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Augusta and Francis R. Holland papers, 1818-1849 (majority within 1840-1849)

55 items

This collection contains correspondence between Augusta Wolle Holland and Reverend Francis Raymond Holland, regarding missionary life in Jamaica in the 1840s.

The Augusta and Francis R. Holland papers are comprised of 55 letters, which focus on Augusta Wolle Holland's and Reverend Francis Raymond Holland's missionary life in Jamaica in the 1840s.

Series I: These 12 letters, some quite lengthy, are between Francis (2) and family friend Mary Steiner Denke (10). Mary's letters provide a diverse and well-written discussion of politics, plants, scenery, and society from her life in a Moravian settlement in Salem, North Carolina, and from travels to Macon, Georgia, in 1840, and to France in 1845. In addition to thoughtful discussions on the treatment and conditions of slaves in North Carolina and Georgia, she wrote of a May 1 celebration at Mr. Napier’s school in Macon, Georgia; stage travel in Georgia (during which the passengers had a political debate between Whigs and Locos); a Cherokee Indian Mission and the building of schools there; trans-Atlantic travel; Protestant versus Catholic churches and doctrine in France; and travel around the French countryside near Montauban. She was also interested in academic and religious teachings.

Series II: The August and Francis Holland Correspondence with Parents series, which comprises the bulk of the collection, contains 33 lengthy letters written between 1842 to 1849 and passed between the Hollands in Jamaica and their parents in the United States. Though Augusta was the more prolific of the writers, both wrote extensively about life as missionaries, thoroughly detailing their surroundings, food, health, gardening, religious education, and interactions with fellow missionaries and Jamaica’s inhabitants. Augusta’s letters focused on home and garden; she expressed great interest in the local flowers and edible plants. She also taught Sunday school classes, cared for her children, and kept up-to-date on current events in the United States. Francis' letters often mention national American politics, including national appointments and the ongoing Mexican War. Letters from their parents concern the family's well being, local events in the town, and religious activities and viewpoints. The Hollands kept servants while in Jamaica, and discussed them in their letters.

Series III: The Miscellaneous Correspondence series contains 10 items, primarily letters addressed to Holland from his colleagues in the church. A few letters were also written to Augusta and one to her father Jacob Wolle. Another item, sent from Bergen, Norway, to Philadelphia, is dated 1818 and is written in German.

This collection includes three illustrations: the letter from September 3, 1842, contains a sketch of a garden plan in Fairfield, Jamaica; the letter from January 31, 1845, has a small paper seal with a black floral image; and the November 26, 1845, item features a rough illustration of a flower.


Ausben W. Dech school book, 1858-1860

1 volume

This school book contains essays, poetry, penmanship exercises, maps, and mathematical problems composed by Ausben W. Dech of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, during his time at Bethlehem's Moravian Day School. Many of the maps are accompanied by brief essays. Three poems and one essay are written in German.

This school book contains 89 pages of essays, poetry, penmanship exercises, maps, and mathematical problems that Ausben W. Dech composed between December 2, 1858, and March 4, 1860, while he attended the Moravian Day School in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Dech drew 33 maps of individual states, regions of the United States, and foreign countries. Many of his earlier maps include rivers, though unlabeled, and most of the later examples indicate the presence of mountains. Several state maps are accompanied by brief essays, often describing the primary natural resources or the state's history. Maps of Maine, France, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Connecticut are accompanied by pencil sketches of houses and ships. For a complete list of maps, see Additional Descriptive Data below.

Most early entries consist of essays and penmanship exercises, though Dech also wrote and copied poetry and worked out mathematical problems. One poem, entitled "An Indian's Gratitude," is attributed to "McLellan" (most likely New England author and poet Isaac McLellan (1806-1899)) and four entries are in German, including one essay and three poems. A small cross-stitched token reading "A token of love" is laid in between pages 56 and 57.


Frank C. Stout journal and account book, 1860-1862

1 volume

From 1860-1862, Franklin C. Stout used this volume to record financial transactions, notes about historical events, and an account of a trip to the Delaware Water Gap.

From December 8, 1860, to the summer of 1862, Frank C. Stout used this volume to record financial transactions, notes about historical events, and an account of a trip to the Delaware Water Gap.

The first 56 pages are comprised of financial accounts dated December 8, 1860, to March 5, 1862, most of which relate to foodstuffs. On several occasions, Stout noted political events, such as the secessions of South Carolina and Alabama from the Union and Abraham Lincoln's visit to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in February 1861. Around 10 pages of additional financial records are written at the end of the volume; some concern social events, such as a festival, a ticketed lecture, and Republican Club activities. Stout's other notes include instructions for loading, firing, and cleaning a gun manufactured by Colt's Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company. Two newspaper clippings pasted into the volume offer health advice for Union soldiers expecting to serve in the South.

On July 19, 1862, Franklin C. Stout and four companions left Bethlehem for a "pedestrian expedition" to the Delaware Water Gap, a journey that Stout described in detail (12 pages). While walking to their destination, the group visited several acquaintances, and they often spent their leisure time playing games of euchre. At the Delaware Water Gap, Stout commented on the flora and fauna, as well as the group's sightseeing activities.


John Parrish journals, ca. 1790-1793

6 volumes

The collection consists of five journals and one memoir that document Quaker missionary John Parrish’s travels throughout Pennsylvania, New York, Michigan, and Ohio from 1773 to 1793, during a treaty negotiations between the U.S. government and the Six Nations Iroquois.

The Parrish journals consist of six volumes that document relations with several Native American tribes during and following the Revolutionary War (1775-1783). He was present during the creation of a series of treaties that attempted to end the conflicts over land ownership, such as the Newtown Point Treaty of 1791 and another treaty negotiated at Sandusky, Ohio, in 1793. Parrish’s journals provide a great deal of insight into the often hostile and tenuous relationship between White people and Native Americans, while at the same time giving an idea of what daily life was like for men and women residing in these much contested territories.

Written during the late 18th century, the five journals are dated 1791 (1) and 1793 (4). The sixth item in the collection is a memoir that describes events occurring in 1773, yet appears to be written much later, possibly as early as 1790. Parrish traveled through Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and Michigan and encountered many different Native American groups. The tribes with whom he had the most contact were the Shawnee, the Wyandot, the Seneca, the Stockbridge, the Chippewa, the Delaware, the Tuscarora, the Miami, and the Oneida. He also encounters many Native Americans who belong to the Moravian sect. Many of these tribes were part of the Six Nations Iroquois present at the treaty councils.

Each journal varies considerably in content, yet all contain very detailed descriptions. The memoir, which describes events occurring in 1773, documents Parrish’s journey to Newcomers Town in Ohio to meet with members of the Delaware tribe, most importantly Captain White Eyes and Chief Netawattwaleman. Traveling with fellow Quakers Lebulon Heston and John Lacy, the men embarked on the journey primarily as missionaries. Despite their intentions, however, the men become embroiled in the political volatility of the time. On his way to Newcomers Town, Parrish encountered Chief Logan (1725-1780), a Native American of the Mingo tribe, whose family was killed in what is known as the “Yellow Creek Massacre.” Logan, who delivered a speech referred to as “Logan’s Lament,” is quoted by Thomas Jefferson in his Notes on the State of Virginia and likewise verbatim in Parrish’s memoir. In addition to the Delaware tribe, Parrish also met members of the Shawnee and Wyandot tribes. The memoir is thought to have been written sometime after 1773, the earliest possible year date being 1790, given Parrish’s reference to historical information occurring after this time, such as the “Yellow Creek Massacre,” Dunmore’s War, and Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State.

Parrish’s 1791 journal serves as a description of the Treaty of Newtown Point and the events leading up to it. Originally the council was to take place at Painted Post in New York, but was changed to Newtown Point due to the low water levels of the Tioga River. Over 600 Native Americans were present for the treaty, and Parrish faithfully records sentiments expressed regarding attitudes towards White people and land ownership. He was especially careful to document several interviews and speeches of prominent Native American leaders, such as the Stockbridge chief Hendricks, Pater of the Onieda tribe, the Seneca chief Red Jacket, and a chief named Cayasuter. In addition to describing Native American customs, attitudes, and the events that transpired during the council, the issue of alcoholism among the tribes proved to be a chief concern for Parrish. Consequently, he asked Col. Pickering to cease the distribution of whiskey at the council fearing that it was hindering the negotiation process while simultaneously making the Native Americans vulnerable and easily exploitable.

Ultimately the Newtown Point council was unsuccessful, and the three volumes dated 1793 relate another attempt by Pickering to secure peace with the tribes. Although the Six Nations had agreed with Pickering’s terms, the western tribes were still rebellious and discontented. This necessitated the scheduling of yet another council to form a treaty. In the first volume Parrish -- accompanied by Beverly Randolph, John Elliot, Joseph Moore, and Pickering -- traveled to Detroit as a point from which they could easily meet with several tribes, while being close to Sandusky on Lake Erie -- the site of the upcoming council. Parrish noted that the tribes insisted on Ohio as the eastern boundary for their lands, remaining persistent in their demand despite the abundance of gifts that Pickering bestowed upon them. The second volume is mainly a discussion of Native American customs and the problem of slavery, especially the multitude of white captives. The narrative of Parrish's departure from Detroit to attend the council appears at the end of the second and beginning of the third volume. This treaty too failed, the tribes rejecting Pickering’s gifts in lieu of the restoration of their lands. At the end of the third volume, Cornplanter (1750-1836) -- chief of the Seneca -- delivered a moving speech to President Washington on the selling of their lands. Parrish related how Cornplanter demanded of Washington, “Brothers of our Fathers where is the place which you have reserved for us to lie down upon?....all the Lands we have been speaking of belong to the Six Nations no part of it ever belonged to the King of England and he could not give it up to you” (1793, No. 3, p. 11, 13). The latter replied and a brief exchange ensued.

Parrish’s last journal entitled “Some Notes on Indian Affairs,” which also dates to 1793, seems to have been written after returning home from Detroit and Sandusky. Much of the information recorded serves as a summary of some of his work described in the previous journals, as well as commentary on the situation of the tribes. He discussed in particular the Gnadenhütten massacre. This massacre, carried out by Lt. Col. David Williamson (1749-1814) and 160 of his militiamen on March 8, 1782 near Gnadenhütten, Ohio, left approximately 96 Moravian Indians dead. Parrish deplored this and other crimes committed against the tribes.

Parrish wrote intelligently and clearly, alternating between descriptions of events and his personal thoughts. His religious beliefs figured prominently in his attitudes and opinions, and they informed his desire for social justice for Native Americans, as well as for African American slaves. Present in all these journals is his sympathy for the human suffering he encountered, which he hoped to see eradicated. These journals thus prove to be not only rich in historical information, but also detailed in the accounts of Parrish's quest for a more peaceful coexistence between whites and Native Americans.


Pearce Atkinson papers, 1868-1903 (majority within 1879-1895)

1 linear foot

The Pearce Atkinson papers contain correspondence between Atkinson and his parents, written primarily in the 1890s. The majority of the letters date from his time at Lehigh University and early engineering career with the Union Pacific Railway. These letters include descriptions of his college life and later railroad work in the mountains of Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado.

The Pearce Atkinson papers consist of 295 letters, primarily between Atkinson and his parents, written mostly in the 1890s. In several letters written to their father in 1879, a young Pearce and his brother Clarence told of their daily lives, and frequently mentioned their newborn brother Arthur. Most of the correspondence, however, dates from the time that Pearce entered Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and covers his collegiate years as well as his early career as a railroad engineer for the Union Pacific Railroad Company. While in Pennsylvania, he frequently wrote his parents about his coursework, financial situation, and social life, which often included visits to Philadelphia. His father sometimes sent him money, and occasionally offered advice on education and other topics; in one letter, he suggested five possible thesis topics, all related to railroads (March 18, [1888]). Additionally, several academic progress reports are interspersed among the letters (June 22, 1888, January 1889, et al.). After graduation, Atkinson wrote his parents from various locations in the western United States, and described his career and life while based in Salt Lake City, Utah; Cheyenne, Wyoming; Denver, Colorado; and several locations throughout California. Along with discussing his engineering work, he also wrote vivid descriptions of the local scenery and occasionally commented on politics. On May 30, 1894, he mentioned a group of Coxey's army members encamped near Denver, and he continued to report about strikers and additional unrest throughout June. Atkinson's final letters were written in early 1895, though his parents received a handful of later correspondence, including condolences for his death (July 19, 1898) and a letter from Charles Pollak, a family friend, regarding the death of Pollak's father (November 14, 1903). The ephemera item is a bloodstained handkerchief, labeled "Pearce Atkinson."