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Brownell family papers, 1823-1969 (majority within 1850-1940)

7.5 linear feet

The Brownell family papers contain correspondence, diaries, documents, writings, illustrations, and other materials documenting the family's experiences from the 1820s into the 1960s.

The Brownell family papers contain correspondence, diaries, documents, writings, illustrations, and other materials documenting the family's experiences from the 1820s into the 1960s.

The Correspondence Series includes letters written to and by the Brownell family, primarily in Connecticut, Rhode Island, Louisiana, New York City, Cuba, and France between 1823 and 1969, with the bulk dating from the 1850s to 1940s.

Approximately 296 letters are letters to Charles Brownell and his wife Henrietta [Nettie] from Charles' mother, Lucia [Mummy], and his three brothers, Edward [Ned], Henry, and Clarence, often written with notes added and sent on as a "round robin" correspondence which ended with Charles.

The collection contains over 100 letters written by Ned Brownell, with additional notes in other family members' letters. His earliest letters start when he is finishing medical school in New Orleans and continue with his move to rural Louisiana, near Alexandria and Plaisance. These are high-spirited letters with humorous pen and ink drawings of his adventures chasing wild horses (January 29, 1855); mishaps while duck and geese hunting at Lake Catahoula (November 12, 1855; November 10, 1856); and futile attempts to flag down a river steamer (January 29, 1855). But his letters also deal with the problems involved in setting up a medical practice at the same time he, a Northerner, is trying his hand at cotton cultivation. He married a southern woman of French descent whose father was a slave owner (19 slaves in 1850 and 30 in 1860). Ned describes bringing up his bilingual children in a culture very different from his own. The marriage s was troubled, and by 1858, he sold out his cotton interests and was considering his brother Clarence's offer to take over Clarence's practice in East Hartford, Connecticut. He moved to Cloutierville, Louisiana, for a while. Two letters of introduction written in 1864 (April 4 and April 25) refer to his allegiance to the Union. By June of 1866, he was involved in legal separation hearings and working with his brothers on a testimony about his wife's "violent scenes and words.” Both during his practice in Louisiana and later in Rhode Island, his letters describe his patients and treatments (cotton gin accident resulting in amputation of an enslaved person's arm - October 26, 1857; treating yellow fever and typhoid - October 14, 1853 and January 12, 1855). He also suggests treatments for family members with diphtheria (n.d. November 8), excessive menstrual bleeding (December 17, 1866), prolapsed uterus after childbirth (February 8, [1867]), and a prescription for a cholera prevention pill (n.d. September 27). He made a trip to Florida with his dying brother Henry in 1871-1872, in the hopes that the warmer climate might make Henry feel more comfortable.

Only a handful of letters and notes are from Clarence Brownell. Seven of these are affectionate letters to his friend Henrietta Angell [Pierce] [Brownell], before and during her first unhappy marriage. The rest of his letters are to his family and include descriptions of his 1861 visit to Ned and family in Cloutierville, his excitement and satisfaction in building a boat in his workshop, and playing chess by mail with brother Charles. Another letter describes his travels in Egypt. He went by horseback from Alexandria to Cairo, 130 miles across the Delta. A map he drew while with the Pethernick Expedition on the White Nile was sent home posthumously ([May 12], 1862). On it he notes their location by date and the location of certain flora and fauna.

Over 100 letters and notes are from Lucia D. Brownell ("Mummy"), most of them dealing with local affairs, real estate arrangements, and concerns for her sons' health. Several of these letters mention mediums and the spirit world. After the death of her son Clarence in Egypt, Lucia, Ned, and Henry become interested in reports of mediums and "spiritual pictures.” One item is a copy of a letter that a medium claimed was dictated to him by Clarence's ghost. Ned describes watching a medium who claimed to see "words in fiery letters in the illuminated smoke of my cigar when I puffed" [13 May]. Lucia made several visits to a medium (November- December 1862), ending when the medium was proved a fake.

Correspondence with Henry H. Brownell is well represented. The letters mostly come from Hartford, Connecticut, but letters from Bristol, Rhode Island, are also included. He describes visiting Ned and his family in Louisiana in the 1850s, and accompanying Ned on three of his annual duck and geese hunting expeditions to Lake Catahoula. He seems to have acted as agent for the sale of his brother Charles' paintings when Charles was away in Cuba or Europe - "two little Charter Oaks for $20." [n.d. December 26]. Other letters deal with business matters concerning an inheritance from his grandfather De Wolf involving real estate that he and Charles shared, but unequally. These letters contain little mention of Henry's own writing of poetry and the publication of his books. Two copies of letters to Henry written by Oliver Wendell Holmes praising his work are included [January 13 and February 6, 1865]. A typed copy of a letter from Ernest H. Brownell, dated April 6, 1935, lists letters written by Holmes to Henry H. Brownell. Correspondence to Charles DeWolf Brownell represent his work to honor and publish his brother's writings after his death [late 1880s].

Another part of the Brownell Papers consists of three batches of letters from abroad - the Procter Wright letters from Europe, the Charles and Nettie Brownell letters from Europe, and the Don Martin Ibarra letters from Cuba and Spain. Procter Wright wrote 25 letters (1876-1884) to Mrs. Charles Brownell (Nettie) from Italy, France, Austria, Switzerland, and Germany. He gives good descriptions of his walking and climbing tours as well as his visits to various cities. A few letters discuss religion, including matters of purgatory [April 28, 1880] and creation or Darwinisn [August 18, 1883]. Wright also mentions the death of the artist Jean Louis Hamon, and the auction of his things [July 26, 1876, December 28, 1876]. He reminds Henrietta how much he treasures Charles' painting of "Witches' Cork Tree" that the Brownell's had given him some years earlier [April 9, 1883].

The twenty letters written by Charles and Nettie in Europe (1872-1874) to family at home talk of their travels, their children, and anything unusual that catches their eye - "Creche" day care system in France [August 20, 1873] or a trip to the "Crystal Palace" in London [August 29, 1873]. Charles made small pen and ink drawings on three of the letters - a bird on a branch [July 28, 1872], an Egyptian "cartouche" [May 6, 1873], and a dental molar [March 27, 1874]. Three other letterheads have hand tinted designs - an animal head [August 9, 1872], a ship [May 8, 1874], and boys on a ship's mast [May 13, 1874]. Two letterheads have landscape lithographs by Henry Besley - "St. Michael's Mount from Lower Tremenheere" [August 20, 1873] , "Penzance from Guvul" and "St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall" [August 22, 1873].

The Don Martin Ibarra letters (1855-1872) consist of 86 letters written in Spanish to Charles Brownell. They are mainly from Cuba, but the last several are from Barcelona, Spain. They are warm letters to a good friend and "compadre,” but also contain figures on the production of sugar from at least two "ingenios" or sugar mills near the Cardenas area of Cuba.

A small group of 17 letters from the poet Lucy Larcom (1862-1870, n.d.) were written to Henrietta Angell Pierce Brownell [Mrs. Charles Brownell], and cover the years of Larcom's decision to stop teaching school and to concentrate her energy on her own writing. Her September 19, 1868, letter mentions proofreading a volume for publication, "my cricket-chirpings of verse.”

Eight letters from Henrietta S. Dana (1861-1863) in New Haven, Connecticut, to Henrietta A. Pierce [Brownell] mention Mrs. Dana helping her famous Yale professor husband by taking dictation from him for his most recent book, Manuel of Geology [April 7, 1862]. Her letters also describe the death of two of their children from diphtheria, and her safely nursing one other child through it [December 21, 1861].

Twenty-five letters from Esther Pierce to her divorced and remarried mother, Henrietta Brownell, were written from 1875-1877, when Esther was 14-16 years old and living with her father, Dr. George Pierce, in Providence. Several years earlier, she had been living with her mother and her step-father, Charles Brownell, and had accompanied them on their trip to Europe. Her nickname was "Kit,” and she is frequently mentioned in her mother's letters. The letters from Esther [Kit] tell of a trip to Canada, local people and visits, and her new clothes, sometimes with accompanying pen and ink drawings. Two letters include swatches of fabric [February 6, 1876, and April 23, 1876].

More correspondence to and from the Brownells can be found in the Scrapbook Pages series and the Genealogical Notes and Copies series.

Beginning in the 1880s, the correspondence focuses more on Annie May Angell, who would marry Ernest Henry Brownell in 1891, and her family. Virginia McLain (1867-1953), who lived in the Bahamas as the daughter of the United States Consul Thomas J. McClain, was a frequent correspondent into the 1890s. One letter dated October 11, 1887, includes a carte-de-visite of Virginia. Other letters in the 1880s relate to Charles DeWolf Brownell's efforts to publish his brother Henry Howard Brownell's poetry. Several letters from 1882 and 1883 relate to Charles DeWolf Brownell, his work on the Charter Oak, and his paintings. One letter by Oliver Wendell Holmes, dated February 11, 1883, indicates one of Charles' paintings was displayed in his library.

Correspondence from the 1890s-1910s centers around Annie May and Ernest Brownell, as well as their family circle and acquaintances. Letters written by Bertha Angell to Lewis Kalloch are also well represented in this period. Ernest's letters provide details about May and Ernest's children and marriage, as well as Ernest's work as a Civil Engineer in the United States Navy. Many of his early letters are addressed from the Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Navy Yard. Ernest was also stationed in the Philippines and Bremerton, Washington.

Around 1905 Ernest Brownell became involved with the Brownell Building in Providence, Rhode Island, which the brothers inherited, and in the following years corresponded with his brothers Carl and Edward about various matters relating to family properties. Several letters from 1912 refer to a large fire at the Brownell Building.

Two items from August 1915 were sent to the family of John K. Rathbone relating to the Galveston Hurricane.

Correspondence between Dorothea DeWolf Brownell and Clifford Kyler Rathbone begins around 1918. Clifford Rathbone's letters also detail his career in construction. Material from the 1920s relates to family finances and handling of Kalloch estate matters. By the 1930s letters by Dorinda Rathbone begin appearing, as well as more letters from the Rathbone family, including Myrtle Rathbone of Denton, Texas, and Rosalie Rathbone.

Correspondence from 1942-1943 reflects Clifford Rathbone's unsuccessful efforts to join the military, and Henry B. Rathbone's preparation for the U.S. Naval Academy entrance exams. Following Clifford Rathbone's death in March of 1944, the collection includes many condolence letters. The bulk of the correspondence post-1945 is written to Dorinda Rathbone.

The Bundled Correspondence Sub-series is comprised of letters arranged by later descendants of the family. The first bundle of seven letters spans from December 20, 1820, to January 29, 1825, relating to Pardon and Lucia Brownell's inheritance from the estate of Lucia's father Charles DeWolf. It includes notes by Dorothea DeWolf Brownell Rathbone. The second bundle includes 16 letters written to Pardon Brownell enclosed in Florence Brownell's January 19, 1931, letter to Dorothea Rathbone, spanning from March 1825 to December 1835 and primarily concern affairs with a DeWolf family property. One letter from Lucia DeWolf Brownell, dated June 11-13, 1827, is also included. The third bundle consists of 26 letters written from Ernest Brownell to his wife Annie May Angell Brownell from 1904 to 1940, along with a blank postcard and a photograph, likely of Ernest and Annie May, with the inscription "In Cuba on The Honeymoon, 1891" written on the verso. The letters commemorate their wedding anniversary, and were written while Ernest was serving in the Navy in Portsmouth, New Hampshire; Cavite, Philippines; Bremerton, Washington; Pensacola, Florida; Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; and Newport, Rhode Island. The fourth bundle consists of two letters sent by John T. Lewis, Jr., to Dorothea Rathbone in the mid-1960s, enclosing two letters by H. M. K. Brownell from 1881 and 1883, respectively.

TheDiaries and Notebooks Series includes the following:

  • Francis DeWolf Brownell Penmanship Exercise Book, ca. 1833
  • "The Lay of the Cuisinier. A Poem; by the Cook of the Enterprise," 1840. Dedicated to Henry Howard Brownell.
  • Nettie K. Angell 1856 Diary Cover, with miscellaneous clipping and notes
  • Spanish Notebook, 1859
  • Unsigned Diary, 1863, written by a mother. It includes details on family events and social visits, particularly concerning children Ethie [Esther b. 1860] and Harry [b. 1863], indicating the author may be Henrietta Knowlton Angell (1837-1897), who bore Esther H. Pierce (b. 1860) and Henry A. Pierce (1863-1867) during her first marriage to George Pierce. Sections have been cut out of pages. A poem by H. H. Brownell is pasted on the back inside cover.
  • Bundle of miscellaneous disbound diary pages and miscellanea from 1858, 1861-1863, 1879, 1886, 1888-1893, and 1895, with occasional clippings
  • Ernest H. Brownell, "Our Expedition to Falkner's Island, Block Island, and Cuttyhunk," July 1884
  • Bertha Angell, 1886 student notebook, Apgar's Plant Analysis
  • Clifford K. Rathbone disbound diary pages, 1919
  • Construction journal pages, 1922
  • Illustration and writing notebook, undated. Hand-painted drawings of women, a man, and flowers are included, along with literary selections and sayings.

The Chronological Documents and Financial Records sub-series spans from 1824 to 1969 (bulk 1824-1920), documenting the legal, financial, and business affairs of the interrelated Brownell, Angell, and Rathbone families. Items include deeds, bills and receipts, insurance policies, bank and tax records, accounts, construction documents, leases, estate documents, and more. A significant portion of the documents relate to the real estate work of Ernest Brownell, Annie May Brownell, John Angell, and Bertha Angell (later Kalloch) in Providence, Rhode Island.

The Bundled Documents and Financial Records sub-series includes:

  • Bundle 1: Angell family land documents, 1799-1839
  • Bundle 2: John Angell wallet and receipts, 1829-1841
  • Bundle 3: Angell estate documents, 1893-1904
  • Bundle 4: Brownell estate documents, 1908-1942
  • Bundle 5: Clifford K. Rathbone concrete pile documents, ca. 1920s
  • Bundle 6: Clifford K. Rathbone wallet, 1941-1944

The Ledgers sub-series includes:

  • Partial estate inventory, ca. 1841
  • Nancy Angell account book, 1845-1856
  • Nancy Angell rent account book, 1863-1903
  • John A. Angell and Nancy Angell income taxes, 1867-1871
  • John A. Angell estate accounts, 1877-1893
  • [Annie May Angell and Bertha Angell?] account book, 1884-1891
  • Ernest H. Brownell cash book, 1890-1910
  • Annie May Angell Brownell cash book, 1892-1904
  • Annie May Angell Brownell check books, 1892-1893
  • Bertha Angell account book, 1896-1898, and 1908
  • Annie May Angell Brownell account book, 1896-1905 and 1912-1915
  • Blank bank notebook, Undated

The Writings series spans from 1811 to 1958 and includes poetry by Lucia Emilia DeWolf Brownell, a lecture by Henry Howard Brownell, school work of Ernest H. Brownell, poetry by Annie May Angell Brownell (some with painted illustrations), and miscellaneous other items.

The Drawings and Illustrations series includes miscellaneous sketches and paintings, two volumes of Henry B. Rathbone's "History Cartoons," one volume of collected work of Emma DeWolf Brownell, and a child's illustrated notebook. Other illustrations and paintings appear throughout other series in the collection, particularly the Correspondence series and Writings series.

The Scrapbook Pages series consists of loose pages compiled by Dorothea Brownell Rathbone, collecting together letters, clippings, documents, photographs, and notes. Material dates from the 1850s into the 1940s. Correspondents represented include Edward R. Brownell, Henrietta Knowlton Angell Brownell, Ernest Henry Brownell, John Wardwell Angell, Edward I. Brownell, Charles DeWolf Brownell, Carl DeWolf Brownell, S. Edward Paschall, Bertha Angell. Photographs of people feature: Ernest Henry Brownell, Clarence Brownell, Charles Henry Brownell, Clifford K. Rathbone, Charles DeWolf Brownell, Douglass DeWolf, John Wardwell Angell, and Bertha Angell Kalloch. Ernest Henry Brownell features heavily in the scrapbook, including information on his education, work, and personal life. Dorothea Rathbone appears to have copied diary entries from October 1884 to March 1887, with manuscript and printed materials pasted in to it.

The Photograph series includes cartes de visite of James T. Fields, Annie Fields, and a gun crew aboard the Hartford. A signed photograph of Oliver Wendell Holmes is addressed to Henry H. Brownell. Gem tintypes of Ada Perkins Kerby, Rachel Perkins, and Charles Townley are also present. Miscellaneous photos include snapshots of the U.S.S. Hartford, a bridge, a construction project, a painted portrait of Betsy Angell, and a partial photograph of figures in a vehicle. A series of eight photographs and negatives depict gravestones. Photographs also appear elsewhere in the collection, principally the correspondence series and scrapbook pages series.

The Ephemera series consists of tickets, calling cards, business cards, a bank exchange note, and a wrapper.

The Printed Materials series includes newspaper pages and clippings, a 1785 almanac, poetry, a disbound copy of Thomas Church's The History of the Indian Wars in New England (New York, 1881), miscellaneous material related to education, one piece of sheet music, a magazine, a program, and a leaflet.

The Genealogical Notes and Copies series consists of notes regarding family history and letters. The J. A. Brownell sub-series includes over 200 hand-written copies made by Dorothea Brownell Rathbone of letters in the possession of J. A. Brownell. A note in the subseries indicates use of these materials requires the permission of J. A. Brownell. The material dates from 1836-1894 (bulk 1836-1850) and principally consists of letters addressed to or written by Henry H. Brownell, including a sizeable number written by Henry H. Brownell to Charles DeWolf Brownell and Lucia DeWolf Brownell. The Miscellaneous Notes and Copies sub-series includes handwritten copies and photocopies of letters, documents, and genealogical information. It includes copies of three letters from Henry David Thoreau to Clarence Brownell dated 1859 to 1861, as well as copies of several of Henry H. Brownell's poems.

The Miscellaneous series consists of scraps, notes, blank paper, and clippings.

The Realia series includes the following items:

  • A peg wooden doll with hand-made clothes and painted face, possibly in the style of the Hitty doll in Rachel Field's Hitty: Her First Hundred Years (New York: MacMillan Company, 1929)
  • A doll with a dress and bonnet, leather shoes, and painted canvas face
  • Two white doll shifts with smocking enclosed in an envelope labelled "Dolls dresses by RVRC for Dorinda" [Rosalie V. Rathbone Craft]
  • A handmade infant's nightgown enclosed in an envelope labelled "Sample of handiwork of DBR - nightgown made for D & used by D & H"
  • Two ribbons
  • Nine skeins of silk thread wrapped in paper with the following note: "Raised in our cocoonery - E. Hartford. Spun by C. D. W. B. at the mill in West Hartford"
  • A gray Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1920 wallet, possibly owned by Dorothea Rathbone who graduated from the school in that year
  • A shard of wood with a note, "Slivers from U.S.S. Hartford," accompanied by a disbound illustration of the ship
  • A metal Waldorf Astoria cocktail pick


Demas Lindley Sears papers, 1916-1983 (majority within 1942-1946)

1.5 linear feet

This collection is made up of 158 letters, 8 speeches and writings, 36 documents, 25 ephemeral items and currency, 5 pamphlets or booklets, 43 newspaper clippings, 26 lithographs, and 99 photographs by or related to Lieutenant Colonel Demas Lindley Sears. The bulk of the collection pertains to his service as a mid-level intelligence officer in the U.S. Army's 37th Infantry Division during World War II. A small portion of the collection reflects his service in the 8th Ohio Infantry Regiment during the Punitive Expedition of 1916 and in the First U.S. Cavalry during World War I.

This collection is made up of 158 letters, 8 speeches and writings, 36 documents, 25 ephemeral items and currency, 5 pamphlets or booklets, 43 newspaper clippings, 26 lithographs, and 99 photographs by or related to Lieutenant Colonel Demas Lindley Sears. The bulk of the collection pertains to his service as a mid-level intelligence officer in the U.S. Army's 37th Infantry Division during World War II. A small portion of the collection reflects his service in the 8th Ohio Infantry Regiment during the Punitive Expedition of 1916 and in the First U.S. Cavalry during World War I.

The Correspondence begins with a telegram and four letters respecting the death of Demas and Lura Sears's child in August 1918. The remainder of the correspondence is made up of original and contemporary carbon copies of letters by Demas L. Sears between 1942 and 1946. The bulk of one hundred and forty three letters are personal letters from Demas "Pop" to his wife Lura "Mother" and daughter Frances "Baby," or from Demas to others, between January 1944 and December 1945.

Lt. Col. Sears was an engaging writer and he described everyday experiences with thoughtful attention to detail. Within the restrictive confines of military censorship, he was unable to share what he called "real news," but wrote about his living quarters, food, plans for his return home, requests for letters and photographs, and generally about life in the South Pacific. He sent his wife souvenirs, such as a Japanese rifle and an entrenching shovel. His descriptions of combat and war atrocities are vivid (see, for example, his letters from late February 1945, as the 37th fought to capture Manila).

Between April 2 and July 4, 1943, Demas Sears wrote a 46-page letter to his wife in a diary-like form. He kept the letter as an uncensored account of his time on the Fiji Islands and Guadalcanal (before departing for New Georgia). It is accompanied by a typescript of the letter, titled "From the Fiji Islands to Guadalcanal with the 37th Division."

Between March 8 and September 14, 1945, Demas also composed 10 diary-like letters, producing multiple carbon copies for Lura to distribute to particular family members. In the margins, Demas identified (by hand) March 8 and September 14 as the first and last of these "family bulletins," and provided his wife with lists of intended recipients.

A series of Writings and Speeches include one war date essay and eight postwar speeches. From the Solomon Islands after November 14, 1942, he reflected thoughtfully on the war as a "young man's war" (he was able to identify a total of 22 men out of 14,000 who had served in World War I) and the importance of maintaining U.S. military strength in peacetime. His speeches relate to his war experiences and his audiences included a Congregational Church Men's Club, a Memorial Day gathering at Bucyrus, an American Legion group, and others.

The collection's 36 Documents, 1917-1946 (bulk 1942-1946), include certificates and orders related to Demas Sears's commendations and awards; training materials; intelligence (G-2 Reports, copies of a captured and translated Japanese Sergeant's diary, summaries of the interrogations of General Tomoyuki Yamashita, a Japanese map of the Pacific, etc.), and other similar papers.

Seventy-one Printed Items include ephemera and currency, booklets and pamphlets, and newspaper clippings. Among the ephemeral items are three unique World War I-era holiday menus; a menu for a 1945 banquet in honor of Maj. Gen. Robert S. Beightler; admission and transport tickets; Japanese currency; two World War I-era record of service posters, and a manuscript note in Japanese. The two posters are located in the Graphics Division, and more information can be found in the Separated Materials section. The five booklets and pamphlets are each listed in the box and folder listing below. Forty-three newspaper clippings pertain to Lt. Col. Sears's World War II service.

The printed items also include 26 lithographs of pencil sketches by Edward "E. J." Dollriehs of the headquarters battery of the 37th Division. His illustrations include buildings, airfields, military headquarters, portraits, and the wreckage of Japanese planes. Dollriehs identified each with captions; most of the images are from the Luzon provinces of Bulacan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, and Tarlac.

The Sears papers contain 99 Photographs. Fifteen images from the period of Sears's service in World War I include two panoramic photographs of the First Cavalry Regiment, one panoramic photograph of the headquarters staff of the 37th Division, and 12 snapshots and portraits. The collection also contains 84 photographs from Sears's World War II service in the Pacific, including individual and group portraits, snapshots depicting camp life; a series of aerial snapshots taken from a C-47 on a leaflet-dropping mission over the Philippine Islands; five photographs of a Kava Ceremony in the Fiji Islands; and a selection of confidential Signal Corps photographs.


Eagleswood Academy photograph album, 1863-ca. 1890

1 volume

The Eagleswood Academy album is a 50 page cartes de visite album given to Theodore Weld by his former students at Eagleswood Academy in Perth Amboy, New Jersey on November 23, 1863. The 24 x 31 cm album has a brown leather cover, entitled "Theodore D. Weld" in gilt inlay. The album contains 194 photographs the majority of which are cartes de visite with some tintypes and gem tintypes interspersed. All of the photographs in the album are studio portraits. Most are presumably former students of Eagleswood Academy. Many of the individuals in the album are unidentified. Four loose items are also present in the album: an 1895 lithograph portrait of John Adams; a calling card for Mrs. Silas F. Overton; a calling card for a Miss Moseley; and a list of names, presumably of people within the album, that seems to have been created at a later date, presumably by Weld's daughter Sarah Grimké Weld Hamilton.

The Eagleswood Academy photograph album consists of a single bound volume of carte de visite photographs tucked into the pages along with some gem tintypes, one of which is encased. The album contains slots for four different photographs on each page. There are 169 cartes de visite in the album, all of them studio portraits of either individuals or small groups. There are also a few instances where gem tintypes are placed within the same slot as a carte de visite.

The album appears to have been gifted to Theodore Weld in 1863 from his former students. While many of the photographs were likely present in the album at that time, it appears that other photographs were added through the 1870s and possibly later. The photographs are mostly of Weld's former students, though some are individuals who appear to have no explicit connection with the school.

Enclosed in the album is a folded sheet of paper containing a list of names. Individuals on this list partially correspond to the physical order within the album. The list appears to have been created during the late 1860's and amended up until approximately 1877. Asterisks seem to indicate that the person had passed away, though in some cases the individuals without asterisks on the list had been dead for years prior. It appears that no new entries were added after 1877. The authorship of the list is uncertain, but appears to have been Sarah Grimké Weld Hamilton.

In 1886 Theodore Weld began reaching out to former students for additional photographs to put together in an album. Some of the photographs in this album may come from this period. A January 1, 1899 letter from Sarah Hamilton to her daughter mentions that she received her father's old school album with many pictures of her old classmates and their spouses and children. From this statement it appears that not all the people in the album necessarily went to or taught at Eagleswood.

Three other loose items are also present in the album: an 1895 lithograph portrait of John Adams, a calling card for Mrs. Silas F. Overton, and a calling card for a Miss Moseley.

Some of the photographs within the album have names written on the back, while others offer no clues as to who the person is. Through other sources some of the unnamed individuals in the album have been tentatively identified.

One interesting item of note is the photograph in slot #196 of the album, which has portraits taken many years apart of the same (unidentified) individual on both the front and back of the paper mount.

Other items of note include:
  • A portrait of Charles Burleigh Purvis, African-American doctor and cofounder of Howard Medical School. (slot #53)
  • A portrait of Bayard Wilkeson in Civil War uniform. Wilkeson died aged 19 at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863. (slot #85)
  • A portrait of Ellen Wright Garrison, daughter of Martha Coffin Wright and niece of Lucretia Coffin Mott, the famed women's-rights activists who organized the 1848 Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, NY. (slot #32)

The Eagleswood album contains penciled inscriptions beneath the various photographs, often times recording the name of the photographer as well as any other information written on the back of the paper mount of the photograph. Researchers should be aware that this information was added by a former member of staff and numerous errors are present. For conservation reasons these inscriptions have not been erased.

Researchers should refer to the following indices for more accurate information on identified individuals, photographers, and inscriptions within the Eagleswood album:
  • Photographer Index, containing the names of all the photographers in the album as well as any inscriptions handwritten on the photographs.
  • Individuals Index, containing the names of all the identified, and tentatively identified individuals who have portraits present in the album.


Edward Williams Clay Watercolors, Scrapbook Fragments, and Silhouettes, 1816-1853 (majority within 1820-1830)

28 watercolors, 1 drawing book, 37 scrapbook fragments, 11 silhouettes

The Edward Williams Clay watercolors, scrapbook fragments and silhouettes consist of 28 original watercolor drawings created by Edward Williams Clay, a drawing book with art by Clay and James Pemberton Morris, 37 fragments of a scrapbook believed to have been compiled by Clay, and 11 cut paper silhouettes. The bulk of materials are watercolors by Clay of Europeans and Americans abroad from 1825-1828, and satirical, genre, and theatrical prints by Clay and others.

The Edward Williams Clay watercolors, scrapbook fragments and silhouettes consist of 28 original watercolor drawings created by Edward Williams Clay, a drawing book with art by Clay and James Pemberton Morris, 37 fragments of a scrapbook believed to have been compiled by Clay, and 11 cut paper silhouettes. The bulk of materials are watercolors by Clay of Europeans and Americans abroad from 1825-1828, and satirical, genre, and theatrical prints by Clay and others.

In 2002, the Clements Library became aware of a scrapbook containing an extensive collection of Edward Williams Clay prints and artwork in possession of a Virginia antique dealer. After most of the individual pages were separately sold on eBay, it became apparent that the source, John Duncan Marsh (1931-2021) of Purcellville, Virginia, was a direct descendent of Clay's sister, Mary Ann Clay Bolton (1801-1818), and the scrapbook was likely compiled by the artist himself. Given that the contents of this collection were created after the death of Mary Ann, it is presumed that they were in the custody of one of her children, although the relationship between Clay and his nephews, James Robert Bolton (1817-1890) and Edward Clay Bolton (1818-1892), is unknown. The remaining remnants of the scrapbook were purchased by the Clements Library at auction along with the watercolor sketches and family silhouettes. All of the materials present were consigned to auction from the same source except for the drawing book, which had earlier been acquired by the Clements Library from a Philadelphia book dealer.

Series I - Watercolors

The collection contains 28 original watercolor works by Edward Williams Clay. A subset within this series represents Clay's journey from the Eastern United States to France between 1826 and 1828. Several works include inscribed titles, locations, and dates. A number of sketches also bear evidence of having been previously cropped, mounted, and framed.

Of particular note is one sketch from December 1825 showing two women and a man dressed in comically large winter clothing captioned "Life in Philadelphia - (going home from a tea-fight)." This unpublished satire is the earliest appearance of content later found in Clay's notorious series Life in Philadelphia.

Clay documented his 1826 journey to France with a series of caricatures, including the following works:
  • A portrait of a well-dressed man wearing a top hat while holding spectacles and a cane with a verso caption reading "Steam boat Bellona from Brunswick to New York April 1826"
  • Two portraits of well-dressed men in top hats captioned "Thayer - on board the ship Edward [Quesnel at sea July 1826]" and "Constancio - On board the ship Edward Quesnel at sea July 1826"
  • A portrait of a sailor wearing a brimmed hat and smoking a pipe with a caption on the verso reading "[French?] Pilot - [Edward] Quesnel, off the coast of France 18 July [1826?]

Note: The steamer Bellona ran from Brunswick, New Jersey, to New York City, while the Edward Quesnel is recorded as regularly running between New York City and Marseilles, France.

Other scenes illustrate aspects of European society and street life from Clay's visit to Europe between 1826 and 1828. Many of these works depict men's and women's fashions in fine detail. As several subjects are identified by name, it is presumed that some of these depictions were likely based on real people observed by Clay.

Items of interest in this group include:
  • A portrait of two French priests captioned “Les Curés - Paris 1827”
  • A street scene captioned "Postellers & Conductors - Paris 1827" showing several uniformed drivers (including individuals wearing heavy duty protective knee-high boots insulated with straw)
  • A street scene showing five well-dressed men including man identified in a partially cutoff caption as "Count Dep..."
  • A scene depicting a masked ball with a large man at center identified as "Prince Borghese"
  • A scene showing a man in Artois bathing and reading Le Constitutionnel while being attended to by a servant
  • An equestrian scene showing riders in a park including an Arabian horse-drawn cart carrying the driver and a Mamluk groom wearing a turban
  • Two ballroom dancing scenes with couples wearing formal dress
  • A wedding portrait showing a couple identified as "Hercule de B. s." and "Mde Leverd"
  • A formal dinner scene showing a number of couples entering a dining room attended by servants
  • A comical scene showing a young woman identified as "Josphine" being introduced by an older French-speaking woman to two men, an unidentified English speaker and an apparently German individual identified as "Becker"
  • A scene showing a couple of street minstrels performing outside of an inn
  • Two portraits of unidentified well-dressed men

Items that may represent American content include sketches of a young couple dancing and a restaurant dining scene showing patrons and staff.

Ethnic caricatures include:
  • A portrait of a woman holding a qanon titled "A Turkish female slave playing on the Kanoon" dated to December 1827
  • A portrait of the Greek goddess Iris dated January 21 1828
  • A portrait of a woman captioned "A Greek Lady in her walking dress" dated to December 1827

One satirical scene titled “Compliments of the Season 1829” shows a young boy wishing merry Christmas while handing a bill from a “Mr. Smith” (presumably an American) to an irate French musician wearing a robe who appears to have been in the middle of having his face shaven by an amused servant. This scene corresponds to an 1830 lithograph published by Clay which is in the collection of the American Antiquarian Society.

Undated watercolors include:
  • A portrait of a carriage driver wearing a heavy fur-trimmed coat
  • A street scene showing two boys in patched-up clothing and wooden shoes in possession of a crank-organ and a performing monkey
  • A street scene showing a wealthy man visiting a dog grooming business

Series II - Drawing Book

The drawing book bears a retail label from a Parisian shop and an ownership inscription dated 1816 from James Pemberton Morris (1795-1834), a member of a prominent Quaker family who resided at Bolton Farm in Buck County, Pennsylvania (note: Bolton Farm is not related in any way to the family of James McLean Bolton). 1816 is also the year in which Morris was married to his wife Rosa Gardiner (?-1828) in a ceremony in Edinburgh, Scotland. Drawings of note include a sketch of a “Judge Duncan;” multiple pencil sketches of women; a watercolor drawing of a maritime scene; and rough sketches of various cartoons. Clay's signature is attached to some of the works (including a sketch of Rosa Gardiner Morris), while others are initialled "JPM." Handwriting in the drawing book matches writing on many watercolors attributed to and signed by Clay. The nature of the relationship between Morris and Clay remains unclear.

Series III - Scrapbook fragments

The collection’s 37 scrapbook fragments are the remains of a personal scrapbook that likely once belonged to Edward W. Clay. Based on conversations with the dealer John Palmer, this scrapbook had contained a significant set of over 60 prints by Clay prior to being disassembled. A majority of the remaining fragments are satirical, genre, and theatrical prints produced by other artists, some of which may have been collected by Clay during his European travels.

Scrapbook items of interest include:
  • Five lithographs by Charles Motte representing scenes from various works by Charles Perrault (Griseledis, L’Adroite Princesse, Cendrillon, Riquet a La Houppe, and Le Petit Chaperon Rouge)
  • Multiple works depicting character costumes from various theatrical productions including The Prophet, The Queen of Cyprus, Tsar and Carpenter, and The Star of Sevilla
  • Engraved depictions of a French “Infanterie de Ligne” and a Scottish “Tambour du 42e Regiment D’Highlanders,” both by Edouard Detaille
  • An engraved portrait of George Washington by H. S. Sadd
  • Two lithographs by Charles Motte of scenes involving children titled “Les Belles Dames. The Fine Ladies” and “A Fishing Party”
  • Engravings of “Bolton Abbey in the Olden Time” by Schuler and “Weehawken, From the Elysean Fields. Hoboken” by Archibald L. Dick

Several engravings and lithographs focused on women's fashion include:
  • “Soubrette” by Paul Gavarni
  • “Modes de Paris Petit Courrier des Dames”
  • “Vous ne direz plus que la mode est indécente!!”
  • “Mde De Nouveautés” by Charles Philippon
  • “Déclaration d’un Maître de Cham” by Frederic Bouchot

Other items of interest include:
  • Drawings of various men, women, children (some of whom are identified)
  • A pencil drawing of a ship captioned “Brigantine New Castle April 8th 1853”
  • Six lithographic portraits of French generals Charles Nicholas Fabvier, Pierre Claude Pajol, Étienne Maurice Gérard, Horace Sébastiani, Maximilien Sébastien Foy, and the Marquis de Lafayette

Of particular note are two caricature lithographs depicting African Americans that are attributed to Clay, including one print published in 1830 titled "Back to Back" that depicts an African American couple dancing in fine clothing with the caption reading: "I reckon I've cotcht de figure now!". The other print (which is mounted on a scrapbook page) titled "A Black Cut" dates to 1839 and depicts an African American chimney sweeper being shunned by a wealthier mixed-race couple.

Series IV - Silhouettes

This series includes 11 cut paper silhouette portraits, nine of which bear the stamp of the Peale Museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Several include subject identifications and dates of creation. Eight of these items were originally mounted in 20th-century frames prior to being rehoused in archival mats by the Clements Library. The framed items carried the following notation in reverse at the top: "Property of / Miss Mary Clay Bolton / Mechanics and Metals Bank / 204 Fifth Avenue, New York City;" and at the bottom "Theodore Bolton," along with the frame shop label of S. Friedman, E. 9th St., New York, N.Y.

Of particular importance is a silhouette of Edward W. Clay inscribed "E.W.C. Ann: ÆTAT 21" (age 21) from the Peale Museum, ca. 1820. This work is believed to be the only known portrait of Clay outside of a painted portrait held by the Marsh family (descendants of Mary Ann Clay Bolton). The additional inscriptions “Cut at Peale’s Museum, Philadelphia” and “Edward Williams Clay, Portrait Painter” appear to have been added later.

Other identified individual silhouettes include Charles Heyward, William Heyward, George Douglass, William Graham, and George Cuthbert. These men were prominent members of South Carolinian society and were all either closely or distantly related. Three of the silhouettes are of Charles Heyward, who owned one of the largest rice plantations in the South and was the grandson of Thomas Heyward, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. The connection between these people and Edward W. Clay and/or Mary Ann Clay Bolton is unknown.


Emil Smith sketchbook, ca. 1860-1870

1 volume

The Emil Smith sketchbook, titled "Specimens of Designs for Carving in Ivory," contains pencil drawings of decorative picture frames, canes, swords, and hand-mirrors, as well as deer, dogs, and scenes of Civil War camps and soldiers. Included in the sketchbook are lithographs of various cities and buildings in Germany.

The Emil Smith sketchbook contains 38 pages filled with pencil drawings and pasted lithographs. The inside cover includes a modern reprint of a carte-de-visite of a soldier holding a bugle, identified as Lou Smith. The first page indicates that the sketchbook belonged to Emil Smith, which he titled, "Specimens of Designs for Carving in Ivory." This page also includes an image of Lady Columbia about to stab a cougar, along with a note that Emil Smith was a member of Company G of the 39th Ohio Volunteer Infantry.

Many of the sketches are of deer and dogs and decorative frames with leaves and vines. There are also sketches of a woman wearing gold jewelry, anatomical sketches of arms and legs, an angel in a cup, female hair pieces, and the handles of swords and canes. Of note are multiple sketches depicting various scenes of the Civil War, including a bird's-eye view of Camp Dennison near Cincinnati, Ohio, unidentified barracks, a scene of camp life titled "Fair Ground Near Memphis," and a sketch of an African American soldier. The sketch of the soldier is based on an illustration from Harper's Weekly from July 2, 1862. The article accompanying the illustration, "The Escaped Slave and the Union Soldier," describes the life of an escaped slave from Montgomery, Alabama who joined the Union Army. The soldier's name was not mentioned in the article, however, the soldier has later been identified as Hubbard Pryor.

Also included in the sketchbook are many lithographs of water scenes, city buildings, castles, and cathedrals in various locations in Germany, including Andernach, Bacharach, Koblenz, Mainz, Nonnenwerth, Wiesbaden, and Worms.


Emil Weddige Papers, 1916-1999 (majority within 1985-1998)

1 linear foot — 1 oversize folder

Lithographer, professor of art at the University of Michigan. Exhibition catalogs, publications containing reproductions of his work, pricelists, miscellaneous correspondence and clippings; and photographs.

The Weddige papers consist of various materials documenting his personal and professional life. Included are exhibition catalogs and reproductions of Weddige's work appearing on greeting cards and other publications. There are also many photographs of Weddige at work in his studio, at exhibitions, and with friends and family. The bulk of the documents relates to the period of 1985 to 1999. A small portion of the collection dates from his childhood and high school years.


Gerald T. and Charlotte B. Maxson Printed Ephemera Collection, ca. 1750s-1999 (majority within 1850s-1900)

approximately 5,000+ items in 23 volumes

The Gerald T. and Charlotte B. Maxson printed ephemera collection contains over 5,000 pieces of assorted ephemera, the majority of which were commercially printed in the United States during the mid to late 19th-century.

The Gerald T. and Charlotte B. Maxson printed ephemera collection contains over 5,000 pieces of assorted ephemera, the majority of which were commercially printed in the United States during the mid to late 19th-century.

The Maxson collection provides a valuable resource for the study of 19th-century visual culture, commercial advertising, and humor in addition to the role of gender, ethnicity, and race in advertising. American businesses are the predominant focus of the collection, though many international businesses are also represented. While trade cards are by far the most prevalent type of ephemera found in this collection, an extensive array of genres are present including die cut scrapbook pieces, photographs, engravings, maps, serials, and manuscript materials.

The 23 binders that house the Maxson collection were arranged by the collectors themselves. Items are organized somewhat randomly in terms of topical arrangement. While pockets of related materials can be found here and there (for instance, the entirety of Volume 16 contains circus-related items while Volume 11 contains an extensive number of Shaker-related materials), for the most part any given subject may appear in any given volume. In some cases, items are clustered as a result of having been acquired together or due to a documented common provenance. Occasional typed annotations written by the Maxsons help provide additional context for certain items.

The Maxson Collection Subject Index serves as a volume-level subject index for materials found throughout the binders. The subjects indexed here are generally representative of both visual and commercial content. In addition to more general subjects, many names of specific people, places, buildings, events, and organizations that appear in the materials have also been listed. Researchers engaging with this collection should be aware that they will encounter numerous examples of racist caricatures, especially ones depicting African American, Native American, Irish, and Chinese people.


John Wilkes papers, 1741-1790

423 items (7 volumes)

The John Wilkes papers contain Wilkes's incoming and outgoing correspondence on topics such as politics, financial difficulties, and family matters. Also included are 13 contemporary portraits, several literary reviews by Wilkes, and a parody of his poem "An Essay on Woman," by an unknown author.

The John Wilkes papers comprise seven volumes. Volumes I through III contain 295 letters, of which approximately three-quarters were written by Wilkes to his family members and his personal friends and followers between 1741 and 1786.

Volume I contains 91 letters and 4 printed items, arranged chronologically (April 5, 1741-November 8, 1766). Most of the letters in this volume are to and from members of the Wilkes family, including Wilkes' mother, Sarah (Heaton) Wilkes; his sister, Sarah Wilkes; and his younger brother, Heaton Wilkes. The early letters frequently concern social, family, and financial matters, and they demonstrate the importance of education to the Wilkes family. In John Wilkes' earliest letter, written to his older brother Israel at 15, he analyzed a phrase in the Iliad and found that it was not grand enough for his taste. Between 1741 and 1744, Presbyterian Matthew Leeson, the Wilkes' tutor, wrote five letters to Wilkes' mother on religious and everyday topics, including escorting John to the University of Leiden (February 2, 1743).

Items from the 1740s and 1750s also illustrate a variety of attitudes towards women. An undated poem (item 30) by John Wilkes, entitled "The Husbands Creed," paints women as domineering: "Tyranny be to the Wife, Slavery to the Husband, and ruin to the family,/ As it was in the beginning it now shall be to the End of the World. Amen." At the same time, three letters from Wilkes' older sister Sarah to a "cousin Sophy" discuss at length the "tyranny of a husband" and declare that, "Female friendship is the only real and certain good . . ." (July 27, 1755). In another letter, dated August 19, 1755, Sarah Wilkes wrote to Sophy concerning the limited opportunities offered to women, "Your soul is rather turn'd to harmony and love, you think 'if we had the same advantages in Education as men have, we shou'd make as great a figure' We have never been tried, 'tis true . . . ."

After April 1763, with Wilkes' publication of an incendiary issue of The North Briton, the materials increasingly concern political issues and their consequences for him. Several undated documents affixed to page 42 of the volume describe Wilkes' arrest by general warrant; one letter to Wilkes recommends Rome and Avignon as places for him to take refuge (December 12, 1763). In a letter dated November 15, 1763, Wilkes gave an account of his arrest and described his objections to his treatment in a letter to the Speaker of the House of Commons. Wilkes' later letters in the volume touch on his prosecution for An Essay on Woman (March 16, 1764); concern his letter to the electors of Aylesbury (November 2, 1764); reveal his custody wishes for his much-beloved daughter Mary (December 4, 1764); and show his attempts at reconciliation with Great Britain, and his desire to serve as governor of Jamaica (December 4, 1765). Also of interest are Wilkes' comments on the Stamp Act rebellion; he wrote Heaton, "You are much mistaken as to my ideas of America. I am too well inform'd of what passes there by some gentlemen I have seen, and there is a spirit little short of rebellion in several of the Colonies. If I am to be an exile from my native London, it shall not be in the new world…" (November 17, 1765).

Volume II, which covers December 15, 1766-January 3, 1786, contains 120 chronologically-arranged letters. Wilkes wrote 86 of the letters, primarily to his younger brother Heaton. His most frequent topic is his financial situation, which was often troubled, particularly after he liquidated his assets in Britain and received only a fraction of their value from his trustee and friend, Humphrey Cotes. On November 16, 1767, he addressed his resistance to the issuing of general warrants, and to the seizure of papers. In later letters, Wilkes' mother scolded him for visiting a "bawdy house" and fretted over his reputation (October 23, 1771). In the letter o April 21, 1780, Israel Wilkes described a journey to Algiers, including the beauty and climate of the city.

The time period covered by Volume III, December 10, 1762-1783, overlaps with the periods represented in both Volumes I and II. The 70 chronologically-arranged items in this volume focus particularly on Wilkes' time in prison at King's Bench, 1768-1770, and on his literary career. The volume contains 11 letters written by Wilkes from prison, mainly to his friend, the French journalist Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Suard. In these, he commented on his political and financial difficulties, and on his popular following, which had taken up his "public, national, and constitutional cause" (June 20, 1769). Also included are several literary reviews by Wilkes, with his thoughts on Robert Lowth's lectures (p. 2), John Locke's Two Treatises of Government (p. 9), John Ogilvie's Poems on Several Subjects (p. 27), and his panning of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (p. 11). In letters written during the period of the American Revolution, he commented on military strategies and opportunities.

Volume IV contains 19 letters, covering 1749-1790. Wilkes wrote 18 of the letters to recipients such as George Grenville (October 22, 1757), Francis Dashwood (September 25, 1759), and Humphrey Cotes (March 3, 1766). They cover such topics as speculation concerning "Westminster being taken by a coup de main" (April 13, 1779) and arrangements for Wilkes' daughter's trip to France (August 17, 1784). Of particular note is Wilkes' "Letter to the Worthy Electors of the Borough of Aylesbury in the County of Bucks, London" (October 22, 1764), a 21-page defense of his The North Briton writings and An Essay on Woman against charges of libel and indecency, respectively. Thomas Potter, Wilkes' collaborator on An Essay on Woman, wrote a letter dated January 29, 1757.

Volume V contains 25 letters, dating 1768-1782, all addressed to Wilkes' lawyer, Peter Fountain. The letters mainly concern routine financial matters and social visits. Also interspersed are 13 contemporary portraits and caricatures of Wilkes, including two famous caricatures by William Hogarth (see additional descriptive data for a list of the portraits).

Volume VI contains 80 letters from Wilkes to his friend and neighbor in Aylesbury, and a political supporter, John Dell. The letters cover the years 1753-1781, but are only partially chronologically-ordered within the volume. Wilkes' correspondence with Dell is rather frank and heartfelt, and at times humorous; the bulk dates to the 1750s. It documents his early political career, including standing for various elections, his relationship with Thomas Potter, and some of his parliamentary votes (January 21, 1758; p. 41). Also recorded are his reaction to his father's death (January 31, 1761; p. 5), his unorthodox relationship with his wife and daughter (April 26, 1757; p. 37), and his mocking of the hygiene of the Scots after a visit there (September 26, 1758; p. 46).

Volume VII contains a parody of Wilkes' unpublished and famously indecent poem, An Essay on Woman. Like its inspiration, the poem uses sexually explicit jokes to poke fun at Alexander Pope's poem "An Essay on Man." The poem is thought to be a manuscript copy of one held in the Bodleian Library, made at some point in the 19th century.


Miniature moving panoramas, ca. 1868-1878

1 box

This collection consists of three miniature moving panoramas from ca. 1868 to 1878. These include two educational toy panoramas by Milton Bradley, "The Historiscope: A Panorama & History of America" and "The Myriopticon: A Historical Panorama of the Rebellion." Also included is a dual scrolling lithograph entitled "Excursion Views of Narragansett Bay and Block Island" by the Excursion View Co.

This collection consists of three miniature moving panoramas from ca. 1868 to 1878.

The Historiscope: A Panorama & History of America. Springfield, Mass.: Milton Bradley & Co., ca. 1868. Comprised of a scrolled hand-colored lithographed panorama on rollers, housed in a cardboard box with window for viewing. The viewing box measures 22 x 14 x 6 cm and the lithograph measures 11cm in height. The viewing window simulates a proscenium with a stage, footlights, and balconies. The subject of the lithograph is the history of America from Columbus through the end of the Revolutionary War. It contains 25 scenes of both iconic moments in early American history and generic images; e.g., Pocahontas saving John Smith's life, Pilgrims landing in Massachusetts, trading with Native Americans, George Washington at Valley Forge, and the surrender of Cornwallis's army at Yorktown. Many of these scenes are based on paintings, prints or photographs that were well known. An example is the scene of the landing of Columbus based off of John Vanderlyn's painting, Landing of Columbus (1846), which also appeared on a15-cent stamp in 1869. The knobs on top used to move the lithograph are not original.

The Myriopticon: A Historical Panorama of the Rebellion. Springfield, Mass.: Milton Bradley & Co., ca. 1868. Similar to the Historiscope except in terms of subject matter and artwork. The Myriopticon picks up where Historiscope left off. It contains 22 scenes representing the Civil War, many of which originate from Harper's Weekly and other magazines or newspapers. The panorama shows various battles and camp scenes; e.g., the battle of Fort Sumter, Winslow Homer's The Army of the Potomac-A Sharpshooter (1862), the battle between ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia, and the burning of Richmond. The knobs on top used to move the lithograph are not original.

Both the Historiscope and Myriopticon were accompanied by a lecture booklet, promotional broadside, and admission tickets (none extant in this collection). They were marketed toward young children around the ages of 7 to 12. To create a more immersive theatrical experience it was suggested to exhibit the panorama in a dark room, backlit with a candle. Once the provided script had been exhausted, children were encouraged to create their own narrative to pair with the panoramas. Milton Bradley's intent when creating these moving panoramas was to serve not only as optical toys, but as interactive visual lessons. They fit into his larger idea of mass-producing aesthetic educational devices.

Excursion Views of Narragansett Bay and Block Island. Providence, RI: Excursion View Co., ca. 1878. Comprised of two chromolithographed panoramas on rollers housed in a wood viewing box with glass panes on two sides. On the bottom is a paper map which lists each point, in order, shown in the panorama. The viewing box measures 34 x 14.5 x 13 cm and the lithographs measure 9.5 cm in height. The first lithograph shows scenes from the eastern shore of Narragansett Bay starting at Fox Point and ending at Brenton's Reef. The second lithograph shows scenes of Block Island, Conanicut Island, and the western shore ending at Sassafras Point. The panoramas also include text marking notable locations and structures. These moving panoramas were created due to the popularity of steamboat excursion tours from Providence (Rhode Island) to Block Island and back. This miniature panorama was likely an expensive souvenir; a way to simulate or relive the experience for the viewers. The knobs on top used to move the lithograph are not original.


Our Generals, 1862

1 volume

"Our Generals" is a lithograph album (17 x 13.25 cm) consisting of 24 gray-toned lithograph carte de visite sized portraits of Union Civil War generals sold commercially by Leavitt & Allen of New York in 1862.

"Our Generals" is a lithograph album (17 x 13.25 cm) consisting of 24 gray-toned lithograph portraits of Union Civil War generals sold commercially by Leavitt & Allen of New York in 1862. The initials "A.W." appear in pencil on the inside front cover. There is a pre-printed index of names.

On each page, there is one lithographed carte de visite mounted into pre-cut slots surrounded by red and white decoration. The images themselves are either close ups or full body portraits. The name of the subject is handwritten in pencil under each image.

The album's covers are brown leather embossed with a floral pattern, with two large decorative brass clasps. The two brass closure tabs are stamped with "Our Generals."