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Abraham Schenck orderly book, 1776-1777

1 volume

The Abraham Schenck orderly book contains orders at the brigade, division, regiment, and company level, recorded by Captain Schenck of the Duchess County Minute Man militia for 1776-1777.

The Abraham Schenck orderly book contains approximately 100 pages of orders and 15 pages of records, spanning September 26, 1776-January 1777. Though it is written in three different hands, with varying levels of spelling mastery, Schenck seems to have written most of it. The accounts in the back of the book relate primarily to his military-related financial transactions. The book accounts for daily orders, given variously at the brigade, division, regiment, and company level to the Duchess County Minute Man militia. It provides information on the movements and activities of the troops, as well as on the larger logistical and disciplinary problems experienced by the militia early in the war. The records include a company roster and documents concerning supplies and payments received by Schenck.

The orders shed light on many of the disciplinary problems that arose in the employment of a largely untrained force of militia, as well as other, more general issues. An order of October 7, 1776, urges officers to "prevent the Irregular and Promiscus [sic] Placing of huts," while another attempts to crack down on the plundering of "Fields Gardens Hens Roots and Even Beehives" (October 24, 1776), which it calls a "Disgrace." One order, dated October 9, 1776, addresses the proper use of tents, and forbids covering the floors with dirt. Alcohol was also a problem, and an order of October 5, 1776, addresses the problem of sutlers "crouding into" the camp and selling without permission or restraint, by allowing just one appointed supplier. Orders also mandated that scouting parties travel with advanced or flanking parties on all occasions, in order to provide for their "Safty and Sucsess [sic]." The orderly book records a number of courts martial for crimes such as robbery, cursing, desertion, and the plundering.

Orders reference engagements with the enemy and preparations for marching and fighting. On October 20, 1776, eight days before the Battle of White Plains, orders require that soldiers receive "4 Days provisions ready Cook" in order to be ready to march at any time. An entry in the book dated October 27, 1776, encourages the militia to attack mounted British soldiers by hiding behind stone walls and offered cash for "every trooper and his horse and acutriments [sic] which shall be brought in." Although the orders do not directly reference the Battle of White Plains, several entries incidentally praise militia conduct there. An item in the book entitled "Extract of a Letter to the President of the Convention of New York," which is dated December 30, 1776, contains a description of the Battle of Trenton, which states that General Washington "totaly [sic] Routed them About 50 where Left Dead in the Streets 919 taken Prisoners with Trophies." Included is a list of the spoils, some of which were pieces of Brass Cannon, 12 drums, 4 regimental standards, 1200 small arms, 6 wagons, swords, caps, trumpets, clarions, and about 40 horses. The orderly book closes with 15 pages of records pertaining to the militia, including a roster, several provision returns for January 1777, records of ordnance distributed by Schenck, and several documents of financial transactions.


Andrew J. Duncan journal and orderly book, 1861; 1864-1865

157 pages (2 items)

Duncan's journal is a brief account of the earliest operations of the 23rd Ohio Infantry while serving in West Virginia in 1861. The orderly book contains copies of orders issued in 1864 and 1865 from the Headquarters of the Army of West Virginia and the Army of Shenandoah, including some signed by William McKinley.

Duncan's journal is a very well written, unfortunately brief account of the earliest operations of the 23rd Ohio, from its mustering in at Camp Chase through the first two months of its service in West Virginia. Even though the passages are generally short, they provide an excellent idea of the difficulties of operating in the mountainous country, and of the problems of poor training and discipline. There is a good second-hand description of the Battle of Rich Mountain, as well as two descriptions of the battlefield a month after the fact, and a long and detailed account of the Battle of Carnifex Ferry. As good as the battle descriptions, though, are his descriptions of the aftermath of Carnifex Ferry, particularly his powerful, grisly description of the expressions on the faces of corpses littering the battlefield.

The orderly book contains 35 routine carbon copies of orders issued late in the war from Headquarters of the Army of West Virginia and the Army of Shenandoah. The book was apparently originally William McKinley's, and many of the orders from Shenandoah are signed by him. Two orders are of some interest: one (in triplicate) dated April 27th, 1865, noting the capture of John Wilkes Booth, and the other, dated April 29th, reporting the surrender of Johnston's army to Sherman.

Duncan included four pencil sketches in his diary, 1) a rough sketch of a "Virginia secesh," 2) a view of Glenville, West Virginia, and sketches of the battlefields at 3) Rich Mountain and 4) Carnifex Ferry indicating troop placements, etc.


Edmund P. and Myra C. Gaines collection, 1834-1850

24 items

The Edmund P. and Myra C. Gaines Collection is made up of 23 letters and documents dating between November 10, 1834, and April 5, 1850, and one full-plate daguerreotype portrait of Edmund P. Gaines. The materials present in this collection pertain to mid-19th century United States military politics, the antebellum U.S. frontier, and the activities, perspectives, and public controversies of Edmund Pendleton Gaines and his wife Myra Clark Gaines.

The Edmund P. and Myra C. Gaines Papers are made up of 23 letters and documents dating between November 10, 1834, and April 5, 1850, and one full-plate daguerreotype portrait of Edmund P. Gaines. The primary recipient of the Gaines' correspondence is Myra C. Gaines's cousin, Colonel John H. "Jesse" McMahon (d. 1869). The manuscripts offer insight into Edmund P. Gaines's opinions and responsibilities while in command of the U.S. Army Western Division, especially with regards to national security, frontier defense policy and the annexation of Texas. Also present are documents concerning the Myra C. Gaines inheritance lawsuits, the Gaines' views on politics, war, Winfield Scott, legal issues and family matters. Edmund Pendleton Gaines wrote, published, and lectured on the subject of frontier defense, a topic directly related to his professional obligations as a career U.S. Army officer. This collection includes several examples of his advices. On December 7, 1841, he offered appointment recommendations to the Secretary of War John C. Spencer. He also suggested that Col. Stephen Kearny, Col. William Davenport, or Gen. Henry Atkinson would be acceptable commissioners to effect "the arrangement" of removing the remaining Sac and Fox Indians from Iowa. A February 21, 1842, letter to Adjutant General Roger Jones elaborates on Gaines's public suggestions for the improvement of defense on the frontiers by adding a particular kind of floating battery and boats, and by paying particular attention to defense at ports in the Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, Gaines believed that Texas was of vital importance to the naval power and defense of the United States. In a March 28, 1844, letter to a Judge Pascal in Washington D.C., Gaines stated that he had pushed for the annexation of the Republic of Texas from its earliest days, although he was forced to speak and act with cautious impartiality to both Texas and Mexico on account of American neutrality. In a letter to James K. Polk, dated July 4, 1845, Gaines provided enthusiastic remarks on the annexation of Texas. Reflecting on the "Fathers of the Revolution" and quoting from the Star Spangled Banner, he provided his thoughts on the newly acquired land: "We must prove ourselves to be vigilant and ready at every vital point to maintain the ground we have fairly won. Let us no longer be idle, but go to work vigorously until we secure our Sea Ports by means applicable alike to War, and to a prosperous commerce in Peace and in war."

Prior to the annexation, in June of 1845, Maj. Gen. Gaines raised around 1,500 Louisiana volunteers to assist Zachary Taylor in the defense of the western frontier of Texas. The War Department reprimanded the commander for recruiting the men without presidential authorization. The following May, shortly after the outbreak of hostilities with Mexico, Gaines repeated his performance, authorizing the recruitment of almost 12,000 volunteers--again without presidential approval. Gaines was tried at court martial and successfully defended his actions. Apparently unfazed, Gaines wrote to President Polk on March 25, 1847, soliciting orders to raise a division of volunteers for service in Mexico. Gaines intended to send notice to Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Louisville, Memphis, Vicksburg, and New Orleans regarding his recruiting efforts and estimated that he could raise some 20-25,000 "first rate" volunteers. Gaines patriotically referenced the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.

Multiple letters in this collection reveal the bitter nature of Edmund P. Gaines's rivalry with Winfield Scott. Gaines served under Alexander Macomb until the General's death in 1841, at which point both Gaines and Winfield Scott vigorously pursued Macomb's vacancy. President John Tyler attempted to avoid rekindling the Gaines-Scott feud by swiftly promoting Scott to Major General of the U.S. Army. War Department clerk Albert M. Lea's letter of October 11, 1841, informed Gaines of Scott's appointment, praised Gaines's War of 1812 service, and (perhaps provocatively) noted that President Tyler returned one of Gaines's letters without comment. However, as Gaines conducted an inspection tour from Baton Rouge to St. Louis in 1842, he received a series of communications respecting a case brought against him without court martial related to discrepancies in paymaster accounts. In a 19-page letter to Secretary of War John C. Spencer, Gaines defended himself and illustrated how he had been unfairly targeted with inappropriate disciplinary procedures. Gaines was convinced that Winfield Scott was behind what he perceived as an attack on his character and that his old rival had "laboured from the 1st of January 1825 (if not the 15th of August 1814) to the 14th of March 1836 to prove that Major General Gaines was ‘a bad or indifferent officer'--as the Brevet Letters and the Starring and Rescue and Sortie letters written by General Scott to the Adjutant General of the Army will testify."(October 10, 1842).

In the summer of 1842, General Scott divided the Eastern and Western Army Divisions into nine smaller units which effectively reduced Gaines's rank and pay from that of (Brevet) Major General to that of Brigadier General. In a letter to Adjutant General Roger Jones, Gaines criticized Scott for breaking up his Division. Gaines's strong feelings on the matter may be summed up by his statement that "Major General Scott's elevation to a larger command than he ever before had cannot lawfully subject me to the degradation of being reduced to a smaller command than I have at any time since the month of August 1814 been honored with" (April 20, 1843). Ultimately, Gaines was able to retain his rank and pay and was serving in command of the Western Division when he died of cholera on June 6, 1849.

The collection includes six letters by Myra C. Gaines. Her correspondence reveals a politically-minded woman with an active interest in her husband's profession, a resilient plaintiff in her inheritance suits, and a troubled mother. In her letter of September 11, 1846, to her "dear cousin" Colonel J. H. McMahon, Gaines provided a summary of the prevailing political climate, believing that her husband had a chance to succeed in the 1848 Presidential election. She remarked that "the whole City have said to me 'I wish the General would be brought forward for the Presidency we give our votes--and if our wives were permitted they would most cheerfully give theirs.'" She remarked that Polk was in poor standing in Tennessee on account of his unfavorable treatment of her husband. On March 13, 1848, she claimed that Henry Clay told her "that if he runs he will insist that I be put upon his ticket for Vice President - but I think I shall decline - having said I was satisfied." A letter dated January 14, 1842, and an undated letter by Edmund P. Gaines provide additional insight into the independent and self-assured nature of Myra Gaines. In the 1842 letter Edmund Gaines expressed support for his wife's address on the horrors of war and referenced the heroic exploits of Sally Ridley Buchanan, while in his undated letter Gaines requested that Col. McMahon forward a letter to Myra. Anticipating that his recipient would wonder why Gaines did not know the whereabouts of his wife, he explained that she had some difficulties with her travel plans, amplified by the theft of her purse "no doubt by a Black chambermaid, who was the only person in the Ladies Cabin on board the Steam Boat."

Items that mention Myra C. Gaines's inheritance case include a letter to Col. McMahon during a visit to New York City in which Gaines mentioned that she believed her "suit against the vile Executors of my late father in laws Estate" will be decided soon and that although the entire affair has been overwhelmingly difficult at times, she possesses a "light heart--resolved to conquer and to put down all opposition" (November 26, 1846), as well as a letter from an unidentified family friend written in response to a report on the case titled A full report of the great Gaines case, in the suit of Myra Gaines vs. Chew, Relf & others, for the recovery of property of the late Daniel Clark, involving several millions, in which the legitimacy of the plaintiff, is investigated, and her romantic and interesting history developed : including the depositions and documents in the case, the speeches of the lawyers (embracing some of the most eminent talent of the bar of Louisiana and Alabama) and the decision of Judge McCaleb, published by Alexander Walker, editor of the New Orleans Delta newspaper. This unknown "family friend" felt obliged to come to the defense of Gaines's mother, who had been cast in an exceedingly negative light by the report, and to refute numerous other unsubstantiated claims made by Walker that were deemed unfairly critical (April 5, 1850).

The Gaineses' only daughter (from Myra's first marriage), Rhoda, was a source of additional tribulation. In her candid letter of September 22, 1848, Gaines blamed "wicked" persons from her own childhood for Rhoda's troubles and remarked that if she hadn't removed Rhoda from New Orleans "it would have been too late to have saved her." Myra determined that Rhoda would be placed in an institution, "a perfect Military Garrison," where she would remain until she is 20 years old. She also made arrangements for Rhoda to attend Madame Conda's academy as a day scholar.

In addition to this finding aid, the Clements Library has created an item-level collection inventory index: Edmund P. and Myra C. Gaines Papers Collection Inventory.


Eleazer Everett orderly book, 1780

1 volume

The Eleazer Everett orderly book contains 66 pages of Revolutionary War orders, kept by an American soldier stationed at West Point, and 42 pages of hand-copied vocal music. The military entries are comprised of general orders, garrison orders, and marching orders, from Generals Richard Howe and George Washington, and include a discussion of Benedict Arnold's treason and the trial and execution of John André.

The Eleazer Everett orderly book is comprised of 66 pages of Revolutionary War orders, kept by an American soldier stationed at West Point, and 42 pages of hand-copied vocal music. The military entries date from July 2-8, August 15-25, and September 26-October 10, 1780, and contain general orders, garrison orders, and marching orders. Benedict Arnold's treason and the trial and execution of John André are mentioned in the orderly book.

Orders include specific instructions for the troops (rations of food and liquor, bathing requirements, etc) as well as orders to the officers concerning conduct: "The Major Generals to wear a blue coat with Buff under Cloaths, two epilates with two Stars on Each, a black & white Feather in the Hat..." (July 3, 1780). The volume also contains garrison orders issued by Major General Robert Howe, and extracts of general orders issued from Washington's headquarters, with mentions of other generals such as Jedediah Huntington and British General Henry Clinton.

Topics of note include:
  • Copies of headquarters accounts of Arnold's treason and the capture of André, and the order to execute André (September 26 and October 10).
  • A brief description of Fort Arnold (soon to be renamed Fort Clinton) (July 3, 1780).
  • Comments on the court martial trial of Major Thomas Frothingham, commissioner of military stores in the Continental army, for disobeying an order (July 5, 1780).
  • Description of punishment for desertion (July 8, 1780).
  • Numerous passages of strong patriotic language.

In addition to the military orders, the volume contains 14 songs (42 pages) for four voices. The majority of the songs are unattributed, though two are by French, one by Morgan, and one by Everett (song titles are listed in the additional descriptive data). Lyric content is primarily religious in nature.


Francis Wickham diary, 1796

1 volume

The Francis Wickham diary contains entries for August-October 1796, when Wickham served with the British Royal Navy in Martinique. He wrote about Martinique's wildlife, navy life, travels, and other topics.

The Francis Wickham diary contains approximately 75 pages of entries, covering August 23-October 5, 1796, while Wickham served with the British Royal Navy in Martinique. In his diary, Wickham wrote articulately about the climate, plant and animal life, habits of the British sailors, places he visited, and the ubiquity of illness among the sailors.

In early entries, Wickham showed a particular interest in Martinique's wildlife and climate. He described birds and speculated about their migrations (August 24, 1796), discussed fruits, reptiles, and insects, and in several entries, expressed sadness at the high mortality rate for the British in Martinique, which he attributed to the "vile" climate (September 20, 1796). He also frequently commented on the habits of the British sailors, including their tendency toward melancholy (August 27, 1796), the "riot and debauchery" in which they participated, and their love of "accursed grog" (September 4, 1796).

In later entries, Wickham wrote more frequently about travel and political events. On September 10, 1796, he described a trip to Lamantine, a small town in eastern Martinique, where he visited a market and was offended by several Frenchmen playing billiards on a Sunday. He also noted his surprise about a visit from Sir Hyde Parker, Jr., and gave accounts of several political developments, such as Admiral Joseph de Richery's escape from Cadiz, Spain, and the activities of privateers, whom he called "perfect desperadoes each arm'd with a brace of pistols and cutlass" (September 14, 1796). In late September, he expressed anxiety that he and others would be stationed in a more dangerous climate, and gave an account of magical powers used by a local woman after the poisoning of several slaves (September 23, 1796). In early October, he described his trip to Fort Royal and St. Pierre, Martinique, and a play he attended called "Two Misers." Wickham's last entry in the volume on October 5, 1796, is lengthy; it describes an upcoming exchange of prisoners with the French, as well as the annoyance Wickham and other sailors felt in the presence of Admiral Parker, who had been "order'd from this station."


George Weirick orderly book, 1814

1 volume

The orderly book of George Weirick, who commanded the 77th Regiment of the Pennsylvania militia at Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, in 1814.

The George Weirick orderly book contains 84 pages of orders and records, spanning October 5-November 29, 1814. The orders are general and brigade level and include paroles, countersigns, fatigue and police details, a muster roll of the officers in the regiment, and details of numerous courts martial. The orderly book opens with a general order that "the troops will be held in readiness for Muster and inspection" and a mandate for the preparation of a muster roll and returns. Thereafter, many orders in the book relate to discipline. One early entry, dated October 19, 1814, notes that volunteers and militia "have degraded themselves by irregular and Disorderly Conduct" and declares that such behavior is "not to be Tolerated." The same order urges officers who lack "firmness" to enforce the rules to retire, and calls them "utterly unfit for War." Another addresses the difficulty of getting the soldiers to settle down in the evening and notes that "the lights should be out and the men silent" during rest hours (November 1, 1814). Others concern deserters and require officers to treat them with extreme severity. One order calls desertion an "infamous crime" and simply states, "Deserters must be shot" (October 19, 1814). An order from the General Headquarters, dated November 18, 1814, warns "contractors, agents, subtlers, all followers of the army" against informing newspapers of the strength, movements, and destination of the corps: “It is positively forbidden, such communications find their way into the news papers and many of our news papers find their way to enemy."

A significant portion of the orderly book concerns courts martial.

A few notable examples include:
  • Colonel Conrad Kreickbaum for unofficer-like conduct (November 4, 1814)
  • Captain Peter Hanly for drunkenness and unofficer-like conduct and accused of selling "the rations of his soldiers for his own private profit" (November 8, 1814)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Louis Bache, who was the great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, for mutiny, disobedience of orders, and insubordination (November 10, 1814). The orderly book devotes four pages to this case.
  • Phillip Buttinstine for gambling (November 14, 1814)

Another entry in the orderly book addresses the defense of Philadelphia and outlines appropriate actions for four possible scenarios of British attack on the city. Dated November 5, 1814, it gives instructions for responses to various British approaches -- from Delaware Bay, the New Jersey side of the Delaware River, and the head of the Elk River. Other orders pertain to the soldiers' need for clothing (October 31, 1814), the delivery of ammunition and other ordnance (November 6, 1814), the use of detachments for hospital duties (November 4, 1814), and other topics. Also included is a muster roll of field and staff officers in Weirick's regiment as of November 14, 1814 (pp. 66-67).


Great Britain. Army. 10th Regiment of Foot orderly book, 1775

1 volume

The Great Britain. Army. Regiment of Foot, 10th orderly book (56 pages) contains military orders kept by an anonymous British officer while stationed at Boston from March 3 through April 25, 1775. The entries document the British army's activities during the months leading up the Battle of Lexington and Concord.

The Great Britain. Army. Regiment of Foot, 10th orderly book (56 pages) contains military orders kept by an anonymous British officer while stationed at Boston from March 3 through April 25, 1775. The entries document the British Army's activities during the months leading up to the battles at Lexington and Concord. Topics covered include regimental and brigade orders and information on desertions, courts martial, prisoners, deaths within the regiment, provisions and clothing, church attendance, promotions, regimental debts, picket duty assignments, exercises, and military drills. Entries also contain daily administrative information, such as the parole sign and assignments for on-duty commanding officers. Though the author was a member of the 10th Regiment of Foot, the orderly book also documents the 59th, 43rd, and 23rd regiments.

The volume contains little on the Lexington and Concord battles (April 19, 1775), though orders from April 19th through April 25th betray a heightened sense of security among the ranks in Boston. Entries from these dates contain instructions for troop readiness, for maintaining arms and artillery, and for preparing the military hospitals. On April 19th, the regiment received the following order: "The Troops in Town not to Straggle from their B[arracks] but to be Ready to turn out with their Arms, Ammunition, & Provisions the Moment they are Ordered" (page 48). The order of April 22, contains a statement on the conduct of Lord Percy's forces at Lexington and Concord (page 53), and the entry from April 24, orders a portion of the 10th regiment to reinforce the British lines (page 56).


Henry Burbeck papers, 1735, 1775-1866 (majority within 1802-1813)

3 linear feet

The Henry Burbeck papers consist of military and personal correspondence of Brigadier General Henry Burbeck, a career artillery officer in the United States Army (1775-1784, 1786-1815). The papers include Burbeck's incoming correspondence; drafts of outgoing letters; and returns, muster rolls, and other items submitted to Burbeck by officers under his command. The collection is particularly strong in its documentation of the administration and development of the artillery branch of the United States Army in the decade leading up to the War of 1812.

The Henry Burbeck papers (approximately 2,300 items) consist of military and personal correspondence of Brigadier General Henry Burbeck, a career artillery officer in the United States army (1775-1784, 1786-1815). The papers include Burbeck's incoming correspondence (approx. 1,350 items), drafts of outgoing letters (approx. 360 items), returns and muster rolls submitted to Burbeck by officers under his command (approx. 190 items), an orderly book, manuscript maps (10 items), and other financial and military papers. The collection is particularly strong in documenting the administration and development of the artillery branch of the United States Army in the decade leading up to the outbreak of the War of 1812.

The Correspondence and Documents series (approximately 2,220 items) contains Burbeck’s incoming and outgoing correspondence with military officers, army contractors, politicians, and other officials. Frequent correspondents represented in the collection include Secretary of War Henry Dearborn; as well as artillery officers Amos Stoddard, Moses Porter, Richard Whiley, George Armistead, James House, Nehemiah Freeman; and many others. Over seventy incoming letters are addressed to Secretary of War Henry Dearborn, which were then forwarded to Burbeck. The series includes returns, muster rolls, inventories, receipts, General Orders, instructions, memorandums, courts-martial documents, contracts, oaths of allegiance, and other miscellaneous items.

The bulk of the manuscripts in this series reveal practical day to day concerns of U.S. Army artillery officers, such as recruitment of men, desertions, provisions, payments, and exercises and drills. A frequent topic of concern was the recruitment and provisioning of musicians. Over 10 letters and documents, for example, relate to Francesco Masi, an Italian musician who served under Captain Nehemiah Freeman at Fort Independence in Boston harbor. Additional regular subjects include the planning and construction of artillery and shot, and the construction of coastal and internal fortifications. Henry Burbeck and other officers provided detailed reports on the forts occupied and constructed by American troops. Examples include: Fort Hale (October 24, 1811), Fort Trumbull (Oct 25, 1811), Fort Eustis (September 11, 1810), Castle Williams (October 1810), Fort Independence (October 5, 1811), Fort Niagara (September 29, 1808), Fort Detroit (November 5, 1808), Fort Mifflin (November 17, 1811), Newport, Rhode Island (October 25, 1811), Fort Norfolk and Fort Nelson (November 4, 1811), and Fort Powhatan (December 14, 1811).

Many letters are concerned with the design and testing of guns, shot, and gun-carriages. These subjects are especially prevalent in correspondence between Burbeck and contractors Jacob Eustis and Henry Foxall; and correspondence between Burbeck, Lieutenant Samuel Perkins, and Captain George Bomford, head of the United States Arsenal at New York. The collection's correspondence is focused almost exclusively on military affairs, with only a small number of letters related to Burbeck’s personal affairs. One example is twelve letters between Burbeck and Elisha Sigourney, an associate in Boston, concerning financial matters.

Selected items of note include:
  • Marriage certificate dated February 27, 1790, for Henry Burbeck and Abigail Webb for their wedding on February 25, 1790.
  • Magret Dowland ALS dated March 2, 1803. An enlisted man’s wife asked for back pay owed to her for working as Matron of the Hospital.
  • A copy of instructions given by Burbeck to Captain John Whistler dated July 13, 1803, in which he gave Whistler instructions to establish Fort Dearborn.
  • Simon Levy ALS dated April 12, 1805. Levy, the first Jewish and second ever graduate of West Point, asked to be transferred for health reasons.
  • Return J. Meigs, Sr. ALS dated January 1, 1807. Meigs wrote concerning settler and Native American relations in Tennessee.
  • Samuel Dyson ALS dated August 10, 1807. Dyson wrote that he had received news of an imminent Native American attack on Detroit.
  • Draft from Henry Burbeck dated November 1808. Burbeck wrote to John Walbach complaining of being sent to Detroit.
  • Satterlee Clark ALS dated November 2, 1811. Clark gave a detailed description (5 pages) of a fight between a sergeant and an artificer on the wharf in Annapolis.
  • Draft from Henry Burbeck dated February 8-9, 1812. On the back of this draft, Burbeck wrote to an unnamed correspondent giving his feelings on how women should sit for their portrait.

The Revolutionary War Reminiscences series (11 items) contains draft copies of letters written by Burbeck in the later years of his life, in which he described his service in the American Revolution. He focused particularly on his memories of the evacuation of New York in September 1776. Of particular note is one draft (December 24, 1847) in which Burbeck wrote in detail about the changes in uniform and appearance of American officers after the arrival of Baron Von Steuben. At least one of the drafts was intended for Charles Davies of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati.

The Orderly Book series (1 item) contains a 114-page bound volume dating from January 2, 1784, to May 16, 1784. This volume respects day to day activities of the First American Regiment, a unit of the Continental Army organized at West Point in the months following the ratification of the Treaty of Paris (1783). Most of the entries regard daily duty assignments, courts-martial proceedings, and promotions. The orderly book concludes weeks before the disbandment of the regiment.

The Maps series (10 items) is made up primarily of manuscript maps of fortifications dating from 1790 to 1811. One item of note is the 1790 map of Fort St. Tammany given to Burbeck by Surgeon's Mate Nathan Hayward. Burbeck personally oversaw the construction of Fort St. Tammany, and this item contains a detailed depiction of the garrison, complete with an American flag. Please see the "Separated Items" section of the finding aid below for a complete list of the maps present in the Henry Burbeck papers.

The Printed Materials series (58 items) is comprised of printed circulars issued by the United States Government and Army, blank enlistment forms, and personal materials collected by and about Henry Burbeck (including newspaper articles and other published items). A copy of the Second Congress's 1791Act for Making Further and More Effectual Provision for the Protection of the Frontier of the United States is housed in the Oversize Printed Materials folder. A small number of bound items include a copy of Andre; a Tragedy in Five Acts (1798), and 19th century booklets on military and artillery tactics. Two copies of an engraved portrait of Henry Burbeck, by Charles Balthazar Julien Févret de Saint-Mémin are also present.

In addition to this finding aid, the Clements Library has created three other research aids:


Henry C. Gilbert papers, 1826-1864

365 items (1.5 linear ft.)

The Henry C. Gilbert papers consist of a substantial body of personal and business correspondence documenting a long and successful public career. As attorney, Indian agent, political hand, and Colonel of a regiment of Civil War volunteers, Gilbert served his state and nation for over twenty years.

The Henry C. Gilbert papers consist of a substantial body of personal and business correspondence documenting a long and successful public career. As attorney, Indian agent, political hand, and Colonel of a regiment of Civil War volunteers, Gilbert served his state and nation for over twenty years, giving his life in the cause. His letters, mostly addressed to his wife, Hattie (Harriet), are extremely literate, tinged with a good natured sense of humor, though occasionally a black humor, and a deeply felt affection for family and nation. At his best, Gilbert is a passionate, keenly observant writer who never minces his words or hides his opinions. His forthrightness and firmness of opinion come through in nearly every letter, as does his sense of fun and fair play.

The Gilbert papers are arranged into several series. The first four boxes comprise the main run of correspondence, both professional and personal, written between 1826 and his death in May, 1864. The correspondence begins in earnest after Gilbert's move to Michigan. The early part of the collection is dominated by letters stemming from his work as prosecuting attorney for Branch County, providing a limited indication of crime and criminality in rural western Michigan in the 1840s. There are three extensive reports on Branch County merchants prepared by Gilbert in 1845 that give an indication of their viability for credit agencies.

Gilbert's employment as an Indian agent is somewhat sketchily documented, though there is a very nice series of five letters written while Gilbert was distributing annuity payments in the upper Lower Peninsula and Upper Peninsula in the fall of 1853. The best of these includes a nice description of the Indian village at Cross Village at the northern limit of the Lower Peninsula. Unfortunately, Gilbert's letters from the field tend to be somewhat sparse of detail, and are generally shorter than average.

For many researchers, the heart of the Gilbert papers is the 210 letters written while he was colonel of the 19th Michigan Infantry. These letters form a complete and detailed history of the activities of the regiment from its formation in July, 1862, through the death of Col. Gilbert at the Battle of Resaca on May 13, 1864. Although the regiment was in the rear during much of this period, assigned to reserve duty with the Army of the Cumberland in Kentucky and Tennessee, they nevertheless provide an important perspective on the war, as well as on the attitudes, motivations, and duties of an officer. Gilbert was ideologically driven, and less concerned for self-glorification or promotion than for the ardent and ceaseless pursuit of the war against secession and slavery. While he did not follow the radicalism of his cousin, Theodore Dwight Weld, he was a moderate abolitionist and held progressive views on race relations. Some of his best letters are filled with a strident patriotism and calls to sacrifice for the survival of the Union.

The significance of Gilbert's Civil War letters lies in their documentation of the activities of the army of occupation in Kentucky and Tennessee. Although the 19th Michigan was not involved in many major battles prior to Resaca, Gilbert's letters paint a vivid picture of the brutality of the guerrilla conflict in East Tennessee and the resulting devastation. Gilbert leaves no doubt that he considered the situation to be an inevitable result of civil war and a necessity in meeting the political goal of ending the war and slavery. His transformation from a stern disciplinarian into a more ruthless and rigid commander under the pressure of guerrilla violence is a particularly interesting feature of the collection.

In one letter and in his diary, Gilbert provides an account of the Union debacle at the Battle of Thompson's Station and of his capture by Confederate forces. Information on his imprisonment at Libby Prison in Richmond is sketchy, but between his diary entries for this period and five letters a strong sense emerges of the physical and psychological hardships he endured. His toughness, though, resulted in his very rapid return to active duty.

Among other miscellaneous items of note in the collection is a humorous description of Gilbert's visit to the home in of Theodore Dwight Weld and Sarah and Angelina Grimké in Belleville, N.J. (1849 July 22). To his annoyance, Gilbert, the smoking, coffee guzzling carnivore, found that the lot of them were on the Graham system, eschewing meat, caffeine, and tobacco. Of equal interest are two exceptional descriptions of séances with one of the Fox sisters, held in Detroit in 1853 (1853 August 26, 29). Gilbert is at his literary best in conveying the emotional power of these séances and the mechanics of the séance itself.

Box 5 of the Gilbert papers contains correspondence and records relating to the Southern Michigan Railroad, 1848-1852. As the only one of three railroad lines planned for Michigan to be completed in the 1850s, the Southern Michigan Railroad established an important communications and commercial link between the eastern and western parts of the state. As President, stock holder, and chief lobbyist in Lansing, Gilbert was instrumental in securing passage of a bill in 1849 to help finance the construction of the line.

The Southern Michigan Railroad series contains a considerable body of detailed information regarding the laying out and financing of the line, including 74 letters received by Gilbert between June, 1849, and December, 1851, contracts, time sheets for laborers, surveys for right of way, and information on stocks and dividends. Additional information on the railroad can be found in letters from Gilbert to his wife, filed in the main correspondence series.

Finally, the Champion-Warner series relates to Gilbert's financial entanglements with his father-in-law, Reuben Champion, with whom he was often at odds. Most of these items are deeds and legal documents relating to the grist mill in Lima, Ind.


Henry Clinton papers, 1736-1850

304 volumes (90 linear feet)

The Henry Clinton papers contain the correspondence, records, and maps of Henry Clinton, who served under Thomas Gage and William Howe between 1775 and 1778, and was commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America from 1778 to 1782. Although the bulk of the papers cover his tenure as commander-in-chief, with particular attention to engagements in New York and New Jersey and the sieges of Charleston and Yorktown, they also document Clinton's efforts to restore his reputation after the war, and to some extent, his personal life. The Harriot Clinton and Elizabeth Carter diaries are described in a separate finding aid.

Series I: Chronological Materials

The Chronological Materials series (Volumes 1-220) comprises approximately 10,500 items, or over 75% of the collection. Covering the years 1736-1850, it contains a huge variety of document types, including incoming correspondence, Clinton's retained copies of outgoing letters, military documents, memoranda, financial accounts, printed matter, journals, meeting minutes, poetry, and newspaper clippings. The bulk of the material (approximately 7,500 items) concentrates on the years 1778-1782, when Clinton was commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, although the postwar years are also well represented. All items in this series are arranged chronologically. This series has been indexed for General Subjects and Names and Geographic Subjects.

Pre-Revolutionary War: 1736-1774

Volumes 1-9 contain Clinton's pre-Revolutionary War papers, which cover the years 1736-1774, and primarily document his early career, personal life, and finances. Frequent subjects include Clinton's service in the Seven Years War in Europe; routine military matters related to the 12th Regiment of Foot, of which Clinton was colonel; Clinton's property in New York and Connecticut and his attempts to sell it; occasional personal and family matters; and Clinton's political career, including a few references to his service in Parliament. Clinton's most frequent correspondents during this period include William Phillips; William Picton; Henry Lloyd; Henry Fiennes Clinton, 2nd duke of Newcastle; and John Jervis, 1st earl of St. Vincent.

Of particular interest are:
  • Clinton's description of his being wounded and his gallantry at the Battle of Friedberg (August 30, 1761)
  • An interview between William Goldthwait and an unnamed Mataugwesauwack Indian, describing the location of the Mataugwesauwacks and other tribes of the upper Midwest and central Canada and comparing Mataugwesauwack and Penobscot women (July 1771)
  • A letter describing the relationship between Mary Dunckerley and King George II, which produced an illegitimate son, Thomas Dunckerley (June 9, 1766)
  • A letter to Clinton from his close confidant, William Phillips, shortly after the death of Clinton's wife, Harriot, which urges him to "throw off" his "unseemly way of thinking" and not to "lose the tribute due her virtues in an inexprimable maze of error." The papers contain only a handful of references to Clinton's wife and his grief over losing her ([1772] 8:43)

Clinton's service under Gage and Howe: May 1775- February 1778

Volumes 9-31 cover the period during which Clinton served in the Revolutionary War as third in command under General Thomas Gage (through September 26, 1775), and subsequently second in command under General William Howe (through February 4, 1778).

The primary writers and recipients of letters are Clinton's colleagues in North America, in particular, Thomas Gage, William Howe, Richard Howe, John Burgoyne, Charles Cornwallis, John Vaughan, Peter Parker, Thomas Graves, William Phillips, John Jervis, Hugh Percy, Charles Grey, and William Erskine. Correspondence also sheds light on Clinton's relationships with politicians, friends, and family members in England (primarily Lord Germain; Clinton's sisters-in-law, Elizabeth and Martha Carter; and Henry Fiennes Clinton, Duke of Newcastle, and his son,Thomas Pelham-Clinton, Lord Lincoln). The letters concern a variety of topics, including military strategy, troop movements, provisioning, battles, disagreements between military officers, reports of intelligence, encounters with Native Americans, attitudes of locals toward the British, and Clinton's grievances.

Several topics are covered in particular depth during this period. The Siege of Boston is well documented for the time between Clinton's arrival in Boston in May 1775 and his departure for the Carolinas in January 1776. Of particular interest are Lieutenant William Sutherland's account of the Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 26, 1775), various tactical discussions and firsthand reports of the Battle of Bunker Hill, and Clinton's strategy notes and records of conversations with Howe during the late autumn of 1775. After Clinton's arrival in South Carolina, the papers shift focus to possible methods of seizing Charleston, the relationships between the British Army and the Cherokee and Creek tribes, British failure at the Battle of Sullivan's Island and culpability in the matter, and the subsequent deterioration of the working relationship between Clinton and Admiral Sir Peter Parker.

Materials representing the latter half of 1776 record Clinton's return to New York, and the planning and administration of the New York and New Jersey campaign, with multiple accounts of the battles of Long Island, Trenton, and White Plains, and Clinton's continuing defense of his actions at Sullivan's Island. Also documented is the crumbling relationship between Clinton and Howe (particularly after the missed opportunities to deliver a decisive blow to the Americans in New York), and many aspects of the Saratoga campaign, including accounts of battles, Burgoyne's perspective on the events, and negotiations concerning the resulting “Convention Army” of captured British soldiers, including Clinton's plans to rescue them (January 18, 1778).

Other items of note include:
  • Intelligence report concerning the condition of the American Army one day before they left Whitemarsh, Pennsylvania, for Valley Forge, which describes the poor condition of the Army and their many shortages, and notes their use of leather from cartridge boxes for makeshift shoes (December 18, 1777)
  • A diary of an unknown officer in the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) for May-July 1776 (Volume 16) describing daily life and travels of the regiment
  • John Burgoyne's defense of his actions at Saratoga (October 20, 1777)

Clinton as Commander-in-Chief: February 1778-May 1782

The volume of papers increases greatly beginning in February 1778, upon General William Howe's resignation and the promotion of Clinton to commander-in-chief. Clinton's four-year tenure in this role is documented in Volumes 32-194, which contain chronologically arranged correspondence, military documents, reports, memoranda, newspaper clippings, printed matter, and a few journals and pieces of ephemera, which, taken together, document myriad aspects of the British prosecution of the war.

Clinton's correspondence during this period is quite varied and includes official, semi-official, and personal letters to him from a wide range of military and civilian writers both in North America and England, as well as Clinton's retained copies of many of his outgoing letters. Clinton's most frequent correspondents during his tenure as commander-in-chief were other British military officers, with whom he discussed many aspects of war planning and administration, particularly army and naval strategy; the logistics of transporting, provisioning, arming, and detaching troops; expenditures; army policies; and military engagements. The collection contains significant correspondence to and from the following officers (as well as many others) during this period: Charles Cornwallis, Marriot Arbuthnot, Francis Rawdon-Hastings, Leslie Alexander, Oliver DeLancey, Patrick Ferguson, John André, William Dalrymple, Frederick Haldimand, Guy Carleton, and John Graves Simcoe.

Although the series contains references to most battles and a number of lesser- known skirmishes between 1778-1782, some receive special attention in the correspondence, particularly the battles of Monmouth, Stony Point, Camden, King's Mountain, and Guilford Courthouse, and the sieges of Charleston and Yorktown. Letters reveal British planning, troop movements, strategy debates, reactions to successes and failures, casualties, and in the case of the two sieges, negotiations with the enemy forces.

Clinton's correspondence with the Cabinet of Great Britain, particularly with Lord George Germain, the Secretary of State for the American Department, is also an excellent source of information on high-level army strategy. The collection preserves both sides of the Clinton-Germain correspondence and documents Germain's numerous recommendations, many of which Clinton obeyed only reluctantly. Clinton's letters to Germain are an excellent source of information on his intentions in prosecuting the war, as well as his justifications of his actions in North America. They are also notable for their enclosures and attachments, which often contain first-hand accounts of battles or pressing issues from officers under Clinton.

Included are numerous intelligence reports, particularly on New York, New Jersey, and South Carolina. These reports provide information on the location, number, and condition of enemy troops, as well as their defenses, weaponry, and provisions. As the war drew on, Clinton and the British Army relied more heavily on deserters' depositions as a source of information on the Continental and French troops; these increased over time, with some providing basic information on American enlisted men. Also well-documented is the Arnold-André affair, regarding Benedict Arnold's defection to the British, promising them control of West Point, and John André's subsequent capture and execution. The series contains letters, documents, and drafts relating to the negotiations between André and Arnold under Clinton's authorization, including some of the letters in cipher from Arnold, under various pseudonyms, addressed to “John Anderson,” André's alias. Also present are letters concerning André's expedition and capture, attempts to exchange him, his farewell letter to Clinton (September 29, 1780), and Clinton's bleak account of André's fate and the progress of the war, written to his sisters-in-law on October 4, 1780.

Other notable topics covered during Clinton's tenure as commander-in-chief, 1778-1782, include:
  • Clinton's ongoing conflicts with Cornwallis, Arbuthnot, and other officers
  • The debate over the British evacuation of Rhode Island in the fall of 1779
  • Unsuccessful attempts by Clinton to capitalize on Continental Army mutinies, especially among the New Jersey and Pennsylvania lines
  • Military handling of plundering and profiteering and the role of the Commissary of Captures
  • Negotiations concerning the status of present-day Vermont
  • Clinton's frequently-expressed desire to resign
  • British protection of Loyalists and efforts to organize them

In addition, the series contains hundreds of military documents, including returns, memorials, depositions, reports, and minutes. The returns are particularly diverse in the types of information and statistics that they record, including casualties in battles, invalids in hospitals in New York and South Carolina, provisions, ordnance, supplies (including several returns of “intrenchment tools” at Yorktown), prisoners of war, and regular prisoners and their crimes. The returns also convey otherwise obscure statistics on African Americans, women, and children; officers frequently took a count of the number of women receiving provisions in New York or the number of African Americans assisting in various construction projects. The Subject and Name Index is particularly useful for locating a variety of returns and references to these groups in the collection.

Clinton's post-resignation papers (1782-1850)

The Henry Clinton papers also contain a considerable volume letters and documents which postdate his resignation as commander-in-chief. These are located in volumes 194-220, and span 1782-1850, with the bulk covering the years between 1782 and 1794. These materials focus primarily on Clinton's postwar career, including his pamphlet war with Cornwallis, his defense of his expenditures after a damaging report on them by the Commissioners of Public Accounts, his desire for the governorship of Gibraltar, and his interest in world politics, including the French Revolution, Third Mysore War, and the Northwest Indian War. Clinton's primary correspondents during this period are Peter Russell, the Duke of Newcastle, and Lord Lincoln (later the 3rd Duke of Newcastle). Of particular interest are Clinton's many defenses of his actions leading up to Yorktown, his discussions of the creation of the Commissary of Captures, and his expenditures as commander-in-chief.

Series II: Undated Materials

The Undated Materials series (Volumes 221-232) contains approximately 600 items, spanning roughly 1750-1795, with the bulk created during and slightly after the Revolutionary War. The documents, which are arranged alphabetically by author, are mainly correspondence and military items, but also include intelligence reports, memoranda, receipts, and other miscellaneous items. The series also contains numerous memorials requesting promotions or financial assistance from the British military.

The most frequent contributor to the series is Clinton himself, who produced the majority of the items in Volumes 222-226, or approximately 225 items. Clinton's letters and documents concern a wide variety of topics, including military strategy, his relationships with other military officers (particularly Cornwallis), defenses of his actions and expenditures during the war, his property in North America, and his health.

Other items of note include:
  • John André's autograph poem "The Frantick Lover" (221:3b)
  • An anonymous piece of pro-British propaganda entitled "Queries to a Renegado Rebel" (221:11)
  • Affidavit concerning burning of homes of Loyalists led by Brigadier-General Griffith Rutherford in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina (221:23)
  • Draft of a speech by Clinton to the House of Commons defending his wartime actions (223:2)
  • Postwar letter from Henry Clinton to Oliver Delancey concerning the plight of African American veterans of the Revolutionary War "deprived of their lands" in Nova Scotia (224:25)
  • Numerous proposals and plans, including Hector McAlester's plan for carrying out the war in Virginia (229:27)

Series III: Letter books and Other Correspondence

The Letter books and Other Correspondence series contains both bound and unbound correspondence which supplements and sometimes duplicates the correspondence found in the Chronological series. Contained in this series are the following 12 volumes: 235, 254-263, and 275.

Volume 235 spans 1793-1794 and contains 123 letters, primarily to Clinton from his sons, William Henry Clinton and Henry Clinton, both of whom served in the Flanders Campaign during the French Revolution. Letters mainly concern the younger Clintons' careers and family news. Clinton's youngest daughter, Harriot, wrote or co-wrote several of the letters.

Volume 254 contains 45 letters from Clinton to William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, spanning 1778-1789. Of these, Clinton wrote 31 during the period of the Revolutionary War, giving updates on the war effort and on mutual friends and acquaintances. The 14 post-war letters mainly concern Clinton's grievances over his reputation and defenses of his actions during the war, and mention his attempts to rehabilitate his reputation. Also included in the volume are typescripts for the letters. Gloucester's responses can be found in the Chronological series.

Volumes 255-256 contain five letter books spanning May 1778-May 1782 and comprising Clinton's letters to George Germain, Secretary of State. These bring together the letters from Clinton to Germain found within the Chronological series and provide Clinton's accounts of battles and engagements and his discussions of strategy during his time as commander-in-chief. In the subsequent volume (257) are two books of letters from Germain to Clinton, as copied by Clinton's secretary. These, too, duplicate the materials in the Chronological series. Likewise, the letter books in volumes 260-263 mainly unite duplicates of letters written by Clinton to Howe, Arbuthnot, Rodney, Graves, Hood, Digby, Phillips, Leslie, Arnold, and Cornwallis.

Volume 258 contains three items: Clinton's letter book of his correspondence to the Treasury (1781-1782), and two books of letters from the Treasury to Clinton, (1778-1782). All three letter books hold material which is not duplicated elsewhere in the collection. John Robinson, Secretary of the Treasury, is Clinton's correspondent throughout the three volumes. Robinson's letters primarily concern military expenditures--particularly those relating to provisioning, the keeping of prisoners, and quartering. Additionally, Robinson frequently requested justification for irregular spending and emphasized his problems in communicating with Clinton concerning these matters. The volume also contains copied meeting minutes of the Treasury Board, which Robinson provided for Clinton's perusal. Clinton's letters to Robinson describe and defend his expenditures, relay information uncovered by investigations into public accounts, and discuss and evaluate memorials addressed to him.

Volume 275 contains a letter book used first by John André (primarily in June-September 1780), and subsequently by Frederick Mackenzie and Oliver Delancey (September 1780-January 1781). The letter book contains letters that André wrote to various military officers in his capacity as deputy adjutant general, including Wilhelm von Knyphausen, Peter Russell, James Robertson, and Alexander Leslie. The letters primarily concern matters related to the adjutant general corps, including leaves of absence, embarkations, and attachments and detachments of troops.

Series IV: Clinton's Notebooks and Manuscript Writings

The Clinton Notebooks and Manuscript Writings series covers volumes 236-242, 271, and 278-284, and 286, and contains both bound and unbound writings by Clinton on a variety of subjects, including his actions at Sullivan's Island and Yorktown, the culpability of Lord Charles Cornwallis in the British defeat, his wartime expenditures and the Commissioners of Public Accounts, the Seven Years War, post-Revolution foreign affairs, and his relationship with his mistress, Mary Baddeley.

Volumes 236-237 contain 164 documents written by Clinton concerning the Commissioners of Public Accounts. Though undated, Clinton likely wrote them circa 1782-1790; many are fragments and re-workings of a few themes. In these documents, Clinton repeatedly defended himself and justifies his wartime expenditures in response to criticisms made against him by the Commissioners of Public Accounts in their seventh report; the Commissioners criticized Clinton's expenditures and praised Cornwallis. Clinton addressed such topics as discrepancies between his expenditures as commander-in-chief and those of William Howe, Cornwallis' expenditures in the Southern District, and his perceived unfairness of investigations into military spending.

Volumes 238-240 contain a total of 264 documents, primarily written by Clinton about Cornwallis' actions during the war. Though only a few of the documents are dated, all appear to have been written after Clinton's return to England in 1782. Those that are dated range from 1783-1791, with most between 1786 and 1788. In these writings, Clinton discussed Cornwallis' actions leading up to the defeat at Yorktown, and repeatedly found reasons to blame him for that failure and the loss of the war. Frequent topics include Clinton's disapproval of Cornwallis' march into Virginia, Patrick Ferguson's defeat at King's Mountain, British intentions regarding Charleston, the establishment of a post at Yorktown, and the actions and intentions of the Royal Navy in the Chesapeake. Many of the documents refer directly to Clinton's Narrative of His Campaigns, Cornwallis' An Answer to that Part of the Narrative of Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Clinton, K.B..., and Clinton's subsequent pamphlet, Observations on Lord Cornwallis' Answer. Supplementing the large volume of Clinton memoranda are several letters of support from unidentified Clinton defenders.

Volumes 241-242 contain miscellaneous memoranda written by Clinton.

Topics include:
  • Loyalist Claims
  • Charleston Prize
  • Commissary of Capture
  • Tactics
  • Rochambeau's Narrative
  • Notes on histories of the war
  • Seven Years' War
  • Gibraltar
  • Benedict Arnold
  • Sullivan's Island Affair
  • Third Anglo-Mysore War
  • Foreign relations with Spain
  • French Revolution
  • Russian affairs

Volume 271 contains miscellaneous notes written by Clinton (ca. 1785) in a book of household inventories kept in the late 1760s and early 1770s. The notes concern his thoughts on Charles Stedman's history of the Revolutionary War, as well as brief notes on wartime expenditures, Charles Cornwallis, and other topics.

Volumes 278-283 relate to Clinton's 1783 book, entitled Narrative of Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Clinton, K.B. relative to his conduct during part of his command of the King's troops in North-America: particularly to that which respects the unfortunate issue of the campaign in 1781. These volumes include his notes, from which he drafted the Narrative (Volume 278), an extract of the work (Volume 279), and a manuscript version of it (Volumes 280-283). Several printed editions of the Narrative are also available (Volumes 294, 295, 303, and 304).

Volume 284 contains 13 notebooks kept by Clinton, spanning approximately 1759 to 1794 with several large gaps.

Notebooks have been assigned letters of the alphabet (A-M), and are arranged alphabetically according to these designations.
  • Notebook A: Notes on Seven Years' War (European theater), including Battle of Prague and Prussian military tactics
  • Notebook B: Clinton's 1771 observations on Gibraltar, where he was second in command of the garrison. He noted the soldiers' love of rum and the poor state of the fort's defenses. For unclear reasons, he wrote some entries in cipher
  • Notebook C, part one: Orders for June 6-July 2, 1759 in Werte, Germany
  • Notebook C, part two: Clinton's journal of the Siege of Boston, which covers August 19-September 29, 1775. In it, Clinton commented frequently on strategy and described his relationships with Thomas Graves and Thomas Gage
  • Notebook D: Undated list of acquaintances and Clinton's accounts with them
  • Notebook E: Memorandum on expenditures for Clinton's daughter, Augusta (1776) and notes on organization and tracking of his correspondence (ca. 1780s)
  • Notebooks F-H, J: Postwar notes defending his actions as commander-in-chief and blaming failures on Cornwallis [n.d.]
  • Notebook I: Clinton's comments on the objectives of the Seven Years' War
  • Notebook K: Clinton's thoughts on the French Revolution (1793)
  • Notebook L: Clinton's memorandum to his sons, in which he described his connection with his longtime mistress, Mary Baddeley, as well as her background and personal qualities, and her husband's complicity in the relationship. Clinton also admitted that he had "many children" with her, and mentioned an illegitimate daughter in Germany and his support of her
  • Notebook M: Miscellaneous notes on promotions and military actions during Seven Years' War in Germany (ca. 1759-1760)

Volume 286 contains two memoranda books, marked A and B. In Book A, Clinton recorded 16 pages of abstracts of letters he received in the autumn of 1777. The abstracts primarily convey intelligence concerning the Hudson Highlands in New York, but also contain several notes on military proposals and information on British troop numbers and positions. Book B contains writings and drafts of letters by Clinton on a number of military strategy and Revolutionary War topics, likely written ca. 1774-1776. Subjects include Clinton's observations of the Russian army, Lord Francis Rawdon's bravery during the Battle of Bunker Hill, commentary on the Siege of Boston, and miscellaneous remarks on military strategy.

Series V: Financial Materials

The Financial Materials series comprises volumes 249-253, and 264. Within Volume 249 are ten account books recording Clinton's personal and household spending for the years 1758, 1765, 1767, 1767-1774, 1773, 1775, 1787, and 1795. Also present is an account book for Isaac Holroyd, a relative of Harriot Carter, covering 1778-1781 and one for Henry Clinton, Jr., spanning 1814-1816. Bound financial accounts for the Clinton family can also be found in Volume 253, which covers 1789-1793. Supplementing these account books are three volumes of the Clinton family's unbound accounts for 1748-1781 (Volume 250), 1783-1805 (Volume 251), and 1782-1790 (Volume 252). A partial record of Clinton's military expenditures while serving as commander-in-chief can be found in Clinton's warrant book, located in Volume 264. The book contains several hundred warrants issued by Clinton from his headquarters in New York between January 5, 1780, and September 5, 1781. Most of the warrants authorize payments for rations and soldiers' salaries. Many more financial records, documenting both Clinton's personal and official expenditures, are located within the Chronological series.

Series VI: Orders, Reports, and Other Military Documents

The Orders, Reports, and Other Military Documents series comprises Volumes 233, 265-268, 272-273, 285, 287, and 289, and supplements the numerous military documents found throughout the Chronological series.

Volume 233 contains 54 undated returns of the Great Britain Army, relating statistics concerning personnel, ships, ordnance, and provisions. Unfortunately, all are undated, but they appear to relate primarily to the Revolutionary War period. Two items are of particular interest for the information they contain on African American regiments: one document records the supplies needed to clothe 500 members of the Black Pioneers Regiment (233:42), while another lists the names of African Americans in "Captain Martin's Company" of the Black Pioneers Regiment.

Volume 265 contains an orderly book for the 38th Regiment of Foot while stationed in New York, 1764-1775, which includes instructions on the distribution of provisions, a prohibition on the taking of boats by officers, and other matters of discipline. An order for May 18, 1775, instructs soldiers on what to do in case of attack by Americans in Boston. Volume 266 contains general orders by Clinton, 1778-1782, primarily concerning promotions, paroles, rulings on courts martial, assignment of recruits, invalids, and troop movements. Volume 267 contains seven volumes.

These include:
  • Reports on the distribution and recapitulation of British troops, 1779-1781
  • The minutes of the British "War Council" (duplicated in the Chronological series), in which Clinton, Robertson, Campbell, Knyphausen, Leslie, and Affleck debated the timing of sending reinforcements to Yorktown in 1781
  • Army promotions, by regiment
  • Lists of quarters occupied by various units and departments of the British Army
  • A copy of an oath of allegiance to the British and lists of names of inhabitants of various townships in the vicinity of New York City
  • Two volumes of information on ports and trading by colony, with notes on smuggling

Volume 268 contains the proceedings of a Board of General Officers at New York, appointed to assess wartime expenditures in late 1781. The report contains information on men, women, and children victualled with various regiments and departments; lists of ships and their masters; and comparative information on expenses between1775 and 1781.

The series also includes two Army lists (Volumes 272-273) that provide the names of general and staff officers for British regiments, Hessian corps, and provincial corps. The 1779 list is printed, and contains annotations by John André, while the 1781 list is a manuscript.

Volume 285 contains three of Clinton's military notebooks recording orders, instructions, tactics, and strategies, and covering Clinton's early military career in the 1740s and 1750s. These notebooks shed light on Clinton's military education and early experiences, and include his "thoughts on modern military authors," extensive rules for officers, several diagrams and drawings of battlefields, and accounts of the movements of the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards around Germany during the Seven Years War.

Volume 287 contains three orderly books produced during the 1750s.

These include:
  • Undated orders in French, issued by Louis Georges Érasme de Contades during the Seven Years' War
  • Clinton's orderly book for the 2nd Battalion, Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards, of which he was captain (1751-1754)
  • Clinton's orderly book for the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards, 1753-1757

Volume 289 contains documents relating to the Brunswick Corps, 1789-1793, including accounts, returns, and orders. Nearly all are in French.

Series VII: Intelligence

The Intelligence series comprises Volumes 234, 274, 276, and 291 and supplements the large amount of intelligence materials found throughout the Chronological series. Forty-seven intelligence items, comprising both tools and accounts, have been brought together in Volume 234. This includes 37 reports (one with invisible ink on the verso), 5 ciphers, 2 codes, 2 masks (used to reveal hidden messages in letters), and a narrow strip of paper containing intelligence, which could be easily concealed. In addition to providing numerous examples of the information with which the British worked, this volume sheds light on the many varied methods used to convey sensitive and secret reports. Items range in date from 1777-1781, and contain intelligence gathered on the positions of American troops, the location of the French navy, the names of English and Hessian deserters, and of suspected American sympathizers. The documents also reveal information on several spies, including a female agent, whom other spies had "trusted often" (234:27). Other reports provide geographical details on locations such as Massachusetts and New Hampshire, and information on the number and location of enemy ordnance. Several documents refer to Native Americans, including General John Sullivan's attacks on the British-allied Iroquois (234:10).

Volume 274 contains John André's intelligence book for the years 1779-1780, featuring dozens of brief intelligence reports delivered by spies, deserters, and loyalists, and recorded by André. In addition to André's entries in the book, there are several unbound reports in his hand and letters from George Beckwith, James Delancey, and Gabriel George Ludlow, laid into the volume. The entries mainly concern such matters as the location, numbers, weaponry, and provisions of the American forces; they pertain primarily to New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. The volume ends at July 23, 1780, and makes no mention of the Arnold-André affair.

Also of note are Virginia War Office letter books (Volume 276), which were captured by the British around 1781; they provided intelligence concerning American war efforts in Virginia. The volume contains two letter books, covering 1777-1781. Book I spans October 15, 1777-November 1780, and consists of copies of 28 documents issued by Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson, governors of Virginia in 1776-1779 and 1779-1781, respectively. Ten of the items are commissions appointing American representatives to various locations, including the Netherlands, Italy, France, and St. Eustatius. Other items include Jefferson's proclamation regarding land for returning soldiers near the Ohio River (pp. 31-33), articles of agreement between the Commonwealth of Virginia and a French representative regarding trade between Virginia and France (pp. 34-36), and orders allowing the Commonwealth government to impress various goods for the supplies of the militia (pp. 39, 41-42).

Book II covers November 8, 1779-November 20, 1780, and contains approximately 106 resolutions, statements of approval, and letters. The majority of the resolutions deal with the finances and supplies for the war, with several documents at the end of the letter book addressing the disposition of hospitals. Many of the entries in late 1779 and early 1780 concern the construction of defenses against the British, as well as the maneuvering of supplies and men away from the coast and up the James and York Rivers. All but a few of the documents are dated from the War Office in Williamsburg, then Virginia's capital. The back of the book contains 29 pages of accounts for the War Office, spanning October 7, 1779-January 1781.

Some items of note include:
  • A document stating the duties of the Commissary of Stores and the amounts of rum, coffee, sugar, and tea given to men of specific ranks within the army (November 11, 1779)
  • A document containing specific instructions and preparations for fortifying Virginia against an anticipated winter attack from the British (November 16, 1779)
  • A small chart and prose explanation of the assignment of hospital staff and supplies to various Virginia regiments and the United States Navy (January 28, 1780)

Series VIII: Other Clinton Family Members

The Other Clinton Family Members Materials series series comprises items created by several of Clinton's relatives. Volume 288 contains the military notebook of Clinton's son, William Henry Clinton (1769-1846). William wrote in the book periodically between 1793 and 1801, while he served in several campaigns during the French Revolution as captain and later as lieutenant-colonel of the First Regiment of Foot Guards, and then as aide-de-camp to the Duke of York. The book contains Clinton's account of the Siege of Dunkirk in 1793, as well as lengthy descriptions of the Brittany coast, Île d'Yeu, and Madeira. These give accounts of the geography, infrastructure, agriculture, inhabitants, and governments of these areas. The last three pages of the volume describe a successful experiment to melt ice in the Netherlands.

Also of note are 12 oversize journals kept by Henry Clinton's sister-in-law, Elizabeth Carter (Volume 290). Along with her sister Martha (ca. 1745-1783), Elizabeth Carter (1741-1817) cared for Henry Clinton's children and household after their sister Harriot Clinton's death and during Clinton's tenure in North America. The journals contain nearly 800 pages of entries, covering 1774-1795, and are a rich source of information on the Clintons' and Carters' home life. Elizabeth rarely committed detailed observations to paper, but she was a precise recorder of daily events, especially the movements and activities of various members of the household. In her journals, Carter expressed deep devotion to Clinton's children, and noted milestones like losing teeth and the boys' transition to long pants, as well as details about their health and educational activities. She also kept track of the letters she received from Clinton, whom she frequently called "my dearest Genl." (September 6, 1776), and the family's many social visits, particularly to the Duke of Newcastle. Though Carter lived until 1818, the journal ends the day before Clinton's death, December 23, 1795. Volume 290 also contains the only item in the collection written by Clinton's wife, Harriot--a diary of very short entries noting financial transactions and a few activities for 1767-1772. It includes payments to a nurse and for household items, as well as several references to the Clinton children. The Harriot Clinton and Elizabeth Carter diaries are described in a separate finding aid.

Series IX: Books

The collection contains 14 books and pamphlets, mainly related to Clinton and his colleagues' postwar reputations. See Volumes 291-305 in the box and folder listing for titles.

Series X: Maps

The Maps series contains 380 maps used by Clinton and other British military officers, spanning 1750-1806, with the bulk created during the American Revolution. Of these, 335 are manuscript and 45 are printed; they vary greatly in size, from sketches occupying only six square inches, to larger wall maps covering 6 square feet. Henry Clinton created 22 of the maps and sketches himself; the other most frequently represented cartographers are Claude Joseph Sauthier (10 maps), John Hills (9), Edward Fage (8), John Montresor (8), Joseph F.W. Des Barres (6), Abraham d'Aubant (5), and Patrick Ferguson (5).

Over 300 of the maps depict locations in North America, including their geographic, demographic, and military features. The most common subjects are New York (98 maps), New Jersey (46), Rhode Island (44), South Carolina (27), Virginia (26), Massachusetts (24), North Carolina (11), and Pennsylvania (8). In addition to such features as roads, waterways, towns, and boundaries, many maps show extant military works and proposed locations for forts, works, batteries, and barracks. Others reveal troop movements and formations during battles and sieges, including Saratoga, Monmouth, Camden, Guilford Courthouse, and Yorktown. A few maps also convey information on Native Americans, including the boundaries of Creek land, the locale of the Battle of the Wabash (St. Clair's defeat) in 1791, and the locations of Cherokee villages.

Approximately 75 maps in the collection represent areas outside North America. These include maps associated with various campaigns in the French Revolution, the Third Anglo-Mysore War in India, and the European theater of the Seven Years' War.

For a complete list of the 380 maps in the Henry Clinton papers, search for "Clinton maps" (include the quotes) in the University of Michigan online catalog.

Series XI: Miscellany

The Miscellany series includes Volumes 243-248, containing approximately 735 undated, miscellaneous items. The series covers a range of topics, including postwar defenses of Clinton's actions as commander-in-chief written by Clinton and others, comments on world politics, a few pieces of wartime intelligence, notes on military tactics, and scattered discussion of strategy in North America.

Some highlights include:
  • A manuscript giving details on Fort Putnam and other works near West Point, and a possible plan of assault (243:6)
  • Intelligence from two African Americans, identified as “Murphy & Abraham” (243:24)
  • Descriptions of military maneuvers for training British troops, including rudimentary drawings (246:45-46)

In addition to this finding aid, three other research aids have been created for the Henry Clinton papers: The Subject Index provides access to the large number of people, events, places, and themes represented in the Henry Clinton papers, the Geographic Index catalogs references to specific places, and the Volume Descriptions provide brief overviews of the content of each volume in the collection.

The Manuscripts Division has also created a list of the names of letter-writers in the collection: Henry Clinton Papers Contributor List.