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Asa Waldo Wildes daybook, 1849-1864 (majority within 1857)

1 volume

The Asa Waldo Wildes daybook contains an account of his 1857 trip from Detroit to Michigan's Upper Peninsula via Lake Huron and Lake Superior, as well as poetry, financial accounts, and a draft of an 1857 survey report.

The Asa Waldo Wildes daybook contains an account of his 1857 trip from Detroit to Michigan's Upper Peninsula via Lake Huron and Lake Superior, as well as poetry, financial accounts, and a draft of an 1857 survey report.

The daybook opens with a note regarding the death of Wildes's young son Francis on September 17, 1849, accompanied by a pair of short poems; other poetry, dated 1857 and 1858, appears on the next 11 pages. The next segment consists of a 28-page draft of a survey made for the Marquette & Ontonagon Railroad.

A 38-page account concerns Wildes's journey to the Upper Peninsula on the steamer Illinois, beginning May 18, 1857. Wildes wrote about the 1812 Siege of Detroit, seen through the eyes of a War of 1812 veteran (pp. 11-12), but focused primarily on the sights and people encountered along Michigan's eastern and northern coasts. He described both American and Canadian cities along the lakeshore, and on one occasion detailed his interactions with local Indian traders, whom he met near Saginaw Bay. Despite its springtime start, the Illinois frequently encountered ice while on Lake Superior and became trapped on several occasions before reaching Fort Wilkins and Portage Charter Township. Once on land, Wildes focused on natural resources, paying special attention to the local copper and iron industries along Lake Superior's southern coast and around L'Anse, Michigan, where he concluded his narrative. The volume concludes with poetry and financial accounts related to the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, dated as late as 1864.


Charles E. Cleland Native American research collection, 1970-2008, and undated

117 cubic ft. (in 122 Boxes, 9 Ov. folders)

The collection includes mostly photocopies of materials generated by various lawsuits, and other materials documenting Native Americans of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, and First Peoples of Ontario, Canada, their history, culture, and relationship with the presiding government.Tribes documented are noted in the subject headings.

The collection includes mostly undated photocopies of materials generated by various tribal lawsuits against states and the United States (US) government in the collection. Some of the materials date back to the 1780s, but they are not originals, they are photocopies mostly made in the 1970s-1990s or later. There are some original reports and court records created during the time period of 1970-2008. The collection is rich in and dense in documenting Native Americans of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, and First Peoples of Ontario, Canada, their history, culture, and relationship with the presiding government.

The collection is in original order. It is organized alphabetically by series by tribe or community seeking tribal status, reservation boundary (KBIC) case, tax case, or for hunting and fishing rights (Voight or LCO case) (105 boxes, 102.5 cubic feet). Within each series there are various subseries which may include: calendar documents (reference documents in chronological order), Cleland reports and reports of others (un/published), Cleland’s testimony as an expert witness, reference documents and/or un/published sources including newspaper or journal articles, books, maps, government reports, laws, land, legal and tax records, correspondence, business or personal records, excerpts from journals, diaries, and accounts, treaties, various US or Canadian court documents, miscellaneous and/or related documents, footnotes, project files, transcriptions of oral histories, finding aids, various types of maps, sketches, and genealogical and/or family charts. Some materials are bound volumes and others are oversized materials. Tribes or communities represented in the collection include:

Bad River Band of Lake Superior Chippewa (Wisconsin) 2 boxes (2 cubic ft.); Bay Mills Indian Community (Michigan) 15 boxes (14.5 cubic ft.); Fond du Lac Band of Chippewa (Minnesota) 8 boxes (7.5 cubic ft.); Forest County Potawatomi (Wisconsin), Notre Dame Project 4 boxes (4 cubic ft.); Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC, Michigan) 10 boxes (10 cubic ft.); Lac Courte Oreilles [Lake Superior Ojibwa]– Voigt Case 4 boxes (4 cubic ft.); Menominee (Wisconsin) 13 Boxes (12.5 cubic ft.); Mille Lacs Chippewa (Minnesota) 21 boxes (19 cubic ft.) (Note: Box 1 is actually half Menominee and half Mille Lacs Chippewas.); Saginaw Chippewa (Michigan) 13 boxes (13 cubic ft.); Sarnia [Chippewas of Sarnia Band (Ontario, Canada) who prefer to be known as Aamjiwnaang First Nation] 9 boxes (9 cubic ft.); Stockbridge-Munsee (Wisconsin) 8 boxes (8 cubic ft.).

Additional case and reference materials are found at the end in Boxes A-M (12 boxes, 9 Oversized folders, 13 cubic feet). These include: Box A: Bay Mills, US v. MI, 1 box (1 cubic foot); Box B: Bay Mills, US v. MI, KBIC Tax Case, KBIC Boundary Case, Crown v Sarnia, 1 box (1 cubic foot); Box C: Crown v. Sarnia 1 box (1 cubic foot); Box D: KBIC Boundary Case 1 box (1 cubic foot); Box E: KBIC Boundary Case 1 box (1 cubic foot); Box F: Saginaw Case 1 box (1 cubic foot); Box G: Miscellaneous Unpublished reports 1 box (1 cubic foot); Box H Finding Aids 1 box (.25 cubic ft.); Box I: Various legal cases, acts, statutes, decisions in Canadian cases 1 box (1 cubic foot); Box J: LCO Case, Stockbridge-Munsee, Mille Lacs, Fond du Lac, Grand Portage 1 box (1 cubic foot); Box K: Crandon Mine, Menominee Case, treaties US 1 box (1 cubic foot); Box L: Menominee Documents (really 1 Oversized folder on shelf); Box M: Calendars, Reference documents 1 box (1 cubic foot).

Also included are 5x8 inch notecards (4 boxes, 1.5 cubic foot), which usually document in one box each: KBIC, Grand Portage, MI and MN Chippewas, and Voigt.

Lastly, nine oversized folders (larger than legal-size, about .5 cubic foot) include mostly photocopies of a wide variety of maps, treaty signers, genealogy notes and family tree, and land claims.

All boxes in the collection are 1 cubic foot boxes except for the following: Boxes #15, 25, 68, 74-75 are .5 cubic foot boxes; Box #113 is .25 cubic foot box, Box #117 is really an Overszied folder; Boxes #119-122 are 5x8 inch index card boxes.

Materials were collected from a plethora of local, state, and national archives and historical institutions, as well as tribal archives, and various courts, both American and Canadian.

Abbreviations: Professor Cleland and his staff used numerous, and sometimes various, abbreviations for institutions, record groups and/or series names or other citations. Some of these were obvious to the processors, others were not. Many of these abbreviations are not identified in this finding aid. For example, enclosure is abbreviated multiple ways. These variations were retained during processing. Some of these variations are obvious and can be deduced by researchers from the materials.

Also, due to the length of the collection, a number of abbreviations and grammatical changes were implemented by the archivist.

The archivist also deleted: ["no reference" and "incomplete reference"], the, a, or an (articles) at the beginning of a title; Anonymous or Author unknown or a.u.; unknown dates, undated, ND, or n.d. and s.u. Marian also changed: Microfilm to micro and “and” to and; and abbreviated certain common words, as noted below, and the names of months.

Abbreviations used widely by Professor Cleland, his staff, and Marian the Archivist include: ABCFM=American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions; AFCP=American Fur Company Papers; AG=Attorney General; ARCOIA=Annual Report of Commissioners of Indian Affairs; B or Bx=Box; BBC=Bishop Baraga Collection; BIA=Bureau of Indian Affairs; ca.=circa; CCF=Central classified files; CMU=Central Michigan University; CHL=Clarke Historical Library; Co.=County; COIA=Commissioner/s of Indian Affairs; Corp.=Corporation; Dist.=District; E=East, not eastern; encl.=enclosure or enclosed; GLO=General Land Office; HR=House of Representatives; HS=Historical Society; ICC=Indian Claims Commission; IL=Illinois; IN=Indiana; JL=Journal; LC=Library of Congress; LLL=Letters of Lucius Lyon; LRBO-OHC=Little River Band-Oral History Collection; Ltd.=Limited; MH=Michigan History (a publication); MHM=Michigan History Magazine (a publication); MI=Michigan; Misc.=Miscellaneous; MPHC=Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections (a publication); MN=Minnesota; MS=Mississippi; Mss.=Manuscript; MTRL-JP=Metro Toronto Reference Library-Jarvis Papers; N=North, not Northern; NAM=National Archives microfilm; NEB=Nebraska; NWT=Northwest Territories; OIA=Office of Indian Affairs; US=United States; PAC=Public Archives of Canada (National Archives of Canada); PAO=Public Archives of Ontario; PAO-WJLB=Public Archives of Ontario-William Jones Letterbook; Qly=quarterly; rec=received; S=South, not southern; SAM=State Archives of Michigan; TWP=township; UCA=United Church Archives; U.P.=Upper Peninsula; US=United States; UWO, RC-EP= University of Western Ontario, Regional Collection-Evans Papers; W=West, not Western; w/=with; WI=Wisconsin; WL, UWO-WP =Weldon Library, University of Western Ontario, Wawanash Papers.

Also, the original punctuation used varies. A few of the original folder labels were crossed out partially or entirely. These variations were retained during processing.

Processing Notes: Only a few duplicate copies were withdrawn from the collection. Several items which had suffered physical damage mostly due to mud or dirt stains or being badly crumpled or torn were copied and the originals were withdrawn from the collection. (The total withdrawn from this collection was less than .25 cubic ft.).

The vast majority of the collection was organized into series by tribal name or topic, foldered, and labeled before it came to the Clarke. Original folders were maintained in the collection. We endeavored as much as possible to duplicate the original label headings (which varied somewhat from series to series) in the Box and folder listing. Items that were not foldered were foldered by the archivist, and those that were unlabeled were identified and labeled by the archivist.


Donald Chaput Miscellaneous Michigan Collection, 1929, 1967, and undated

1.25 cubic ft. (in 1 box, 1 Oversized folder)

Collection includes information about the history of Michigan counties, forts, places, people, events, French men and Native Americans, and mining.

Collection materials include correspondence and reference requests on various Michigan historical topics, counties, forts, and people, as well as French men and three Ottawa chiefs he researched for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Most materials were collected between 1965 and 1967. Some materials are in French. Some materials are in French.

Oversized Materials: Map by Dept. of Conservation, Div. of Geological Survey, entitled Progress Structural Contours of the Mt. Pleasant Oil Field Area, Aug. 8, 1929, measures approximately 38x62 inches, is stained and acidic; and an undated, twentieth century reproduction of a New France, Canada Map entitled Le Canada, ou Nouvelle France, by N. Sanson, d'Abbeville, 1657, tinted in yellow, brown, and two shades of green, measures 10x14 inches, in the bottom margin it states "compliments of C. M. Burton, Detroit." The maps were separated from the boxes sometime prior to 1997. They were located, interfiled between published maps, in January 2015 by students working on a map scanning project, and were then processed by the Archivist Marian Matyn.

Processing Note: Originally, the maps were separated from the boxes sometime prior to 1997. They were located, interfiled between published maps, in January 2015 by students working on a map scanning project, and were then processed by the Archivist Marian Matyn.


Fort Wayne Indian Agency collection, 1801-1815

3 volumes

The Fort Wayne Indian Agency collection consists of a letterbook kept by Indian agents John Johnston and Benjamin Franklin Stickney; an English-to-Ottawa dictionary, likely written by Stickney; and a memorandum book kept by Johnston during his time at Fort Wayne.

The Fort Wayne Indian Agency collection consists of a letterbook kept by Indian agents John Johnston and Benjamin Franklin Stickney; an English to Ottawa dictionary, likely written by Stickney; and a memorandum book kept by Johnston during his time at Fort Wayne.

The Fort Wayne Indian Agency Letter book (189 pages) was compiled by agents John Johnston (April 15, 1809-November 30, 1811) and Benjamin F. Stickney (April 18, 1812-October 1, 1815), who documented all accounts, disputes, complaints, and other occurrences that transpired between the soldiers at the fort and the Native Americans. The letterbook records the agency business during the critical years before and during the War of 1812, when Fort Wayne was a vital part of American frontier defenses. The volume is comprised of copies of letters, speeches, circulars, and documents, to and from the agents and various departments of the United States government. The correspondents include Presidents Jefferson and Madison; Secretary of State James Monroe, Secretaries of War Henry Dearborn, John Armstrong, and William H. Crawford; the governor of Indiana Territory, William Henry Harrison; and Michigan governors William Hull and Lewis Cass; as well as several Indian chiefs (listed in Additional Descriptive Data). The entries contain lists of supplies received at Fort Wayne, lists of supplies and gifts extended to the Indians, receipts for work done at the garrison, reports on Indian activities, speeches addressed to the Indians, accounts of the war on the frontier, and reports about other conflicts in the area. The volume concludes with a 13-page "statements and observations relating to the Indian department" which summarizes Stickney's efforts during the War of 1812. For a complete transcription of the letterbook, along with a thorough index, see:

Thornbrough, Gayle. Letter Book of the Indian Agency At Fort Wayne, 1809-1815. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1961.

The English to Ottawa dictionary (40 pages) contains phonetic spellings for English words in the language of the Ottawa Indians (the Ottawa speak a dialect of Ojibwe). The book, likely composed by Stickney, contains words for mammals, fowl, birds, fish, reptiles, elements (earth, water, wood, stone, clay, etc.) plants, trees, body parts and facial features, food, maladies, medicine, feelings (love, malice, envy etc.), celestial features, weather, clothes and other goods, numbers, colors, and useful phrases. In addition to providing information on the Ottawan language, the dictionary relates concepts and terms that were important to the Americans. This volume was likely never published.

John Johnston kept the Fort Wayne memorandum book (145 pages) during his tenure as Indian agent at Fort Wayne, from 1802-1811. The volume contains both personal and official material. The first entry was March 20, 1801, when Johnson was appointed by General Henry Dearborn to be a clerk in the War Department. He arrived at Fort Wayne on September 20, 1802. The volume contains several lists of supplies for Fort Wayne and for gifts to the Indians, and records bills and accounts from the Indian agency and the War Department. Many of the accounts concern Indian agent William Wells (1802-1803). Johnston also made notes on his daily responsibilities, of enquiries into food and supplies, and on people traveling to and from Fort Wayne and Washington D.C.; Dayton, Ohio; and Detroit, Michigan. Several entries relate to Native Americans, and discuss Little Turtle's adopted son and the husband of Little Turtle's daughter. Among Johnston's personal notes are financial records for planting his farm and orchard in 1808. The memorandum book provides information about life in the Indiana Territory in the early 19th century.


Herbert F. Boughey Papers, 1896-1934, and undated

Approximately 7 cubic foot (in 12 boxes, 10 volumes, 2 Oversized folders)

Boughey Series 1, 1896-1934, and undated, includes biographical material, correspondence, an assortment of financial and banking records, legal records, and miscellaneous, such as catalogs, township charts, and newspaper clippings.

The collection, Series 1, 1896-1934, and undated, includes biographical material, correspondence, an assortment of financial and banking records, legal records, and miscellaneous, such as catalogs, township charts, and newspaper clippings.

The collection was processed in two parts. First, three processing students in the Archives also processed 12 boxes, 12 volumes, and 2 oversized folders, approximately 8 cubic ft. This section is Series 1, which is described below. A separate Scope and Contents Note and Box Listing follows for each of the student’s box/es with their surname on both their box/es and scope notes/box listing follows after page 16 of this finding aid. This section is Series 2, which is described in a separate finding aid.

The biographical material includes such as licenses, cards, photographs, and copies of federal census for Michigan related to the Bougheys, Ruth’s wedding invitation, 1921, and personal correspondence and receipts of the Bougheys. There is a Bible Study Notebook of Margaret Wheelock, undated. Her relationship to the Bougheys is as of yet unknown.

Personal, business, and political correspondence, including some on postcards and in telegrams, are included. Of note is personal correspondence regarding Herbert P. Boughey’s stay in the Battle Creek Sanitarium and in the State Psychopathic Hospital, Ann Arbor, 1917-1925 (Box 3 and others). Additional Battle Creek Sanitarium correspondence are found throughout the boxes processed by the class.

Some of the political correspondence with Chase S. Osborn, about the state and national Republican committees and national convention, 1912-1930 (Box 3). Osborn was governor of Michigan, 1911-1913. See also Box 1 processed by B. White, and Boxes 1-2 processed by S. Wonsey. There is also personal correspondence with Governor Fred W. Green, 1928, in Series 2, Box 1 processed by M. Morgan.

Other correspondence of note includes personal correspondence between Herbert Boughey and Simon Redbird, a Native American, 1928-1931. Additional correspondence with Redbird is in Box 2, Series 2, processed by F. McDaniel and Series 2, Box 1 processed by A. Grove.

Most of the Carp Lake Lumber Company business correspondence dates from 1911 to 1934. There is numerous business correspondence with various companies mostly regarding lumber, and also for other supplies, including telephone services, railroads, insurance, and hotels. Many companies are documented but one of the most known is Hannah Lay Mercantile Company of Traverse City. Bliss and Van Auken Lumber Company are also included. There are also letterpress books, 1902-1923 (6 volumes). Oversized materials include maps and timber estimates related to the lumber business.

Financial and banking records in the collection include bank statements, check stubs, cash books, and cancelled checks mainly with First National Bank, Traverse City, but also with First Peoples State Bank and People’s Saving Bank of Traverse City, Cadillac State Bank, Leelanau County Bank, of Michigan, and People’s Bank, Blytheville, Arkansas, among others. There are numerous receipts for clothing, food, hotel stays, furniture, gifts, and other supplies. It is often difficult to tell if the receipts are for personal or business reasons. Also included are stock records and financial volumes.

Legal records include various deeds, land contracts, mortgages, business and insurance papers. Other more miscellaneous materials found in the collection include catalogs, and land and township charts, which may be for lumber or real estate purposes. A copy of Herbert F. Boughey’s codicil to his last will, 1931, and the last will and testament of Grace Boughey, 1931, are in Series 2, Box 1 processed by F. McDaniel.

Processing Note: Non-Michigan materials, duplicates, reading materials, material of a peripheral nature were removed from the collection during processing. Extremely dirty and moldy materials were also removed, with material of importance being photocopied. Extremely acidic materials were also photocopied and the originals were then withdrawn from the collection.


Herbert F. Boughey Papers Series 2, 1901-1933, and undated

Approximately 12 cubic ft. (in 30 boxes, 3 Oversized Folders)

Boughey Series 2, 1901-1933, and undated, includes biographical material, correspondence, an assortment of financial and banking records, legal records, and miscellaneous, such as catalogs, township charts, and newspaper clippings.

The entire collection, 1896-1934, and undated, includes biographical material, correspondence, an assortment of financial and banking records, legal records, and miscellaneous, such as catalogs, township charts, and newspaper clippings.

Series 2, 100-1933, and undated, was largely processed, one box or more per person, by a class of 20 processors (30 boxes, 3 Oversized Folders, approximately 12 cubic ft.) during Archives Administration Class, History 583 in spring term 2012.

Processing Note: Non-Michigan materials, duplicates, reading materials, material of a peripheral nature were removed from the collection during processing. Extremely dirty and moldy materials were also removed, with material of importance being photocopied. Extremely acidic materials were also photocopied and the originals were then withdrawn from the collection.

Box 1, processed by Bronwyn Mroz Benson, contains general receipts for a number of the members of the Boughey family, including clothing, groceries, medical, and automotive. The receipts also include bills paid to a number of city services in Traverse City, as well as some banking receipts. Also included are personal correspondence of Grace Boughey and business correspondence of Herbert Boughey pertaining to his stock holdings.

Box 1, processed by Nicole Brandt, contains general receipts, both of a business and personal nature, for a number of members of the Boughey family, mainly husband and wife, Herbert and Grace. There were also personal documents and receipts for Boughey daughters Helen and Ruth. One receipt was also found made out to a Mrs. Greenstead who is believed to be Boughey’s mother or mother-in-law. The business receipts include various large companies, mainly in the Traverse City area, which specialized in lumber, steel, mercantile, wood, coal, and railway. Personal receipts include numerous companies for gas, electric/light and power, grocery, medical/drugstore, and clothing/shoe stores. Personal documents included two newspaper clippings, correspondence among family members and to Boughey family members from physicians, report cards for one of the Boughey daughters, and donation slips. Box 2 (Legal-size) processed by Nicole Brandt, contains Receipts of The Hannah and Lay Mercantile Company Retail, Traverse City, Mich., 1916-1920.

Boxes 1 and 2 (Legal-size), processed by Cynthia Engerson, include correspondence, business and personal receipts, and certificates of membership to various committees and leagues. The topically grouped material is divided into business and personal respectively and arranged alphabetically. Business correspondence relate primarily to insurance. Receipts are comprised of business and personal expenditures including bank transactions, medical bills, lumbering and general hardware, insurance, telephone records, clothing and energy expenses. Prominent organizations related to this material include Citizens Telephone Company, Battle Creek Sanitarium, First National Bank, Montgomery Ward and Company, Standard Oil Company, and Western Union Telegraph Company. Membership and subscription receipts belong to organizations related to war relief efforts such as The American Relief Committee for Widows and Orphans of the War in Germany, the “Belgian Children’s Fund,” and the International Peace Forum. Publication subscriptions include the American Boy, the Wall Street Journal, and the World Court Magazine.

Box 1, processed by Katharine Gallaher, contains the personal correspondence of Herbert F. Boughey’s son, Herbert P. Boughey. These letters are from different members of the Boughey family, including his parents, Herbert and Grace, and sisters, Ruth and Helen. There are some letters from Herbert’s school pen pal William, who lived in Oakland, California. Also included are some examples of Herbert P. Boughey’s homework and drawings of a Decaland badge and blimp, 1918, undated. There is also a list of references concerning the Todd Seminary for Boys in which Herbert F. Boughey is listed in the folder titled Todd Seminary…1917.

Box 1, processed by Tressa Graves, contains business correspondence dealing with property in Leelanau County, Michigan, Oregon, British Columbia, Canada and various other locations. The box also contains correspondence with Saginaw [Michigan] Real Estate, Quesnel Gold Mining Company in Washington state, and Willison court case materials, in which Mrs. Willison had claims against Crotser, Boughey, Otte, and Moran, 1925-1926. Box 2 (legal-size), processed by Tressa Graves, contains meeting minutes with Quesnel Gold Mining Company, Washington and various business information and agreements.

Box 1 processed by Anjali Grose, contains general and specific business correspondence pertaining to the Oregon and Colorado properties, Edgar J. Daly Real Estate, Grand Rapids and Indiana Railway Company, Manistee and North-Eastern Railroad Company, and J.O. Nessen and Company, among others. This box also contains Western Union telegrams, a Wickes Brother Stock Company Catalog, hotel receipts, business cards, business receipts, bond subscription lists, bank statements, township charts, and personal correspondence. There is a copy of a large hand-drawn map in the Oregon business correspondence folder.

Box 1 and 2 (Legal-size), processed by Andreah B. Grove, includes personal correspondence, certificates of registration, and business correspondence relating to B.E. Taylor Builder and Realtor, Detroit-Traverse Realty Company, Edward G. Hacker Company, Grand Traverse Bond and Mortgage Company, Pure Oil Company, Simon Redbird, Swift and Company, and many more. Simon Redbird was a Native American (Ottawa) carpenter from Leelanau, Michigan, who worked for Boughey in Genoa, Nebraska. (For more on Redbird, see Farrah McDaniel’s Boughey boxes.) Also included is an Oversized folder of a blueprint of Leland Township, Leelanau County, Michigan, undated.

Box 1, processed by Emily Grover, contains general and specific business correspondence pertaining to Herbert F. Boughey’s banking, investments, insurance, legal correspondence, tax, and letters and receipts between potential customers concerning lumber and other goods, 1911-1916. Railway records from the Adams Express Company, Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad Company, Manistee and North-Eastern Railroad Company, and Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Sainte Marie Railway Company are also contained here. The box also contains personal correspondence, Michigan Certificates of Registration, Michigan Republican State Central Committee information, and correspondence with Chase S. Osborn. Box 2 (Legal-size), processed by Emily Grover, contains newspaper clippings (copies) that deal with Chase S. Osborn’s career and information regarding lumber and crops. This box also contains an Abstract of Title to property in Leelanau County, Michigan.

Box 1, processed by Adam J. Hamlin, includes personal and business correspondence, 1915-1919. Items of note include a postcard featuring World War I recruits practicing infantry drill at Fort Sheridan, Illinois; an invitation to the Alumnae Banquet at the Battle Creek Sanitarium, featuring seminars on fattening diets, fever diets, blood building diets and hyper-reducing diets. The invitation includes hand-written recipes on back; circular offering to “furnish Russians, Poles and Lithuanians” for unskilled labor (presumably mailed to Carp Lake Lumber).

Box 1, processed by Jake Huss, contains business records from transactions with various companies as well as donation “thank yous” from groups such as the National Republican Congressional Committee, American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief, and Anti-Saloon League of Michigan, among others. It also contains insurance records for everything from vehicles to lumber products as well as bank transactions with multiple Traverse City area banks. Personal Records includes Boughey’s 1916 draft card as well as his 1917 hunting and trapping license. Box 2 (Legal-size), processed by Jake Huss, contains mostly balances due and freight manifests from various companies, 1917-1919, undated.

Box 1, processed by Hannah Jenkins, contains financial records regarding the Carp Lake Lumber Company from 1910 to 1912, as well as general correspondence and order requests to the company from 1909 to 1912, and a couple undated documents. The box also contains correspondence regarding Mr. Boughey’s real estate business. Personal folders include documentation from Mr. Boughey’s involvement in the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and Mr. Boughey’s interest in the Marble Company’s Game Getter Gun hunting rifle, manufactured in Gladstone, Michigan. Also included are general correspondence to Mr. Boughey from 1911 to 1912, invitations to meetings and conferences of which some are political in nature, and correspondence regarding Mr. Boughey’s political interests in the Roosevelt Campaign. Box 2 (Legal-size), processed by Hannah Jenkins, contains one folder of legal sized material including an undated list of second-hand boiler details and their prices, a financial record from January 30, 1912, and a political document from July 8, 1912 regarding Mr. Boughey’s involvement in the National Progressive Party.

Boxes 1 and 2 (Legal-size), processed by Farrah McDaniel, contain general business correspondences pertaining to the lumber business in Michigan and Oregon; a mining endeavor in Canada; and a variety of real estate ventures, both individually and in conjunction with someone else, throughout the states of Michigan, Oregon, and Wisconsin. The boxes also contain personal letters between the Boughey family, land deeds, personal receipts, insurance papers, and a letter from Herbert F. Boughey regarding the desire to patent a car windshield defroster. The Last Will and Testament of Grace Boughey, along with a codicil to the 1923 Last Will and Testament of Herbert F. Boughey, are located in the Boughey Legal Correspondence folder. In the Boughey Family, Personal Correspondence, 1930-1933, undated, is Correspondence from Grace Boughey to Herbert Boughey dated March 23, 1931, which includes a very candid conversation about female menopause and menstruation.

Box 1, processed by Marie Morgan, contains both general and specific information regarding H. Boughey’s business and personal life. In this box there is correspondence between H. Boughey and a number of businesses in Michigan, Oregon, and British Columbia. Besides correspondence between businesses, there are also receipts for many things pertaining to the business, newspaper clippings, telegrams, bank statements, and personal correspondence. The majority of the box contains information regarding H. Boughey’s lumber business, but there is also information regarding automobiles, hunting expenses, government paperwork, and other miscellaneous items. Two documents that particularly stand out in this box are the personal letters between a Ms. Helen Boughey and the Police Chief of Allen Park. The chief writes that Ms. Boughey had a violation against the city and must pay her debts or consequences will happen. There is also correspondence with Simon Redbird, 1927-1929. Box 2 (Legal-size), processed by Marie Morgan, includes miscellaneous legal-size materials: a list of U.S. merchants and manufacturers, undated; a copy of a right-of-way, undated; an analysis of earning for the First National Bank, Traverse City, 1927; a letter to stockholders of the Quesnel Gold Mining Company, Bellingham, Washington, 1926; and Meeting Minutes of the Sheppard Development Company, also of Bellingham, 1926. 1 Oversized folder has Hotel Cadillac Receipts, along with a large lumber receipt, 1926-1928.

Box 1, processed by Elizabeth Portenga, contains general and specific business correspondence pertaining mostly to companies in Michigan, 1912-1913. The main contents contain shipping orders, business correspondence, lumber orders, lumber inquiries, billing information, inventory, delivery status, account statements, a warranty deed, invoices, tax information, receipts, payments, stockholder meeting notes, credit information, dividends, supply information, lumber quotes, and work requests. The box also includes a Western Michigan Development Bureau Bylaws booklet, a Powers Theater, Grand Rapids, Michigan, program, lot drawings, a road map, a building blueprint, information from Boughey’s correspondence and work in Oregon, and personal letters from Governor Osborn inviting Boughey to his hunting cottage.

Box 1, processed by Kate Pritchard, contains general and specific business correspondence pertaining to Herbert F. Boughey Lumber, Cherry Home Company, The Haserot Company, The Lord and Bushnell Company, Southwestern Lumber Company, Standard Oil Company, Wakefield Fries, and Company Real Estate Rental and Loan Agency. The box also contains Western Union Telegrams, business receipts, business orders, bank statements, shipping instructions, New York Life Insurance statements, car insurance statements, and personal correspondence. Box 2 (legal-size), processed by Kate Pritchard, contains documents of general and specific business correspondence re: the Cherry Hill Company, Herbert F. Boughey Lumber, as well as contracts and receipts. 1 Oversized folder contains a map of Chippewa County, Michigan, with a timetable for the Arnold Transit Company for tourist season for 1906 connecting Mackinaw City, Mackinac Island, and Sault Ste. Marie via steamships.

Box 1, processed by Jessica Rodgers, includes business and personal receipts, and correspondence, 1925-1931. Of particular interest to researchers is the Lane Bryant receipt of the Boughey women, documenting dresses, hats etc. Other women’s clothing stores are also represented.

Box 1, processed by Liz Waterhouse, contains general and specific business receipts and correspondence pertaining to Edgar J. Daly Real Estate, First National Bank, H.P. Palmer Jones Company, Hannah and Lay Mercantile Company, The Stearns Company, Western Michigan Development Bureau, among others. This box also contains Western Union telegrams, hotel receipts, bank statements, personal miscellaneous items, personal correspondences, and business miscellaneous. There is a large hand-drawn map of possible building and land plots along Drift River (copy), undated, located in the Business miscellaneous folder, 1910-1911, undated.

Box 1, processed by Briăna White, contains business correspondences pertaining to the lumber business and associated investments in paper, flooring, and cherry production. This box also contains personal papers of the Boughey family, as well as information regarding donations, bills, letters, stocks, receipts, taxes, and correspondences between Former Governor Chase Osborn and Herbert Boughey. Of note is a receipt in Donations for the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief, undated.

Box 1, processed by Lisa White, contains general and specific business correspondence pertaining to the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad Company and the Manistee and North-Eastern Railroad Company. This box also contains Western Union telegrams, personal correspondence, business receipts, personal receipts, and payroll records. Of particular interest, in business correspondence from 1911, is a letter from Wylie Cooperate stating that was an error in log scaling on their part. Mr. Boughey stated that he was short twenty-three Basswood logs from his order. Wylie Cooperage was offended that Mr. Boughey and his associate, Mr. Pease, accused him (Cooperage) of purposely trying to short them, and that he was sending a check to cover the overcharge. In Boughey personal receipts from 1911, taxes on Mr. Boughey’s personal property in Northport Village were $4.05. Also, this folder contains a register of deeds with Traverse City, Michigan, in account with Carson Warner. In Boughey personal receipts from 1912, there are financial records regarding Mr. Boughey’s furnished housekeeping rooms at 915 Thurman Street, Portland, Oregon. J.A. Parmele reported that there was no change in the house and that the rent balance is $32.42. Also, two of the tenants owed $21.00 in back rent, as they were currently unemployed, but they would pay soon.

Box 1, processed by Sandra Wonsey, contains business correspondences pertaining to Herbert F. Boughey and his lumbering business as well as other associations, 1918-1920. It also contains sources related to business transactions, such as Western Union Telegrams, banking receipts, business receipts, figures, orders, insurance coverage, and real estate ventures. The contents paint a picture of business success and problems as well. This collection also includes personal aspects of Mr. Boughey’s life. It contains his Draft card registration, Corrective Eating Society, and his monetary contribution to the National Republican Congressional Committee and letter from them. Box 2 (Legal-size) contains banking transactions that show his substantial business dealings. It contains publications from The Standard Oil Company stockholders, minutes from the Board of Directors of Francis H. Haserot Company. It show cases typical real estate correspondence one between Herbert F. Boughey and Governor Chase R. Osborn.


Hiram B. Crosby journal, 1872

1 volume

This journal reflects the experiences of Hiram B. Crosby, a New York City lawyer, during his trip to Michigan's Upper Peninsula in the fall of 1872. As part of a prospecting party, Crosby analyzed the potential for iron mines near Iron Mountain, Michigan. He recorded his impressions of local scenery, commented on his daily activities, and described the area's Native American settlements and peoples. The volume contains 24 pen and ink drawings.

This 127-page journal reflects the experiences of Hiram B. Crosby, a New York City lawyer, during his trip to Michigan's Upper Peninsula in the fall of 1872. As part of a prospecting party, Crosby analyzed the potential for iron mines near Iron Mountain, Michigan. Crosby began the journal on September 26, 1872, as he left New York City, traveling by railroad to Menominee, Michigan, via Sandusky, Ohio, and Chicago, Illinois. While in Ohio, he visited Jay Cooke on Lake Erie's Gibraltar Island (September 30, 1872), and pasted a pressed flower from the island onto the journal's first page.

After his arrival in Menominee, Crosby joined the members of his party and together they started out for Iron Mountain, where they planned to inspect specific areas for iron mining potential. In daily journal entries, Crosby recorded details of the group's travels along the Sturgeon and Menominee Rivers, particularly regarding local scenery and people. A few days into the trip, he fell from his horse while attempting to shoot a partridge, and suffered a fractured wrist (October 4, 1872); despite his injury, the trip proceeded smoothly, aided by the expertise of local Native Americans the group hired to make camp and guide the mining party. Crosby and the others frequently traveled by canoe, and he often described the guides and local Native American settlements, particularly at "Bad Water," near Iron Mountain.

On October 10, 1872, the explorers reached Iron Mountain and proceeded to examine the area. They set out again for Menominee shortly thereafter, and reached the town on October 15. There, Crosby inquired about the prices of shipping iron ore to Cleveland by boat (October 16). From Menominee, Crosby traveled to Escanaba, Marquette, and Houghton, Michigan, before heading to Detroit, which he described in several entries in late October. Crosby wrote the final entry in Detroit on October 26, 1872.

Three items are inserted into a flap in the front cover of the journal: 2 assurance tickets for Hiram B. Crosby from the Railway Passengers Assurance Company (November 14, 1872) and an advertising card for the Douglass House in Houghton, Michigan. A printed view of Marquette, Michigan, is pasted onto page 108 of the journal.

The journal also includes 24 pencil and ink drawings depicting scenes from Crosby's travels in the Upper Peninsula. See the Additional Descriptive Data section of this finding aid for an index of the illustrations.


Jacob Butler Varnum papers, 1811-1888 (majority within 1811-1833)

79 items

The Jacob Butler Varnum papers contain letters and documents related to Varnum's career as a factor at United States Indian trading posts in Sandusky, Ohio, and Fort Dearborn, Chicago; as a captain in the 40th Massachusetts Infantry during the War of 1812; and as a Washington D.C. merchant after he left government service. Included are letters and instructions from government officials concerning trade with Indians, as well as letters from Varnum to his father, Senator Joseph B. Varnum, concerning his activities as factor.

The Jacob Butler Varnum papers (79 items) contain letters and documents related to Varnum's career as a factor at United States Indian trading posts in Sandusky, Michilimackinac, and Fort Dearborn, Chicago; as a captain in the 40th Massachusetts Infantry during the War of 1812; and as a Washington D.C. merchant after he left government service. The collection is comprised of 59 letters, 1 diary, 13 documents and financial records, and 5 miscellaneous items. Included are letters and instructions from various government officials concerning trade with Indians in Ohio, Michigan, and Illinois, as well as five letters from Varnum to his father Senator Joseph B. Varnum (ca.1751-1821) concerning his activities as factor.

The Correspondence series (60 items) comprises the bulk of the collection. Forty-nine items document Varnum's governmental career spanning 1811 to 1826, during his service as Indian trade factor in Sandusky, Michilimackinac, and Chicago; and as captain of the 40th Massachusetts Infantry during the War of 1812. Varnum received instructions from various Indian agents and government officials concerning the regulation of trade with the Munsee, Ojibwe (Chippewa), Ottawa, Sioux, and Wyandot Indians, among others. Many letters came from the United States Office of Indian Trade at Georgetown, including four from Indian Officer John Mason (1812 and 1815), and 21 letters from Superintendent of Indian Trade Thomas Loraine McKenney (1816-1822). These contain discussions of trade operations, types of merchandise, questions arising about the sale of goods, and instructions for the reporting of financial accounts. Also of note are five letters from Varnum to his father, Joseph Bradley Varnum (1750-1821), in which he described his experiences at Sandusky and at Michilimackinac, as well as with the business of the trading house at Chicago (December 3, 1811; January 14, 1812; May 21, 1816; November 3, 1817; March 1, 1818).

Other items of note include:
  • August 8, 1811: Joseph Bradley Varnum to John Mason, accepting the appointment of his son as agent of the United States Indian trading house at Sandusky, Ohio
  • March 1, 1818: Varnum to his father predicting the outbreak of a great war with the Indians "from the Simenoles to the Sioux"
  • February 8, 1820: Thomas L. McKenney letter to Jacob B. Varnum, giving instructions about the handling of money given to Varnum by Government Indian agents

Most of the 1823-1826 material concerns government reimbursements for military expenses at Fort Dearborn. The collection contains 11 letters documenting Varnum's post-governmental career as a merchant in Washington D.C. and Petersburg, Virginia (1826-1860).

These include:
  • February 1827-August 1832: Five items regarding Varnum and John Biddle concerning mutual business interests in Detroit
  • December 17, 1833: John H. Kinzie to Varnum concerning Chicago lands owned by Kinzie, a fur trader

The Diary series (1 item) contains a 26-page notebook with Varnum's description of his trip from Chicago to Dracut, Massachusetts, by way of Detroit and Buffalo (August 17-October 22, 1822), and from Detroit through New York and Philadelphia, to Washington D.C. (May 28-June 22, 1823). Varnum reported on his manner of travel (horse, ship, steamboat) and his travel route, describing stops at many of the major towns along the Erie Canal. He commented on the towns that he passed through including Rochester, New York, which had grown considerably since the opening of the Erie Canal (page 6). He also noted prices for room and board. The final five pages contain financial accounts for Varnum's military expenses incurred from 1813 to 1815.

The Documents and Financial Records series (13 items) contains material documenting Varnum's finances and his service in the War of 1812.

This includes:
  • June 8, 1813: Affidavits (and a fragment of the same item) documenting the capture of Joseph B. Varnum's trunks, taken by the British as they were being transported from Michilimackinac to Detroit
  • 1814: Six military district orders related to promotions, responsibilities, and discipline in the 40th Massachusetts Infantry, in which Varnum was a captain under Acting Adjutant General George P. Peters
  • August 22, 1815: Copy of a bond oath signed by Varnum as factor for Indian trade at Chicago, and a copy of his father, Jacob Butler Varnum's oath of office
  • 1816-1827: Four financial records of debts and receipts for goods purchased by Varnum
  • Undated [1808]: Deposition of Richard Smyth regarding the sale of a lot in Detroit owned by Varnum's father-in-law John Dodemead

The Miscellaneous series (5 items) contains 3 envelope covers, one of which includes a recipe for a "Lazy Daisy" cake (c.1930). Also present are a photograph of a man and two women outside of a tent next to a car (c.1930), and a typed 13-page biography of Joseph Bradley Varnum, undated and unattributed.


James A. Clifton Native American research collection, 1806-2001 (Scattered), and undated

36 cubic ft. (in 19 boxes, 19 card boxes, 2 Oversized Folders)

Collection of wide variety of research and reference materials on Native Americans, mostly Potawatomi, Ojibwe and Ottawa, mainly in Michigan and Kansas, but also includes Wisconsin, Canadian, and other Native American tribes. The main series are: Clifton personal, research, reference, and academic materials, Bay Mills Indian Community Court Case materials, Canadian Potawatomi research materials, Kansas Potawatomi research materials, Keweenaw Bay Indian Community vs. the State of Michigan court case materials, Michigan tuition waver project materials, [Native American] Removal documents, reprints, Saginaw Chippewa Tribe court case materials, and Wisconsin vs. Baker court case materials.

Abbreviations: Due to the size of this collection, the following abbreviations have been used to cut down on the size and of the finding aid. Abbreviations used include the following: ABCFM for American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM was used by Clifton in many of his notations in the Reprints series). ARSMPIS for Annual Reports of the Superintendent of the Mount Pleasant Indian School. AG for Attorney General. BIA for Bureau of Indian Affairs. COIA for Commissioner of Indian Affairs. ICC for Indian Claims Commission. IL for Illinois. IN for Indiana. JL for journal. KN for Kansas. KUPS for University of Kansas Potawatomi Survey. MAG for Michigan Attorney General. MI for Michigan MHS for Minnesota Historical Society. MN for Minnesota. MO for Missouri. MS for Mississippi.i NAM for National Archives Microfilm. NEB for Nebraska. NY for New York. NWT for Old Northwest Territory. OK for Oklahoma. PA for Pennsylvania. Qly for quarterly. Re: for regarding. SD for South Dakota. US for United States. W for West WI for Wisconsin

Spelling Note: The spelling of Indian words, such as villages, tribes, bands, and the names of individuals, varies greatly among and within nineteenth century documents and articles. I copied the spelling [errors] or phonetic pronunciations used in these older documents for this finding aid.

Series Description: Overall, Clifton’s collection documents his academic papers, large research projects, and his reference collection. It also includes a small amount of biographical material on Clifton.

The collection consists almost entirely of photocopies or photo-static copies of published and unpublished articles or drafts of articles, speeches, complete or partial books, correspondence, contracts, curriculum vitaes, government documents, treaties, grant proposals and related materials, faxed information, lists, notes, and various other reference materials, maps, a small number of duplicated black and white photographs, mainly from the Smithsonian Institute, and other materials, including a few overheads.

The originals in the collection include some Clifton’s correspondence and some of his notes and notecards. Many of his notes, particularly in the KUPS series are typed.

The collection is first divided by the size and format of the material into three groupings. First, (mostly) letter-sized material (with some legal-size material). Second, note cards, and, third, oversized material.

The letter-size material is then organized into a number of series. Each series is then organized alphabetically by subject, and then within each series alphabetically and chronologically by the folders’ headings, as appropriate. As much as possible, the archivist used Clifton’s headings, or an expanded version of them, as needed, for ease of use by researchers. In cases were there were no folder headings, or indeed no folders, the archivist sought to organize and label materials as simply as was possible for reasonable easy use by researchers.

The following letter-size series (a total of 18 cubic ft.) are found in this collection: 1) Clifton Materials-Biographical and Academic Papers; and his large research projects and reference collection are documented in the following series: 2) Bay Mills Indian Community (BMIC) Court Case Materials; 3) Canadian Potawatomi Research Materials; 4) Kansas Potawatomi Research Materials; 5) Keweenaw Bay Indian Community vs. the State of MI Court Case Materials; 6) MI Tuition Waver Project Materials; 7) [Native American] Removal Documents; 8) Reprints; 9) Saginaw Chippewa Tribe Court Case Materials; and 10) WI vs. Baker Court Case Materials.

Most of the remainder of the collection consists topical 5x7 inch handwritten Notecards (15 cubic ft. in 19 boxes). Oversized materials (approximately 3 cubic ft.) include an oversized folder of some Isabella County (MI) plat maps (copies), 1891; and an oversized volume of various pages from multiple nineteenth century Tract Books of the General Land Office (Ionia, MI).

1) Clifton Materials, 1963-2000 (total approximately .5 cubic foot), includes his Biographical Material, 1987, 2000 (1 folder), with his Obituary, 2000; and his Academic Papers, 1963, 1972-1989, 1990, 1993, 2000, consisting of Clifton’s bibliography on Old Northwest Indian removal, 1825-1855; copies of book reviews, introductions to books and articles, his coursepack for a class; papers for publication and presentation, published articles, reports for the WI Dept of Justice for WI vs. Stockbridge [Mohican] Munsee Community (Case No. 98-C-0871), a case he researched for the WI Attorney General’s office, some of his research materials, and notes.

The Judicial Update website of Morisset, Schlosser [who specializes in federal litigation, natural resource and Indian tribal property issues], Jozwiak and McGaw (, on Nov. 18, 2004, describes the WI vs. Stockbridge Munsee Community Case No. 98-C-0871 67 F Supp. 2 d 990 (E. D. Wisc. Sept. 30, 1999) as follows: “[The] State [of WI] brought action seeking to prevent the tribe from operating Class III electronic games of chance at a casino located outside boundaries on [the] Indian reservation. Upon [the] state’s motion for preliminary injunction, the district court held that: (1) [the] state demonstrated a reasonable likelihood of success of their claim that Act of 1871 resulted in diminishment of [the] tribe’s reservation, and (2) other factors warranted granting preliminary injunction. Motion granted.”

This series documents various aspects of Clifton’s academic, publication, and research interests and activities. The rest of the collection documents his large research projects, particularly those regarding Native American court cases in MI and his Kansas University Potawatomi Survey research project.

Personal information on Clifton, aside from that found in his obituary, is not available in this collection.

2) Bay Mills Indian Community (BMIC) Court Case Materials, 1936-1998 (Scattered) (approximately 1.5 cubic ft.), which documents two court cases. The court case for which there is the most material is the BMIC vs. Western United Life Assurance Co., et al. Documenting this court case are copies of court records, correspondence and email, reference and supporting documentation, 1936-1937, 1974-1975, 1992, and, mostly, 1997-1998, collected and notated by Clifton, who worked for the MAG. The Peninsula Legal Services, P.C., served as the tribe’s legal counsel.

BMIC vs. Western began in 1996 as a land claims settlement case. The BMIC had a claim to over 100 acres of land in what is now Charlotte Beach (MI). The land was to be held in trust for ancestral bands of the BMIC by the Governor of MI. Eventually the land was sold for delinquent taxes, without BMIC’s knowledge or consent. The court case resulted in the severe decrease of the value of the Charlotte Beach property and the inability of the current owners to verify their deeds. The tribe desired the land back or an equitable settlement. The case continued with various compromises being offered and not accepted by the BMIC for ten years. Part of the continuance, documented by a smaller amount of copied material (three folders), is the BMIC vs. the State of MI, et al. court case, 1998.

The Judicial Update website of Morisset, Schlosser [who specializes in federal litigation, natural resource and Indian tribal property issues], Jozwiak and McGaw (, on Nov. 18, 2004, describes BMIC vs. Western United Life Assurance Co., no. 99-1036, (6th Cir. 2000) as follows: “Plaintiff Bay Mills Indian Community filed a complaint Asserting an interest I a parcel of property within the county [Charlotte Beach, MI]. Bay Mills alleged various federal constitutional and statutory violations in connection with the 1884 ouster from the property of its predecessors in interest, two aboriginal Chippewa bands, and sought either equitable title to the property or damages equal to its value and damages for the loss of the use and enjoyment of the land since 1884. The defendants, individuals and entities currently possessing various interests in the property, moved to dismiss the action under Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 12 (b)(7) and 19 for failure to join an indispensable party,the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians. The district court granted the defendants’ motion and dismissed the plaintiff’s complaint. Affirmed.”

In 2002 the US Senate proposed a bill to offer property in Sault Ste. Marie (MI) to the tribe, on which they could operate a casino. The committee on Indian Affairs heard the bill’s supporters and detractors and adjourned, declining the proposed bill. [Information from US. Congress. Senate. Committee on Indian Affairs. BMIC Land Claims Settlement Act. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, US Senate, 1077th Congress, 2nd Session on S. 2986 Oct. 10, 2002, a e-copy of which is available in the Park Library.]

3) Canadian Potawatomi Research Materials, 1835-1975, and undated (Scattered) (7 folders). This small series includes copies of acts, treaties, and constitutions of the Prairie Potawatomi in Kansas, 1936; materials relating to the Caldwell Band of Point Pelee, Pelee Island, and Malden, Ontario, Canada; Potawatomi Agency Correspondence, 1837-1870-1878; and Potawatomi Study Correspondence, 1973-1975; and Correspondence to/from Clifton, and Reference materials.

4) Kansas Potawatomi Research Materials, 1880-1883, 1886 1932, 1940, 1948, 1952, 1962-1965, 1973-1974, mainly 1962-1965 (approximately 2 cubic ft.)

General Kansas Potawatomi materials, mostly copied reference materials, 1880-1883, 1886 1932, 1940, 1948, 1952, 1973-1974, (9 inches, or approximately .5 cubic foot), are open to researchers. This includes correspondence, miscellaneous notes, and genealogies (family trees), as well as a large amount of reference materials, including newspaper clippings, bibliographies, and copies of articles. Also included are instructions for coding field notes and research materials for the Kansas University Potawatomi Survey (KUPS) Clifton led.

Of particular note here are the KUPS materials, mostly 1962-1965. The KUPS materials include: field notes, cross reference notes to field notes, and other research or reference materials, such as citations and maps. These materials were accumulated and categorized by Clifton, his wife, Faye, and his research assistants, Bob Bee and Ann Searcy, during their interviews with and observations of Kansas Potawatomi, also called the Prairie Band of Potawatomi, from 1962 through 1965. Many of these Potawatomi lived in the Mayetta (Kan.) vicinity. Notes and reference materials were filed within an extensive, coded KUPS folder arrangement. Many of the folders were found to be empty during processing, so researchers will notice gaps in the numerical sequence of the KUPS folders.

The FIELD NOTES of the KUPS (approximately 1.5 cubic ft.) are CLOSED TO RESEARCHERS for 70 years until 2045 [1965+70], because of the personal information in the detailed field notes, including: medical and psychiatric patient case records, alcoholism, the use of peyote, criminal records, sexual orientation, marital status, perceptions of those who were thought to practice witchcraft, sexual or physical abuse some people in the study suffered or received, and the detailed information about their financial states, as well as governmental support received, the field notes are closed.

6) Keweenaw Bay Indian Community vs. the State of MI Court Case Materials, were collected and annotated by Clifton for the State of MAG, 1988-1989 (approximately 3 cubic ft.). The Reprints in this series include copies and typed transcripts of materials sent to the MAG, which are organized either chronologically by the date of the event documented in the information, or alphabetically by topic, and include materials from 1820 through 1946 (Scattered), 1957, 1960, 1965-1966, 1972, 1979, 1982, 1985, and 1992. Types of materials in this series include: copies of depositions, notes, evidence copies of newspapers, magazines, and academic articles, books, maps, land patents and deeds, government documents, and correspondence, usually between the COIA and various Indian Agents.

According to the Michigan Indian Gaming website’s section documenting newsworthy events of 1998 (url is, this court case is described as follows: “On Feb. 12, 1998 Judge David McKeague issued a decision stating that the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community statellite[sic] casino is operating illegally because the tribe did not adhere to IGRA [Indian Gaming Regulation Acts] in opening these facilities.” “On Aug. 21, 1998 the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa Indians launched a media campaign to gather support to prevent the closing of its Turtle Creek Casino in Acme, MI. The United States Attorney General’s office filed for a preliminary injunction to shut down the tribes[sic] casino because it claims that the casino is operating illegally. This came after the U.S. 6th Circuit [Court] overturned a decision in Keweenaw vs. MI. The Court is expected to hold a hearing on the issue in November of this year.”

7) Michigan Tuition Waver Project materials, (8 folders), includes copies of materials compiled or created in 1996 by Clifton. This project resulted from the demands of MI tribes for free tuition at the University of MI, which they believe was granted to them in old MI treaties. Materials found here include: reference materials, notably several articles written and published by Alice Littlefield about Native American education and the US Indian Schools, 1989, 1993, and 1996; Mount Pleasant Indian School (Mount Pleasant, MI) documents, 1934-1996 (Scattered); some legislation, 1968; Clifton’s report, correspondence, and contract with the MAG, 1996; and the MAG’s conclusion, Dec. 1995. Clifton contracted with the MAG to collect materials to defend their side of the case.

The MI [Indian] Tuition Waver was adopted by the MI Legislature in 1976 as an entitlement descending from old federal treaty rights. The program had a long beginning, which will be briefly described here.

In 1934, the federal government dissolved the federal Indian school program, transferring the buildings, property, and care of Native American students to the state of MI. For thirty years thereafter the state of MI did not meet its obligations of providing equal treatment and education to Native American children. Student activism in the 1960s led a University of Michigan (UM) student, Paul Johnson, to sue the UM in 1971. He believed the UM should provide free tuition to Native Americans based on Article 16 of the Treaty of Fort Meigs, 1817. Ultimately, his suit failed. However, the students who worked on the lawsuit contacted members of the state legislature for support. Rep. Jackie Vaughn carefully constructed a bill based on MN’s existing tuition waiver program. In the summer of 1976, his bill, know as Public Act 174, 1976, created the MI Indian Tuition Waiver Program.

The Waver, which was amended in 1978, allows students to have their tuition paid if they are one-quarter North American Indian and have been a MI resident for at least one year. [This information is from the Clarke website (url is http://clarke.cmich. edu/ tretytuition.htm), on Dec. 3, 2004, and CMLife, p. 1 and 4A, Fri., Oct. 29, 2004.]

Ultimately, the tribes’ demands developed into the court case Children of the Chippewa, Ottawa and Potawatomy Tribes, et al., vs. Regents of the University of MI, a case which the tribe lost. However, the University of MI agreed to offer Native American students scholarships, which amounted to free tuition. (For further information on the case, see the Elmer White’s collection which is also housed at the Clarke. White acted as the attorney for the tribes.)

8) [Native American] Removal Documents, created or compiled in 1982-1983, and undated (2 cubic ft.).

The removal research project was funded by a grant from the NEH, and resulted in Clifton’s bibliography Old Northwest Indian removal, 1825-1855: a bibliography, a copy of which is found in Box 1 of this collection. A tiny part of this series includes three folders of materials relating to the grant, including: Illustrations…, undated; Notes and Correspondence, 1982; and NEH Microfilm Work reports of James McClurken to Clifton, 1982-1983.

The bulk of the series, however, consists of copies of published articles and historical Removal Documents, and some notes from Clifton, which were compiled by Clifton for reference purposes.

The published articles are in alphabetical order by author’s surnames.

The Removal Documents are in chronological order, 1807-1855, with a small amount of post-1855 materials, 1856-1980 (Scattered). Commonly found examples of historical Removal Documents in this series include: the Dept. of War, Office of Indian Affairs officials’ correspondence, journals, reports, disbursement accounts, and regulations regarding the removal of Native Americans; records of annuity payments; correspondence and other papers regulating the functions of the Superintendency, agencies, and sub-agencies; a journal of treaty negotiation, 1833; treaties and lists [sometimes censuses] of [members of] tribes or bands either remaining in their area or removed to west of the Mississippi [which have been noted specifically in the box and folder listing]; petitions of various Native Americans to the President of the US; maps; published journals of the US House and Senate; and personal correspondence.

Finally, there are a few topical Removal Document folders, which are in alphabetical order, 1839-1888 and undated [copies made in 1982 or 1983].

9) Reprints, a caption used by Clifton, (6.5 cubic ft.) is the largest series in this collection. It includes copies of general reference and/or research materials, 1820-1992 and undated, regarding various aspects of Native Americans, Africa and Africans, African-Americans, slavery, and other native peoples around the world, as well as anthropological articles. However, the majority of the series documents Native American history, including, but not limited to: Indian treaties, Indian agents, Indian removal policies, reservations, missions and missionaries, wars, captivity or travel accounts, as well as other topics. A sizable section of this series is various articles and documents from multiple issues of the WI Historical Collections. Types of materials in the series include: dissertation abstracts; parts of or complete academic or popular articles and books; reference articles, such as biographies from encyclopedias; reprints of academic articles; student papers; drafts of academic papers; papers for presentation at conferences; correspondence; notes; maps; statistics; and other materials. These materials were collected by Clifton during his academic career.

10) Saginaw Chippewa Tribe Court Case Materials, includes materials created or compiled, 1991-1992, (2.5 cubic ft.) by Clifton. Clifton was under contract with the MAG to collect materials to defend their side of the case.

Compiled materials include copies of historical documents and reference sources about the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe, including: court records, reprints of articles, treaty journals, annual reports of the Mount Pleasant Indian School, Indian Claims Commission records, the amended Constitution and By-Laws of the Saginaw Chippewa Tribe, 1986, and other documentation, as well as Clifton’s correspondence, agreements, other information he exchanged with MAG and other associates,1797-1992 (Scattered).

Two court cases are documented in this series, mostly the US et al., vs. State of MI, et al., 1992 and, very minimally, the US vs. the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of MI, et al., 1990-1991, 1997.

The case for which there is the most material, that of the US et al., vs. State of MI, et al., dealt with tribal fishing rights. There is a long history of lawsuits in MI over Native American fishing rights. In brief, this particular lawsuit, which began in 1973 and was tried in 1978, was eventually settled out of court on March 29, 1985. In the case, the Native Americans attorney strongly argued three points. First, that the tribes involved had historically fished in the Great Lakes. Second, that they had retained the right to fish under treaties signed in 1820, 1836, and 1855. And, third, that they had actively participated in commercial fishing after those treaties and thus could logically assume that they should be allowed to continue to do so. In May 1979, the judge settled the case in favor of the tribes, however various issues remained that had to be agreed upon by both parties.

Finally in 1985 an agreement, called the Sault Ste. Marie agreement, was reached. As part of this agreement, the Great Lakes were divided into zones. The MI tribes were allowed to fish unrestrictedly to a defined maximum catch, mostly in the northern zones, and sports fishing was relegated mostly to the southern zones. The Bay Mills Chippewa community was unsatisfied with the agreement and vetoed it. After a brief trial, the agreement was put in place with the force of law until 2000. [This information is from the Clarke website (url is, on Dec. 3, 2004.]

11) WI vs. Baker Court Case Materials, includes copies of materials created or compiled in 1976 and 1978 (1.5 cubic ft.) by Clifton, who served as an expert witness for the tribe. Materials in this series include: records of related court cases, correspondence, Clifton’s expert testimony, and published articles, mostly about removal from the WI Historical Collections, date from 1830s-1934.

The State of WI vs. Baker, et al., was predated by the Voigt decision in WI. The Voigt Decision recognized the rights of the tribal hunting, fishing, and gathering activities of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Chippewa in WI as they were granted to the tribe in the treaties of 1837 and 1842.

In 1978, the Federal District Court granted summary judgment in favor of the state. In 1983 the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the District Court ruling. At that point, the State of WI petitioned, in vain, the US Supreme Court to review the case. Five other WI Chippewa Bands then joined the case, which continued in District Court. There were three phases: I: Declaratory; II Regulatory; and III: Damages. (A Guide to understanding Chippewa treaty rights: WI edition, 1994, pp.2-3, a copy of which is in the Clarke.)

The WI vs. Baker case was brought by the State of WI against the chairman (Ordie Baker) and all of the officers of the Lac Courte Oreilles Tribal Governing Board. As documented here in the Opinion and Order [by Judge James Doyle], Sept. 20, 1978 (76-C-359), the state’s contention was that the tribe’s enforcement of its established codes for fishing on its reservation, which mandated that people who were not members of the tribe to purchase fishing licenses from the tribe, was illegal and interfered with the rights of the state’s citizens. The tribe’s interpretation of its treaty rights were that the tribe, as a sovereign nation, had the sole right to hunt and fish within the borders of its reservation. The state contended that this had not been the intent of the agents of the federal government who created the treaties which led to the creation of the reservation. Clifton and Judge Doyle, however, believed otherwise.

When Judge Doyle died in 1987, the case was assigned to Judge Barbara Crabb. After denying the state’s request to appeal Judge Doyle’s ruling, “she held that tribes held the authority to regulate their members and that effective tribal self-regulation precludes state regulation.” on Aug. 21, 1987 (ibid, p.3). Later, Judge Crabb decided that the tribes were self-regulating regarding the state’s walleye and muskellunge harvests held in October (1989), and in regards to the state’s deer population (1990). In 1991, Judge Crabb also ruled that while tribes did not have treaty rights to harvest timber commercially, they did have treaty rights to gather other forest products (ibid, p. 4).

12) Notecards. There are 19 card boxes (15 cubic ft.) of topical 5x7 inch handwritten notecards, documenting the removal of various Native American tribes, Clifton’s bibliography and biographical index, as well as related Native American topics. There are organized alphabetically by topic, and then either chronologically (if notes about removal documents) or alphabetically (if names or sources).

13) Oversized Materials, include an oversized folder of some Isabella County (MI) plat maps (copies), 1891; and an oversized volume of copies of various pages from multiple Tract Books of the General Land Office (Ionia, MI), 1800s.

Processing Notes: I have tried to observe Clifton’s topical and organizational scheme as much as possible. A number of items in many boxes were without folders and identifying information. These items have been placed in the most likely series or, when a topic and therefore a location was otherwise undeterminable or multiple, into the general Reprints series.

Items withdrawn from this collection include all published books, periodicals, maps, and court records, which were separately cataloged.

Also withdrawn were duplicates, illegible materials, blank sheets of papers, binders, photocopying instructions, forms for requesting copies (from many institutions), generic correspondence and post-it notes without informational value, cover sheets, and the “This article is not available.” notices from inter-library loan departments. All post-it notes with notes of substance were removed after they had been copied and a copy put in the folders.


James Sterling letter book, 1761-1765

1 volume

The James Sterling letter book contains the outgoing letters of Sterling, a prominent trader at Fort Detroit, concerning transactions, prices, demand for goods, as well as accounts of events during Pontiac's War.

The James Sterling letter book contains 164 pages and 175 letters in all, spanning July 1761 to October 1765. Sterling wrote all the letters while at Fort Detroit, and they deal mainly with business and occasional local political matters. His letters provide a picture of the fur trade and the consumer needs of Indians, French civilians, and the British military, as well as the day-to-day concerns of a prominent trader at Fort Detroit.

The volume opens with a 6-page record of a council held "at the Wiandot Town near Detroit" by the deputies of the Six Nations (Iroquois) in order to convince members of the Ottawa, Wyandotte, Ojibwa (Chippewa), and Potawatomi tribes to ally themselves with the French. Sterling acted as interpreter during the meeting, and kept its minutes. The document records the Iroquois' grievances with the British, whom they accused of having "Disrespect" for them and their lands, adding "their Behaviour towards us gives us the greatest Reason to believe that they intend to Cutt us off intirely." The Iroquois urged the more western tribes to take quick action against the British and stated that "our Warriors are already prepared." The document contains long quotes from several speakers, including an Iroquois deputy and a "Captain Campbell," likely Donald Campbell, who expressed astonishment at the belligerent attitude of the Iroquois toward the British. The following day, the western tribes reported the meeting to the British, maintaining their loyalty.

Sterling's outgoing letters commence on July 20, 1761. He mainly wrote them to trading partners and clients, discussing details of shipments, prices (generally calculated in beaver pelts), and the availability of goods. On page 11 of the book, in a letter to Captain Walter Rutherford [August 27, 1761?], Sterling listed numerous items for sale along with their prices in pelts. These include strouds, blankets, shirts, buckskins, wampum, brass kettles, gun powder, knives, bed lace, and thread. Letters also shed light on the destinations and methods of the transportation of goods. In the first years of the correspondence, goods were shipped by fleets of bateaux, sometimes belonging to the military. Later, several schooners and sloops plied Lakes Erie and Huron, and went as far north as St. Mary’s River at Sault Ste-Marie. All goods had to be portaged at Niagara ("The Carrying Place"), while those to and from Albany were similarly reloaded at Oswego on Lake Ontario.

Sterling sometimes encountered problems with other traders and colleagues, including unscrupulousness, drunkenness, and offensive treatment of Native Americans, which alienated them as trading partners. He criticized John Collbeck, the commissary at Fort Niagara, for allowing his staff and servants to drink without restraint and for keeping a "seraglio of Indians Squahs in the same condition" of intoxication (January 10, 1762). On May 31, 1762, he complained to his partner, James Syme, that goods had arrived from New York "wet, dirty, and broken." Other hazards included storms and theft, which Sterling noted on several occasions.

A few letters detail the events of Pontiac's War as well as its effect on trade. On July 25, 1763, Sterling noted the capture of Fort Venango in Pennsylvania and the continuation of the siege at Fort Detroit, and hoped for relief from the army. On August 7, 1763, he described the Battle of Bloody Run as "the damn'd Drubbing the Savage Bougres gave us" and lamented the death of an aide-de-camp, "Capt. Delyelle." In other letters, he reported that trade with Native Americans had been prohibited by British officials (August 7, 1763), and gave an account of an attack on the schooner Huron by 340 Native Americans, resulting in the death of its commander, Captain Walter Horsey (September 8, 1763). The volume contains a gap in the correspondence between October 1763 and September 1764.

The volume also contains occasional references to Sterling's personal life. In a letter of February 26, 1765, Sterling informed his associate, John Duncan, that he had married Angélique Cuillerier, "the best interpreter of Indian languages in Detroit;" her dowry of 1,000 pounds included houses in Fort Detroit. Sterling also frequently referenced his brother, John Sterling, who was stationed at Niagara. James did not feel that John was capable of running the operation there, but called him dependable.