and a pamphlet titled Industrial Peace with Justice which lists Stephen A. Day as the president.

The three miscellaneous folders contain papers and letters whose relationship to the Day family and William R. Day is unknown including a letter written in 1797 by Darius Morgan, a letter from 1795 to Ephraim Root, as well as some additional letters, a memo about being an officer of the United States, information relating to the Hero of Bitche, Red Cross instructions for knitting socks, and a list of names.

The Manuscripts series contains William Day's notebook related to his biographical project on William McKinley, Stephen Day's (William Day's son) notebook related to sales and cases he worked on, the dissertation of Joseph McLean about William Rufus Day submitted to New York University, and a folder of miscellaneous materials including a review of a German newspaper and an incomplete document about patent law and the rights of inventors.

The Newspaper series includes issues of the University of Michigan newspaper The Chronicle from 1868-1870 and an assortment of newspaper clippings from 1894-1950.

The Publications series brings together the published materials within the William Day Collection. They are mostly political in nature and relate to law cases, government documents and procedures, and political opinions. Also included are speeches given by William R. Day.

The Ephemera folder contains two items. One is an envelope for Goldie's Pens that begins "This packet contains as assortment (10) of the Goldie's, the highest grade of writing pens..." There is also a photograph of Robbie Hubbs on the packaging. Inside the envelope is a tissue that contains some unidentified seeds. The other item in the Ephemera folder is a carte de visite printed by Brand Artist. The portrait is undated and the subject unidentified, but it may be a young William R. Day.


William S. Leonard papers, 1859-1861

40 items

The William S. Leonard papers contain 39 letters written between 1859 and 1861 to William S. Leonard, a successful New Hampshire physician. Primarily written by his father and fiancée, they concern medical practice, courtship, financial struggles, and political matters.

The William S. Leonard papers consist of 39 letters and one receipt covering 1859-1861. Twelve of the letters were written to William by his father, Rev. Levi W. Leonard. They primarily focus on family matters and on the Reverend's declining health and poor financial state. Rev. Leonard seemed to be editing books and a newsletter at this time, and had become a strong supporter of the Republican Party. In a letter of March 4, 1861, he wrote to William that the Republicans had raised the campaign flag to celebrate Lincoln's inauguration, but expressed apprehension about the gathering conflict: “the state of the country is so critical & dangerous, some think it would be more appropriate to toll the bells.”

In her letters to William, Mattie reported her daily activities and expressed her affection for him; she frequently recalled memories of times together and expressed sadness at their separation. In a letter of March 10, 1861, she responded to news of his medical practice (“I hope you have cured that Irish girl’s leg”) and in her March 31 letter, she described wedding plans and a guest list in some detail.

Four letters in the collection were written by a fellow physician and friend of Leonard’s, known only as "Bim.” His letters, in which he addressed Leonard as “Beak,” include discussions of his medical work, such as an outbreak of diphtheria, which he described in a letter of December 10, 1860. The remainder of the letters in the collection come from colleagues, friends, and a cousin and pertain particularly to social engagements, religion, and medicine.