This photograph album (19cm x 26cm) contains 77 photographs of towns, scenery, and people throughout the Caribbean. Most pictures are 14cm x 22cm, though a few are 10cm x 15cm, and many have lengthy captions with additional information about locales pictured; many are numbered. Captions include information about hotel rates, population figures, vegetation, geographic features, and local customs. The photographs show Jamaica (43 items), Barbados (13 items), Trinidad (12 items), local residents (4 items), Saint Vincent (3 items), and other scenes (2 items). The album has many views of city streets and towns taken from street level and from higher vantage points, as well as views of rivers in Saint Vincent and Jamaica and of Carlisle Bay, Barbados. Structures such as sugar plantation windmills, railroad stations, hotels, markets, a prison, and churches are visible in many pictures, as are residents and, less often, tourists. A group of 4 photographs at the end of the album show East Indian women who worked in Trinidad, and 3 photographs show members of the West Indian Regiment and its band, including 1 picture of the band playing in a gazebo. Harbor views show Royal Navy ships and other vessels. The album's covers have a hard cloth covering, and the pages are bound together with rope. One loose page has been removed from the volume.
6 linear feet
The Lord George Sackville Germain papers (6 linear feet) contain the political and military correspondence of Germain, British military officer and secretary of state for North America from 1775 to 1782. Though the papers document Germain's entire public career, the bulk of the material relates to his role overseeing the military during the American Revolution. In addition to official letters and reports, the collection is also comprised of copies of secret military dispatches, reports and extracts detailing the activities of the commanders and colonial governors of North America, and a copy book of letters between American diplomat Benjamin Franklin, Massachusetts Governor Thomas Pownall, and Boston reverend Samuel Cooper.
The Correspondence and Documents series (4.5 linear feet) contains drafts and retained copies of letters from Germain and official incoming letters and documents sent to Germain during his years of military and public service. The collection includes little related to Germain's personal life.
The series holds some correspondence relating to Germain's early military career, including ten letters he wrote to his father while serving in the War of Austrian Succession. Though only a few items relate to Germain's service at Minden, present are several letters written and received by Germain in Germany in 1759, and French and Indian War-era letters from politicians and military leaders such as Pitt, Temple, Holland, Mansfield, Bute, Newcastle, Charles Townshend, Grenville, and Ligonier. Of special interest are the letters of Lord Jeffery Amherst and General Wolfe's account of the fall of Louisbourg and the military in Canada. Germain held no high office between the French and Indian war and the American Revolution but he kept in close contact with Sir John Irwin, with whom he discussed politics and current events.
The bulk of the collection covers Germain's tenure as secretary of state to the colonies (1775-1782), and provides a thorough account of his public policy decision-making process. As American secretary, Germain maintained voluminous correspondence with ministers and officials in England, particularly secretaries of state Lord Suffolk and Lord Stormont, Undersecretary William Eden, and Solicitor General Alexander Wedderburn. Germain also received regular updates from Richard Cumberland, whom Germain sent to Madrid to negotiate peace with Spain.
As a key overseer of the British war effort, Germain had direct communication with the commanders-in-chief in America and their immediate subordinates, as well as with the naval commanders. Included are letters from Thomas Gage, William Howe, Richard Howe, John Burgoyne, Henry Clinton, Charles Cornwallis, John Vaughan, Guy Carleton, and Frederick Haldimand. He communicated frequently with the British governors in Nova Scotia, Canada, and Florida, and with Governor Henry Hamilton at Detroit. As France, Spain, and the Netherlands entered the war, much of his attention turned to naval action and trade (sugar and slaves) in the West Indies. He also dealt with the Carlisle peace commissioners, various merchants, and loyalists, such as Jonathan Boucher, physicist-adventurer Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford. The series concludes with 58 undated letters, largely written during the Revolution.
- 1757: "Considerations on the present State of the Military Operations in North America"
- January 20, 1775: Thoughts on the Dispute between Great Britain and Her Colonies, by Brook Watson
- July 29, 1775: Report on the occupation of Charlestown Heights, written by William Howe
- August 20, 1775: Military report by General John Burgoyne
- October 18, 1775: An early "Constitution" created by the Provincial Congress of North Carolina, declaring independence and laying out the groundwork for a cooperative government among the colonies, containing 13 articles
- December 29, 1775: "Reflections on the Dispute with the Colonies by Apollos Morris," containing a history or empires and discussion of the problem
- : Report by John Shuttleworth on the British and American forces throughout North America: artillery, arms, and navy
- : "Advantages of lord Cornwallis's Expedition going rather to Chesapeake Bay than to the Carolinas," by Sir John Dalrymple
- January 12, 1776: Letter from Lord Ellibank who proposed returning Canada to the French as the most effective means of reducing the rest of our colonies
- January 17, 1776: Proposal for growing vegetables for the British troops in North America - radishes, red spinach, lettuce, cabbage, and potatoes etc.
- July 4, 1776: Contemporary manuscript copy of the Declaration of Independence created for Germain
- August 10, 13, 1776: Reports on the campaign in New York from William Howe, stationed at Staten Island
- 1776: Peace commission instructions from Germain
- February 28, 1777: "Thoughts for conducting the War from the Side of Canada"
- March 18, 1777: "Political Remarks on the present state of affairs in respect to the Rebellion in America, and the danger of its involving us in a War in Europe"
- April 2, 1777: William Howe's 3rd plan of military operations in North America
- 1777: "A State of the Circumstances in Philadelphia"
- March 8, 1778: A description of Germain's southern strategy sent to Henry Clinton
- March 24, 1778: "Plan for taking of French and Spanish Islands," by John Drummond
- May , 1778: Extract from Burgoyne's speech to the House of Commons concerning the Battle of Saratoga
- August 24, 1778: British spy Dr. John Berkenhout's "Journal of an Excursion from New York to Philadelphia in the Year 1778," reporting on Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Rush, and others
- February-July 1779: "A Short Journal and Remarks of Transactions, that happened at Grenada & other parts of the West Indies"
- March 31, 1779: Two copies of letters from George Washington to Henry Clinton, enclosed in Clinton to Germain, no. 46, April 2, 1779
- 1779: "Hints for the Management of an intended Enquiry: an assessment of the War with America," including reports on the state of the military and intelligence looking into Howe's decisions: such as "Why did he not attack Washington at Valley Forge" and "Why did he not pursue Washington's Army after the Defeat at Brandywine,” and General Grey's "evidence and opinions and extracts from Howe's letters used at the inquiry"
- March 8, 1780: "Sketch of a System by which the rebellious Colonies in America might be reduced to Obedience in two Campaigns, which offers a strategic plan for engaging the rebels"
- July 25, 1780: Extracts from General Horatio Gates' orderly book, headquarters at Buffalo Ford July 25-August 15, with details on divisions from Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia
- August 10, 1780: Petition from Ethan Allen and others from Vermont, concerning their unhappiness with the Continental Congress and their desire to form an independent British province, by John Griffiths
- August 21, 1780: Reports from General Charles Cornwallis on the victory at Charleston and the Battle of Hanging Rock
- October 1780: Copy of a letter by Alexander Hamilton discussing and describing the capture and trial of John André, and Arnold and Washington's involvement in the incident
- October 1781: Reports on the battle and surrender of Yorktown and the siege of Chesapeake Bay
- January 13 and 15, 24, 1782: Letters from Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Thompson, A New Hampshire Loyalist in the British cavalry, stationed in South Carolina, describing fighting at the end of the war
The Secret Military Dispatches volume (429 pages) is comprised of 246 secret dispatches and orders sent by Germain to political and military leaders between 1775 and 1782. In these, Germain discussed military strategy for the British army and navy in America and the West Indies with Henry Clinton, John Dalling, John Grant, Frederick Haldimand, John Vaughan, and the Lords of the Admiralty, among other officers and governors. One letter is housed separately in Volume 23, a retained copy of George Germain's letter to William Howe, January 5, 1776.
The Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Pownall, and Samuel Cooper letter book (296 pages) contains copies of 68 letters from Benjamin Franklin, Governor of Massachusetts Thomas Pownall, and Reverend Samuel Cooper of Boston. These communicate both British and American points of view of the developing unrest in the colonies between 1769 and 1774. Throughout the volume, Franklin and Pownall wrote from London while Cooper wrote from Boston; each voiced their unique perspective on political and civil conflicts between England and America.
The Undated Reports series (39 items) consists of undated documents found in Germain's papers relating to trade, customs, government finances, Irish policies, military strategy proposals, assessments on the outcome of military engagements, conditions on the ground in various colonies, the state of West Indian islands, and the role of the French and Spanish in the American Revolution.
The Supplements series (40 items) is comprised of documents submitted to Germain to keep him informed about the conditions and developments of the American conflict. Many contain added commentary aimed to inform and influence his decision-making. The documents include reports and compiled summaries of correspondence and military dispatches related to operations throughout North America.
In addition to this finding aid, the Clements Library has created three other research aids: The Subject Index and Contributor List provides access to events, people, places, and topics discussed in the Correspondence and Documents series (Volumes 1-16). This index also contains a list of contributors. The Volume Guide includes notes on the contents for 22 volumes in the collection. The Guide to Volumes 17-21 provides lists of the documents in each of these volumes.
6 linear feet
2 linear feet
The Jeffery Amherst papers (763 items) contain the correspondence, documents, and military orders of Jeffery Amherst, British commander-in-chief in North America from 1758 to 1763. The collection constitutes the papers given to General Thomas Gage at the transfer of authority in 1763. Also included are letters and petitions addressed to Amherst, Amherst's letters to Gage, and letters addressed to Amherst that arrived in New York City after his departure for England.
The Letters and Documents series (241 items) contains letters between Amherst and Thomas Gage, as well as material left for Gage, and letters that arrived at the New York headquarters for Amherst after his departure to England. Items include administrative letters concerning military matters and news, troop instructions and orders, details on troop movements and the outcomes of battles, court martial reports, intelligence reports on enemy forces, promotions, petitions, memorials, troop returns, and accounts for provisions and other military expenses. These document the French and Indian War, British control over Canada and the western territories after the war, management of Indian Affairs, and dealings with Pontiac. Also discussed are activities and construction at forts Crown Point, Edward, George, Herkirmer, Louisbourg, Niagara, Oswego, Pitt, Stanwix, and Ticonderoga. The letters mention and discuss John Appy, John Bradstreet, William Browning, Henry Gladwin, Frederick Haldimand, William Johnson, supplier Christopher Kilby, Robert Monckton, John Prideaux, Robert Rogers, John Stanwix, and John Stuart, among others.
- August 1758-January 1759: Material related to Amherst's successful siege at Louisbourg, including letters, orders, returns, and a report on the condition of the camp
- May 7, 1759: Plans for an invasion into Canada and for the taking of Fort Ticonderoga
- July and August 1759: Preliminary action before the taking of Ticonderoga
- July 28, 1759: News of the death of Brigadier General John Prideaux
- August 5, 1759: A description of the design of the proposed fort at Oswego
- March 31, 1760: A letter describing a great fire in Boston that destroyed one quarter of the city
- October 18, November 4, 1760, and August 31, 1761: Mentions of Mrs. Gage traveling from Albany to Montreal, of her pregnancy, and of her interactions with "the religious ladies"
- August 1, 1761: Description of Lieutenant Colonel Grant's success against the Cherokee with details on the attack; consideration of a tax on spirits to encourage spruce beer
- September-October 1761: Amherst's headquarters at Staten Island
- December 12, 1761: Lord Egremont stresses the use of gentleness and kindness with the French and Indians in Canada
- 1762-1763: Letters to Gage regarding provisioning forces in Canada and transmitting news from America, England, and Europe
- January 16, 1762: Sir William Johnson reports on relations with Seneca Indians
- October 13, 1762: News of the retaking of St. Johns from the French, making the entire island of Newfoundland British
- July 1, 1763: Sir William Johnson's report on steps to take to appease the Six Nations
- August 1, 1763: Report that Michilimackinac has fallen to the Potawatomi Indians
- November 1, 1763: A letter from Henry Gladwin from Detroit recounting the settlement of peace with Pontiac - enclosed are 8 letters from Neyon de Villiere to Gladwin and the Indians of Detroit and a letter from Pontiac to Gladwin (in French)
- November 17, 1763: Amherst advices the colonial governors that he is returning to England
- January 30, 1764: Accounts for Henry Gladwin of Detroit with receipts and account records spanning October 1762-October 1763
The Schedules series (306 items) comprises the "Papers Delivered by Major General Sir Jeffery Amherst, on his giving up the Command of the Troops in North America, to Major General [Thomas] Gage." The letters and documents are organized into 14 "schedules" grouped by geography and sender/recipient. Letters are primarily copies and extracts, and the bulk of the items date from April to October 1763.
Schedule 1 (Volume 1, pages 1-34) documents Amherst's communications with the British administration at Whitehall, primarily with King George III and Secretary of State Charles Wyndham Egremont.
- Pages 9-12: The Treaty of Paris
- Pages 18 (see also Schedule 2 pages 45-47, 51-53): Captain John Dalrymple's petition concerning accusations from North Carolina Governor Arthur Dobbs
- Pages 19-26: Britain's new acquisitions in America after the Treaty of Paris, and the boarders with the Indian tribes in Canada and Florida
- Pages 20 and 29: Suspicions of Catholics and priests in Canada
Schedule 2 (Volume 1, pages 35-61) documents relate to Secretary of War Welbore Ellis and Treasury Secretary Henry Jenkinson.
- Pages 38-39: Lists on the makeup of the regiments of Major General Robert Monckton and Lieutenant General James Abercromby
- 45-47, 51-53: A memorial for Captain John Dalrymple and communications between Amherst and Governor Arthur Dobbs regarding Dalrymple's arrest and trial
- Page 50: Amherst's report on the troops along the Mississippi and in Canada, including a suggestion that the commander-in-chief's headquarters be either at New York or Philadelphia
Schedule 3 (Volume 1, pages 62-93) documents relate to commanders on the Southern and western frontier, including officers at Pensacola, St. Augustine, Mobile, the Bahamas, Bermuda, Canada, and Fort de Chartres.
- Page 62-68: Instructions for armies across the continent
- Page 71: A list of transport ships under Lieutenant Colonel Robertson
- Page 81: Report on the Seneca Indians from Amherst
- Page 83-87: Provisions and returns for troops stationed at St. Augustine and Pensacola
Schedule 4 (Volume 2, pages 1-29) documents relate to Major Henry Gladwin stationed at Detroit, and Major John Wilkins at Fort Niagara, concerning Pontiac's rebellion.
- Pages 5-9: Intelligence from Detroit
- Pages 16-17: A description of an Indian attack on the schooner Queen Royal, leaving Niagara for Detroit, and Amherst's response
- Pages 19-21: Courts of inquiry on soldiers captured by Indians
- Pages 22-28: Reports on the 60th Regiment at Niagara and Indian relations
- Page 29: Discussions concerning the offer of a reward of 100-200 pounds to the person who kills Pontiac
Schedule 5 (Volume 2, pages 30-37) contains the letters between Amherst and General Henry Bouquet.
- Page 30-31: Plans for troop reductions in the Southern District
- 34-37: Details on the 60th Regiment at Fort Pitt
Schedule 6 (Volume 2, pages 38-39) letters to Lieutenant Colonel Browning of the 46th Regiment at Niagara concerning a robbery at Fort Pitt, and to Lieutenant Colonel Campbell of the 17th Regiment regarding disbanding regiments
Schedule 7 (Volume 2, pages 40-74) concerns scaling back operations at Fort Halifax, including many accounts and expense reports.
- Pages 41-45: Orders to Otho Hamilton for the 40th Regiment to move to Halifax
- Pages 46-52: Proceedings of councils of war at Halifax concerning supply stoppages (September 1, 1752, August 3, 1759, September 3, 1763)
- Page 60: A list of persons "as judged as absolutely neccissary for office at Halifax"
Schedule 8 (Volume 2, pages 75-82) contains information on operations at Louisbourg, primarily with Colonel John Tulleken.
Schedule 9 (Volume 3, pages 1-38) documents operations at the fort at St. John and the troops at Newfoundland, primarily through communications with Captain Stephen Gauly.
- Page 5: Expenses for 1762
- Page 8: Disbursements for September 1762-August 1763
- Pages 9-38: Accounts for the Newfoundland operations
Schedule 10 (Volume 3, pages 39-42) contains letters between Amherst and Sir William Johnson, concerning Indian relations, including the Seneca and Six Nations tribes in Western New York, Canada, and the Illinois and Ohio territories.
Schedule 11 (Volume 3, pages 43-60) documents communications with John Stuart from Charleston, South Carolina, concerning southern Indian affairs. Of note is a speech from Cherokee Chief Little Carpenter
Schedule 12 (Volume 3, pages 61-80) contains letters from Governor Thomas Boone of South Carolina; Lieutenant Governor Fauquier of Virginia; Colonel Adam Stephen at Winchester, Virginia; Lieutenant Governor James Hamilton and Governor John Penn of Pennsylvania; New Jersey Governor William Franklin; New York Lieutenant Governor Cadwallader Colden; and Amherst. These concern purchasing lands from various Indian tribes, settlement on Indian lands, and troop levels in the various colonies.
Schedule 13 (Volume 3, pages 81-91) concern Henry Bouquet and the regiment organized at Fort Pitt.
Schedule 14 (Volume 3, pages 92-117) contains troop dispositions, expense accounts, military returns, and letters received in New York after Amherst had left for England.
- Page 81: A disposition for all British forces in North America in August 1763
- Pages 92-95: Reports from Bouquet regarding Fort Pitt (October 24, 1763)
- Pages 95-110: Reports from John Hopkins of Detroit including accounts and returns
- Page 111: A letter from Robert Rogers at Detroit who was too deep in debt to pay his creditors
- Pages 112-115: Letters from Colonel John Bradstreet on the forces at Albany, New York
- Pages 116-117: Letters from Thomas Hancock of Boston concerning the sale of supplies at Louisbourg
The Commissions, Reports, and Articles of Capitulation series (11 items) contains various treaties and reports relating to the British victory over France in the French and Indian War.
- November 24, 1759: Proclamations for the British takeover of Ticonderoga and Crown Point (2 items)
- September 8, 1760: Articles of Capitulation for the surrender of Canada from Amherst to French Governor Pierre François de Rigaud
- May 29, 1762: Appointment of Lieutenant Launcelot Hill to the 55th Regiment
- February 10, 1763: "The Definitive Treaty of Peace and friendship Between His Britannick Majesty, the Most Christian King, and the King of Spain, Concluded at Paris," printed in London, 1763
- June 8, 1763: "A Report of the Board of Trade" relating to the new British possession in America from France and Spain and the board's "opinion by what regulations the most extensive Advantages may be derived from them" (2 copies)
- July 9, : A customs act from George III along with a printed list of ships in Newfoundland and America and additional instructions to the fleet under Captain Graves (4 items)
2 linear feet
3 volumes and 3 loose items
The John Vaughan papers (3 volumes and three loose items) document Vaughan's first two years as commander-in-chief of the Leeward Islands, from November of 1779 to March 1781. The papers comprise approximately 470 items, almost all of which are incoming letters, dispatches, bills, reports, and memoranda from naval commanders and subordinates, officials in England and North America, and friends and relatives in England.
The papers primarily relate to the conduct of the Revolutionary War in the West Indies, and reveal a close coordination between the army and navy in the region. Topics documented include the capture of St. Eustatius, the capture of transports by the French, the treatment of prisoners of war, and the provisioning and paying of troops. Also covered are promotions, discipline, and reports on hardships, such as endemic sickness, supply shortages (food, candles, rum, and money), poor barracks, a lack of doctors and medicine, and bad weather. Of note are the letters from William Mathew Burt, governor of Antigua and St. Christopher's; Gabriel Christie, commander at Antigua; Lucius Ferdinand Cary, commander at Tobago; George Ferguson, governor of Tobago; Commodore William Hotham; Admiral Hyde Parker; Admiral Samuel Hood; George Brydges Rodney, commander of the Leeward Island Station; Anthony St. Leger, brigadier general at St. Lucia; Major Henry Fitzroy Stanhope; and Loftus Anthony Tottenham, brigadier general at Barbados.
- Volume 1, item 23: After March 19, 1780: Memoranda for an answer to Christie's letter of March 18-19
- Folder 1: May 11, 1784: Vaughan's deposition sent to Isaac Howell, for a property dispute involving Edward Foord, Samuel Delprat, Richard Clark, and Simon Nathan, over a lawsuit in Jamaica
- Folder 1: September 29, 1789: Vaughan to an unknown property owner (partnered to a Mr. Alexander Ellis) concerning purchasing land on the Mohawk River
- Folder 1: September 17, 1794: John Vaughan to William Wyndham, reporting on specifics of British troop strengths throughout the Caribbean. Mention of surrender of Belville Camp, Guadeloupe, by capitulation in October, and lost companies in that affair. Martinique is the most important island from a military perspective. St. Lucia. Enemy strength at Guadeloupe, specifying around 400-500 "whites" and 4,000 or 5,000 "Blacks" armed with muskets and bayonets. Guadeloupe would require a Garrison of troops, with the number of men needed to attack. Believes that they should raise the siege of Basse-Terre and keep the enemy in check. Royalists can't be relied on. Strength at Antigua, St. Christopher's, and Dominica. Sir Charles Grey, Admiral Jarvis, and islands of St. Bartholomew and St. Thomas. Current assessment of privateers. British and French reinforcements. Capt. Hare's 10th Light Dragoons: when they came from America, they had "hardly a sound horse amongst them"--consider discontinuing this expensive Corps.
Volume 1 contains 246 items; Volume 2 contains 276 pages; and Volume 3 contains 207 pages.
3 volumes and 3 loose items
0.25 linear feet
The Native American collection is comprised of approximately 125 miscellaneous letters and documents concerning Native American Indians in the United States, Canada, and the West Indies, and their interactions with British and American settlers (1689-1921). Topics range from land agreements, legal issues, treaties, descriptions of travel through Indian Territory, Indian uprisings and conflicts, Indian captivities, prisoners of war, Indian enslavement, and interactions with Quaker and Moravian missionaries. Tribes include the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cree, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Oneida, Ottawa, Kickapoo, Seneca, Shawnee, Sioux, among others, and concern activities in Canada, New England, the Midwest, the South, and the western frontier. Also present are items written in Cherokee, Mohawk, and Ojibwa.
0.25 linear feet
approximately 600 photographs in 1 album
The New England family travel photograph album contains approximately 600 photographs that document the domestic life and foreign travels of an unidentified husband and wife couple from suburban Boston during the first decade of the 20th-century. The album (28.5 x 36 cm) has pebbled black leather covers with “Photographs” stamped in gold on the front. By and large, images are presented chronologically and many have extensive captions which mainly identify the locations pictured as well as certain individuals. It appears that many image captions were cut and pasted from white paper and added on top of pre-existing faded captions that had been written directly on the album pages. Some images that show people of African descent have subtly derogatory captions. Photographs showcasing the family’s domestic life include pictures of annual spring blooms in their backyard; friends and family; various domestic activities including interacting with pet cats; and regional outings such as visits to Mt. Washington, Point of Pines nature park in Revere, Massachusetts, and poet John Greenleaf Whittier's birthplace in Haverhill, Massachusetts.
In the summer of 1905, the couple travelled to Montreal and up the St. Lawrence River to Quebec City and beyond, resulting in the production of nearly ten pages of photographic highlights (pgs. 7-16). Later that summer, they also took photographs while vacationing in the Lake Sebago region of Maine with friends whom they later visited in Providence, Rhode Island (pgs. 16-20, 22). A visit to New Orleans, Louisiana, and Beauvoir, Mississippi, in December of 1906 is also documented (pgs. 30-37). In 1907 the couple undertook a period of extensive international travel beginning with a trip to England, Scotland, Ireland, Belgium, and France (pgs. 38-57). A second visit to Quebec in September 1907 is briefly represented (pgs. 57-58), while a series of pictures from a trip to St. Augustine, Florida, in April 1908 are also included (pgs. 59-62). Photographs related to two separate tours of the Caribbean and Central/South America in July and August of 1908 and March of 1909 make up a substantial portion of the album (pgs. 63-103); images from the first tour mainly include scenes from Caribbean islands such as St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. Kitts, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, and Barbados as well as British Guiana, while images from the second trip include scenes from Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Panama, Venezuela, Trinidad, Dominican Republic, and Cuba. Also present are several commercially-produced photographs, including a number of panoramic views, showing scenes from Mexico (pgs. 104-111). The majority of images taken during the couple’s travels consist of typical sightseeing photographs showing important cultural landmarks and historic buildings as well as street scenes, methods of transportation, and local people and industries. Throughout the album there are also numerous photographs taken aboard various transport vessels mid-voyage.
A few noteworthy historical events are minimally represented by photographs in this album, such as the January 15 1905 Washington Street Baptist Church fire in Lynn, Massachusetts (pgs. 2 & 3); the Quebec Bridge a few weeks after its collapse on August 29 1907 (pg. 57); the Great Chelsea Fire of 1908 (pg. 59); Panama Canal construction in 1909 (pgs. 87-89); long distance views of the site of the village of St. Pierre, Martinique, which was decimated by the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pelée on May 8 1902 (pg. 80); and the wreck of the battleship Maine in Havana Harbor (pg. 179). Individuals identified by captions throughout the album include Dr. Robert L. Bartlett (pgs. 4 & 89); “Miss Morse” (pg. 5); Stanley and Donald Clauss of Providence, Rhode Island (pgs. 17, 19 & 22); Hattie English, Lizzie English, “Mrs. Boynton,” and “Miss Lord” (pg. 19); Samuel Pickard (pg. 20); Jessie Pauline Whitney (pg. 21); "Mr. Little" (pgs. 19 & 22); William Rhodes (pg. 26); Maud Burdett (pgs. 38 & 58); George C. Hardin (pg. 74); Dr. Selah Merrill, American Consul in British Guiana (pg. 80); "Mrs. Parker" (pg. 85); and Hermann Ahrensburg (pg. 91). Other images of interest include a couple of photographs showing United States cavalrymen at camp in Lakeville, Massachusetts (pg. 2); a multiple exposure photograph showing the wife and other women (pg. 22); four photos showing a group of women that appear to be associated with a possible Masonic organization with the acronym “O.E.O.T.” (pg. 23); two photos of local boys diving in St. Lucia (pg. 72); a picture of a school for natives in St. Thomas where students were supposedly fined 10 cents a day for being absent (pg. 82); photos from Kingston, Jamaica, showing women working on a railroad and men operating a hand-made sugar mill (pg. 86); a group portrait of a baseball team in Venezuela (pg. 92); photos of the natural asphalt deposit Pitch Lake in Trinidad (pgs. 94 & 95); and photographs showing people with Brownie box cameras (pgs. 82 & 103).
approximately 600 photographs in 1 album
"Snook's Lives of Celebrated Men: Flobby MacSquelsh" are sketches narrating the life of Flobby Macsquelsh, the fictional profligate son of a Barbados planter. The story is told on 10 pages (22 x 32 cm) and divided into 11 parts, each part consisting of an ink sketch and a paragraph of text.
MacSquelsh is referred to as the "hero" in the story. He is depicted as a fat man known for his "intense gluttony." As a child, witnessing the whipping of a slave brings Flobby "intense delight." As an adult, he visits Europe and is placed in the distinguished 179th Highland Rifles corps. He engages in heavy drinking, attends balls, and meets a woman but later has "deserted and undid her." He is unfit for hunting, as he loses control of his horse, kills two hunting hounds, and even loses his umbrella. The story ends with Flobby returning to Barbados, where he successfully proposes marriage to a "Lady of Colour" and inherits his father's plantation property. This satirical story is likely a commentary of the behaviors of the planter elite in the West Indies after the abolition of slavery.
70 linear feet
The Thomas Gage papers consist of the military and government correspondence of General Thomas Gage, officer in the British Army in America (1754-1763), commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America (1763-1775), and Governor of Massachusetts (1774-1775). The papers include incoming correspondence and retained copies of letters written by Gage, together with a large quantity of headquarters documents related to military administration. The collection is particularly strong in documenting British colonial administration after the French and Indian War, interactions with Native Americans, and the years preceding the American Revolution.
- The English Series (30 volumes) contains Gage's correspondence with military officers and politicians in England, including the Secretaries of State, the Secretaries at War, the Treasury, the Board of Trade, the Board of Ordnance, the paymaster general, the commanders-in-chief, and other officials.
- The American Series (139 volumes) consists of Gage's correspondence with military officers and civil authorities in North America, including colonial governors, generals, commanders and subordinate officers, Indian superintendents and deputies, admirals of the British Navy in North America, engineers, army contractors, and various prominent civilians.
- The Letter Books, Account Books, and Additional Material series (17 items) contains copy books of communications with military outposts in North America and accounts for military expenses.
- The Warrants series (40 boxes) is made up of financial documents authorizing payment for the British military forces in North America. The Thomas Gage warrants series is described in a separate finding aid.
- The Maps series (87 maps) includes maps and fort plans created for British military leaders in North America in the years before the American Revolution.
The English series and the American series comprise the bulk of the collection. In addition to the many letters, these series contain the following: addresses, speeches, and proclamations; official petitions and memorials for troop promotions and transfers; proceedings and depositions from courts martial and courts of inquiry; intelligence on enemy activities; reports on the condition of the army and the state of the colonies; orders, instructions, memoranda, and meeting minutes; stores and provision inventories, receipts, and accounts of expenses; newspaper clippings and broadsides; and other miscellaneous items. Memorials typically describe the military career and professional history of a soldier or officer; these frequently contain information on both his regiment's activities and his personal life. The courts martial document desertion, embezzlement and fraud, violence, murder, rape, and other crimes committed by service members. Some of these cases, such as the trials of John Wilkins and Robert Rogers, are extensively recorded, involving many levels of the military and government. Returns typically list the numbers of troops, by rank, stationed at a fort, city, or region. These occasionally include names and other personal information. Stores and artillery lists account for the food, supplies, and ammunition maintained at forts, cities, and regions.
The English Series (30 volumes) contains Gage's incoming and outgoing letters from the Secretaries of State, Secretaries of War, Secretaries of the Treasury, Board of Ordnance, Judge Advocate General, Paymaster General of the military, Board of Trade, and the Admiralty. The bulk of these items were created during Gage's tenure as military governor of Montréal, commander-in-chief of North America, and governor of Massachusetts. Gage's years as an officer during the French and Indian War and his time in Britain from 1773-1774, however, are not well represented.
Gage communicated extensively with the British Secretaries of State. In many of these letters, he discussed, at length, the state of the colonies, with particular focus on civil unrest. He also reported on Indian relations and boundary lines, conditions of forts and the British military presence on the western and southern frontiers, hostilities toward the Stamp Act and other parliamentary acts, and civil unrest in Boston, New York, Charleston, and other colonial cities. Secretaries include: George Montagu-Dunk, Lord Halifax (Montagu Dunk); Sir Henry Seymour Conway; Charles Lennox, the Duke of Richmond; William Petty, Lord Shelburne; Wills Hill, Lord Hillsborough; William Legge, Lord Dartmouth; William Henry Nassau, Earl of Rochford; and Lord George Germain.
- A report from Lord Hillsborough concerning relations with Indians and advising Gage to cut military spending by abandoning forts on the frontier (English Series [hereafter ES]): April 15, 1768)
- A report, with treaty extracts, describing the boundary lines for colonial and Indian territories in Georgia, East and West Florida, North and South Carolina, and the northern territories (ES: April 15, 1768)
- Narratives on the Boston Massacre written on and just after March 5, 1770
- A narrative and discussion of the Boston Tea Party (ES: April 9, 1774)
In communications with Secretaries of War Lord William Barrington and Welbore Ellis, Gage discussed troop movements and logistics; regiment conditions, supplies and expenses; colonial troop quartering and recruitment; requests for regimental needs, such as surgeons, hospitals, and barrack repairs; and officer transfers and promotions. The secretaries frequently petitioned Gage to allow officers to return to England for personal reasons, such as health and estate issues. These letters also provide general updates on the state of the colonies and contain information on Indian affairs.
- Barrington's opinions on whether or not the British should designate the western lands for Indian nations (ES: October 10, 1765).
- A warning from Gage that "the colonists are taking large strides towards Independency, and that it concerns Great Britain by a speedy and spirited conduct to show them that these provinces are British Colonies dependent on her, and that they are not Independent States" (ES: January 17, 1767).
The Secretaries of the Treasury letters offer detailed information on colonial expenses and the financial decisions made in London and by Gage. The treasury secretaries include Charles Jenkinson, Thomas Whatley, William Mellish, William Lowndes, Grey Cooper, Thomas Bradshaw, and John Robinson.
Gage also communicated regularly with the Judge Advocate General Charles Gould, Earl of Granby John Manners, and John Boddington from the Office of Ordnance; Paymaster General of the Military Richard Rigby; and Generals Amherst, Harvey, and George Williamson. Gage received many letters from army officers stationed in England and Ireland. Most of these officers served under Gage and wrote him regarding business or legal issues. Notable officers include Lieutenant Colonel John Wilkins of the 18th Regiment and Major Robert Rogers stationed at Michilimackinac. Also of note in this series are printed versions of speeches made by King George III to parliament and the official responses from the Houses of Lords and Commons.
The American Series (139 volumes) comprises the bulk of the Thomas Gage papers. The Correspondence and Enclosures subseries (volumes 1-136) contains the communications between Gage and various civil and military personnel from North America and the West Indies. Represented are documents from Gage's tenures as an officer in the British Army during the French and Indian War under Braddock and Abercromby, as military governor of Montréal, as commander-in-chief of North America, and as governor of Massachusetts. The items from 1754-1760 all relate to the military, and include communications from various forts, often containing troop returns and stores inventories. As governor of Montréal, much of his administrative duties pertained to coordinating sloops, bateaux, and other ships that moved troops and provisions around Canada. The breadth of his responsibilities and the variety of decisions he had to make expanded considerably during his service as commander-in-chief and governor.
Writers (contributors) in the American Series include: colonial governors and lieutenant governors, private merchants and suppliers, generals and headquarters staff (barrack master general, quarter master general, commissary of stores and provisions), subordinate staff (barrack masters, paymasters, and engineers), superintendents and deputies from Departments of Indian Affairs, surveyor generals, commissioner of customs, and admirals and other naval officers.
- Disseminating information from England
- Enforcement of parliamentary acts, particularly concerning commerce
- Managing relations between the colonies and settling inter-colonial boundary disputes
- Quelling violence and civil unrest in the cities and policing new settlements on the western and southern frontiers
- Managing Indian relations and enforcing treaties
- Maintaining outposts and constructing new forts
- Coordinating colonial defenses and troop movements, provisioning, and quartering
- Settling disputes between military and civil leaders
Notable gaps in documentation occur between May and August 1760 and during Gage's time in England between June 1773 and May 1774, when General Haldimand served as commander-in-chief of British forces in North America. Though fairly well documented, the year 1769 also seems incomplete.
Colonial Governors. As commander-in-chief, Gage maintained communications with the governors of every colony in North America and several West Indian islands. He received administrative information on civil government and was particularly involved in legal matters concerning civil/military relations and in quelling violence and unrest in the cities and on the frontier. The governors were partially responsible for implementing parliamentary acts regarding trade and raising troops for the British army. The letters also contain vast amounts of information on relations with Native Americans, local political movements, militias, and the provincial governments that emerged during the years preceding the Revolutionary War. (See Additional Descriptive Data for a list of the colonial governors represented in the collection.) Gage communicated with deputy paymasters general of North America including James Barbut, Jacob Blackwell, William Eddington, and Abraham Mortier. He also corresponded with the French and Spanish governors of Louisiana, including Jean-Jacques-Blaise Abbaddie, Charles Phillippe Aubrey, Alejandro O'Reilly, Antonio de Don Ulloa, and Luis de Unzaga.
- Responses to the Stamp Act, including riots and non-importation agreements, with disturbances focused in Massachusetts and New York (1765)
- Ongoing conflicts between Major Farmar of the 34th Regiment and George Johnstone, governor of West Florida at Pensacola, who claimed the authority to give orders to the military (1765)
- Civil unrest in Boston that forced Governor Bernard to flee to Castle William (1768)
- A build up of forces in West Florida in response to threats of war between England and Spain (1771)
- Territorial disputes between New York and New Hampshire over settlements in what is now Vermont (1774-1775)
- Governor of New Hampshire John Wentworth's reports on the raid of Fort William and Mary by revolutionaries, including Paul Revere (1775)
- The battles and aftermath of Lexington and Concord (1775)
British Army in America. An important portion of the collection relates to Gage's administration of the far-reaching British military occupying North America. He communicated with many high-ranking officers and generals including Henry Bouquet, John Bradstreet, John Burgoyne, Ralph Burton, Henry Clinton, Frederick Haldimand, William Howe, Alex Mackay, John Pomeroy, and James Robertson. Subordinate officers, such as engineers, majors, barrack masters, paymasters, and ensigns, also corresponded with Gage. Routine topics include officer promotions and transfers; troop discipline and courts martial, particularly surrounding desertions; provisioning regiments and forts with food, supplies, and ammunition; and orders and instructions regarding troop movements and recruitment numbers.
Gage also interacted with the British Navy in North America, which was integral to provisioning and transporting troops. Ships traveled along the Atlantic seaboard from Newfoundland to the West Indies, to Québec by way of the St. Lawrence River, along the Mississippi river, and on Lakes Champlain, Erie, George, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, Superior, and at Forts Niagara and Detroit. Gage also oversaw naval stores and naval activities, such as shipbuilding and ship maintenance, and frequently received news on shipwrecks. Prominent contacts included Admiral Alexander Colville, Commodore Samuel Hood, Commodore James Gambier, Admiral Samuel Graves, Captain Joshua Loring, and Admiral John Montague.
- Relations between the Native Americans and colonists of Québec, including intelligence about a possible alliance between the Five Nations and the French-Jesuit clergy (1762)
- Colonel Henry Bouquet's expeditions against the Indians on the Pennsylvania and Ohio frontiers (1764)
- The court martial of Major Robert Farmar, whom West Florida Governor Johnstone accused of embezzling funds (1765)
- Problems with the "Black Boys Gang" of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania (1765)
- Mining efforts in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia for coal, and around Lake Superior for copper and other metals (1764-1775)
- The court martial of Robert Rogers, infamous superintendent of Michilimackinac (1767-1769)
- Eyewitness accounts of the Boston Massacre, including reports and depositions from all of the troops who took part in event, and news from the ongoing trial of the troops involved (1770)
- The court martial of Colonel John Wilkins of the Illinois Country over charges of embezzlement and fraud (1771-1773)
- Civil unrest in Massachusetts as a result of the "Intolerable Acts" and the formation of new bodies of local government (1774)
- Twenty testimonies and oaths of Massachusetts residents, including several women, concerning the Association (Continental Association) which prohibited merchants from trading with Great Britain (February 13-17, 1775)
- Descriptions of the skirmishes at Lexington and Concord (1775)
- Reports of Americans taking Ticonderoga and Crown Point (1775)
- Intelligence on troop counts and fortification descriptions for the British and the colonists at the Battle of Bunker Hill, along with many memorials from soldiers who fought in the battle (1775)
- Reports on the American march on Québec and Montréal lead by General Philip Schuyler and Benedict Arnold (1775)
- Attacks by the Machias "pirates" on British ships in the Bay of Fundy (1775)
- Three letters from General George Washington to Gage (June 17, 1768, August 11 and 20, 1775)
- A spy letter from a Mrs. Cooke who had contact with Generals George Washington and Charles Lee and who reported on the squalid conditions in the barracks in and around Boston before she was caught in Lexington (1775)
Indian Superintendants and Deputies. The Gage papers contain a large body of letters and documents relating to Indian Superintendents Sir William Johnson of the Northern District and John Stuart of the Southern District. Gage, who supervised the Indian Departments, received extensive communications documenting all aspects of Indian affairs, including negotiations and treaties, accounts for gifts, trade regulations, captives, and information on violent civil and military conflicts with the Native Americans. Letters include particularly extensive documentation on the New York and Canadian Indians, and on interactions at Detroit, Fort Stanwix, Nova Scotia, and the frontier areas of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, Georgia, and East and West Florida. In addition to having direct lines of communication with Johnson and Stuart, Gage received material from subordinate officials, including Colonel Guy Johnson (who took over his father Sir William Johnson's responsibilities after his death), and Indian agents Captain Daniel Claus, Edward Cole at Illinois, Colonel George Croghan, Major Joseph Gorman, Montaut de Montereau, Benjamin Roberts at Michilimackinac, and Lieutenant John Thomas in Mississippi. Agents dealt closely with the colonial governments and often described the actions and motives of the legislature and the governor, and the Indians' responses. Throughout the collection, particularly in the late 1760s and early 1770s, Gage dealt with a constant stream of reports of murders of British frontier settlers and Native Americans. Prominent tribes included the Arkansas, Carib, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Delaware, Iroquois (Five/Six Nations: Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora), Kaskaskia, Kickapoo, Miami, Mingo, Ojibwa (Chippewa), Ottawa, Potawatomi, Shawnee, and Wyandots. For a comprehensive list of Native American materials search the Subject Index.
- Congress at Niagara resulting in a treaty with Western Indians (1764)
- Conflicts and treaties with Chief Pontiac, including Pontiac's Rebellion (1763-1769)
- Negotiations at Fort Pitt and the Congress of Fort Chartres with the Shawnees, Delaware, Huron, and Six Nations of the Iroquois (1766)
- Unsuccessful efforts by the British government to remove colonial settlers from the Redstone Creek and Cheat River region near Fort Pitt (1767)
- Congress of Fort Stanwix (1768)
- The First Carib war on St. Vincent's Island (1772)
Merchants, Contractors, and Civilians. Also important are communications with merchants and contractors. Gage relied heavily on private contractors to provision the army and to build and maintain the military's forts and ships. Additionally, Gage received letters from colonial citizens, usually concerning business matters or legal proceedings. Prominent citizens, merchants and shipping companies included George Allsopp; Baynton, Wharton, & Morgan; David Chamier; Delancy and Watts; Volkert Van Dow; Franks, Inglis, & Barclay; John Hancock, Thomas Hancock, Plumstead and Franks; Philip Schuyler, Edward Shippen, George Townshend, and Nathaniel Wheelwright. Of note is an extended legal battle over the assault of merchant Thomas Walker by citizens of Montréal (1766-1767).
The Indian Congresses and Treaties subseries (15 items) contains reports, proceedings, treaties, negotiations, and memorials related to Indian Affairs in the Southern District and on the Illinois frontier. The bulk of the treaties and Indian-related documents are ordered throughout the American Series. See the Subject Index for an itemized list of this subseries.
The Journals and Reports subseries (24 items) is a collection of volumes and documents concerning the administration of the British Army in America. Several items describe the condition of forts and waterways on the southern and western frontiers, while others are expense and provision reports. Of note are John Wilkins' "Journal of Transactions and Presents Given to Indians from 23 December 1768 to 1772," and a "Journal of Events at Fort Edward Augustus," which describes abandoning the fort during Pontiac's rebellion. See the Subject Index for an itemized list of this subseries.
The Proclamations and Documents subseries (39 items) has official proclamations, memorials, articles from treaties, extracts from parliamentary acts, official court depositions, and various financial and legal certifications. Many of the items in this series are undated. See the Subject Index for an itemized list of this subseries.
The Broadsides subseries (14 items) contains many of the collection's printed broadsides. Half of the items are related to revolutionary activities in Boston, including a broadside that recounts the Battle of Bunker Hill (June 26, 1775). See the Subject Index for an itemized list of this subseries.
The Newspapers and Clippings subseries (12 items) is comprised of fragments of newspapers from Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina from 1773 and 1774. See the Subject Index for an itemized list of this subseries.
The Pay Lists of British Army Officers subseries (31 items) consists of officer pay lists spanning 1759-1775. The lists contain officer's names, regiments, ranks, days served, and amounts owed for the pay period.
The Letter Books and Account Books Series (17 items) contains four of Gage's official letter books from 1759 to 1763, 12 account books from 1763-1773, and a list of bills spanning 1769-1773.
The letter books contain copies of official communications from Gage to other military outposts in North America and to officials in London. These volumes hold only outgoing letters. The first volume covers "Winter Quarters" in Albany, from January 20 to April 27, 1759 (69 pages), and from December 14, 1759 to May 5, 1761 (119 pages). The second volume concerns Gage's time at Fort Oswego from August 19 to November 20, 1759 (78 pages). The third and fourth letter books contain letters from his time as military governor of Montréal, and consist largely of letters written to other northern military forts and to Commander-in-Chief Jeffrey Amherst. The third volume spans August 21, 1761-December 23, 1762 (92 pages), and the fourth January 15-October 24, 1763 (61 pages).
The Account Books group consists of 12 account books documenting expenses for Transport Services, Incidental Expenses, Secretary's Office, Engineers Department, Naval Department on the Lakes, Indian Department Southern District, Indian Department Northern District, Quartermaster General's Department Albany and New York, Commissary General's Department, Deputy Paymaster General, Crown Account, Warrants, Cash and Contra, Commission of the Treasury, Secretary of War, and Contingent and Extraordinary Expenses from forts throughout North America.
- Account Book 1 (14 pages) 1763-1766
- Account Book 2 (31 pages) 1763-1766
- Account Book 3 (21 pages) 1763-1769
- Account Book 4 (33 pages) 1765-1766
- Account Book 5 (24 pages) 1765-1768
- Account Book 6 (12 pages) 1766-1767
- Account Book 7 (36 pages) 1766-1769
- Account Book 8 (42 pages) 1767-1770
- Account Book 9 (28 pages) 1770-1773
- Account Book 10 (43 pages) 1770-1773
- Account Book 11 (39 pages) 1767-1773
- Account Book 12 (39 pages) 1767-1773
This series also contains a loose list of bills "Drawn by General Gates" on behalf of the officers under him in North America (1769-1773). The categories are "By Whom Drawn," Number of Bills, In Whose Favor, Sums Drawn for (New York Currency), Dates of Acceptance, and Sums Paid.
The Thomas Gage Warrants Series (10 linear feet), a collection of additional administrative and financial records spanning 1763 to 1775, are described in a separate finding aid entitled Thomas Gage warrants. The warrants document payment of the army's departmental salaries and expenses, and represent a large source of information relating to hospitals, victualling, frontier expeditions, the building and repair of fortifications and barracks, transportation of troops and stores, wages for civilian workers, and disbursements to the Indians.
The Maps Series (87 manuscript maps) includes maps on the exploration, settlement, and fortification of the interior of British North America before the Revolution. They cover the years from 1755 to 1775 and were created for the British authorities. The maps portray rivers, lakes, and waterways throughout the continent, the coastlines and ports along the Atlantic, fortifications, and roads and routes between forts and cities. Of note are 12 maps of the Southern District and of the Mississippi River, created by Captain Philip Pittman. These maps are located in the Clements Library's Map Division - search the University of Michigan catalog for "Gage Maps."
- The Correspondence Inventory lists the bulk of the collection's contributors and inventories each item sent or received from them to Gage.
- The Subject Index provides access to events, people, places, and topics discussed in the collection. The index also contains a list of contributors, a list of the collection's maps, and an itemized list of volumes 137-139 of the American series.
- The Volume Descriptions provide brief overviews of the content of each volume in the collection.
70 linear feet
The Thomas Leyland Company account books are two volumes of records for the slave ships Hannah (1789-90) and Jenny (1792-1793), which made trips from Liverpool to Africa, then across the Atlantic to Jamaica and other West Indian Islands. These record the goods (sugar, food, arms, and cloth) and slaves sold in each port, and contain details on seamen's wages and instructions to ship captains for the treatment of slaves.
The first volume documents the 2nd voyage of the Ship Hannah, captained by Charles Wilson (39 pages). The ship sailed from Liverpool on July 3, 1789, to the Calabar River in Africa (present day Nigeria), then to Barbadoes; Dominica; and Kingston, Jamaica; and finally back to Liverpool in December 1790.
The account book opens with directions to the captain, instructing him on the ship's itinerary and what to sell and purchase on the journey. The note also cautioned the captain to treat his crew with humanity and to show the "utmost tenderness to the Negroes" (page 1). The next item is the shipment invoice, which includes food (white barley, corn, rice, peas, beans, beef, salt, and bread), liquor (brandy, port, sherry), china, fabric and clothing (hats, trousers, jackets, silk, cotton, romal and photaes), arms (gunpowder, muskets, French guns, and knives), and purchased items including tobacco, wine, rum, sugar, raisins, cotton, sailcloth, iron, and gunpowder (pages 5-13). Page 15 contains a list of the 30 officers and seamen on board the Hannah, with their names, rank or profession, wages per month, and total pay. Professions included master, mate, carpenter, cooper, steward, surgeon, cook, and seaman. Pages 16-20 contain lists of trader's names along with notes on disbursements and what they purchased. Pages 22-24 cover accounts for the 294 slaves sold at Kingston, Jamaica, with details on the purchasers, prices, and types of slaves sold (privileged men, privileged women, cargo men, cargo women, men boys, women girls, boys, and girls). Finally, pages 25-32 provide information about the total amount of sugar purchased in Jamaica for Thomas Leyland, and the accounts of goods sold to various traders in the West Indies, including William Daggers of Kingston, Jamaica; Barton and Gibbald of Barbados; and Neilson and Heathcote of Dominica.
The second volume documents the first voyage of the Ship Jenny, captained by William Stringer (29 pages). The Jenny left Liverpool on November 27, 1792, and arrived at the Zaire River (Congo) off the coast of Angola on February 18, 1793. They arrived at the port town of Emboma (today Boma, Kongo Central) on February 23, 1793, then at Barbadoes (May 6, 1793), St. Vincent (May 7, 1793), Grenada (May 8, 1793), and finally Kingston, Jamaica (May 18, 1793).
The record keeping for both volumes is similar. The account book opens with an itinerary of the trade mission and instructions for the captain on selling and purchasing cargo (pages 1-3). Following that are the invoice for goods shipped and purchased (page 5-14), a list of the 29 officers and seamen on board (page 15), tradesmen's notes and disbursements (pages 16-20), sales for 250 slaves (pages 21-23), and accounts with Thomas Leyland, who funded the expedition (pages 24-29).