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Baker-Marshall papers, 1806-1926 (majority within 1806-1853)

125 items

The Baker-Marshall papers contain personal correspondence, financial documents, and other items related to Timothy Baker and Ichabod Marshall, two early settlers of Norwalk, Ohio, who became prominent local merchants.

The Baker-Marshall papers contain 19 personal letters, 100 financial papers and documents, 3 maps and diagrams, 8 printed items, 1 photograph, 3 additional manuscripts related to Timothy Baker and Ichabod Marshall, two early settlers of, and prominent merchants in, Norwalk, Ohio.

The Correspondence series contains personal letters written between members of the Baker family, including letters written by William Baker and Timothy Baker, Jr., to their parents during their time at college. The series also includes letters written between the siblings, providing news of their families, and a memorial poem written upon the death of Timothy Baker, Jr., in 1845. The collection also includes a 1926 letter inviting Willard H. Bennett, of Norwalk, Ohio, to purchase tickets for the University of Wisconsin's football games, along with two order forms.

The Financial papers and documents series regards Ichabod Marshall's land and business interests in Norwalk, Ohio, in the early 19th century. The series is comprised of 100 receipts, indentures, and accounts, including deeds and tax receipts for land in Trumbull and Huron counties. Several of the items are signed by Moses Kimball, an auditor in Huron County.

Three undated manuscript Writings include a draft of a petition "To the Mayor and Village Council of Fredericktown Ohio," requesting the removal of a local saloon; a 1-page religious essay; and instructions for making bricks.

The collection's single Photograph is a carte-de-visite of an unidentified man.

The three undated manuscript Maps and diagrams include a surveyor's map of Norwalk, Ohio; a floor plan for a house; and a seating arrangement for a Masonic lodge.

The Printed items series consists of 2 items related to Baldwin University; Mrs. Lewis C. Laylin's calling card; and newspaper clippings. The Baldwin University items are a program for the annual exhibition of the junior class, March 25, 1874, and a printed version of the "Alumni Song," June 7, 1876. The newspaper clippings include one regarding a lawsuit between Ichabod Marshall and several owners of the Norwalk Manufacturing Company.


Henry Newman family papers, 1777-1872

0.5 linear feet

The Henry Newman family papers document Henry Newman's land speculation in the southeastern United States and Ohio, and Henry Newman, Jr.'s, efforts to manage these properties and resolve legal quandaries--primarily in relation to the family's involvement with the Yazoo Land Fraud. The collection also details activities of Henry Newman's other children, particularly William Newman and the business he established in Buffalo, New York, in the 1820s.

The Henry Newman Family Papers document Henry Newman's land speculation in the southeastern United States and Ohio, and Henry Newman, Jr.'s, efforts to manage these properties and resolve legal quandaries--primarily in relation to the family's involvement with the Yazoo Land Fraud. The collection also details activities of Henry Newman's other children, particularly William Newman and the business he established in Buffalo, New York, in the 1820s.

The bulk of the Correspondence Series is letters between Henry Newman and his son, Henry Newman, Jr., from 1803 to 1811, relating to the management of their land holdings. Notably, they discussed Henry Newman, Jr's, lobbying efforts in Washington, D.C., regarding their Georgia claims. In this work, he interacted with President Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), the commissioners appointed to consider the Yazoo land claims-- James Madison (1751-1836), Albert Gallatin (1761-1849), and Levi Lincoln (1749-1820)--as well as Perez Morton (1751-1837) and Gideon Granger (1767-1822), agents for the New England Mississippi Land Company. The letters from 1803 to 1811 periodically reference John Peck, another speculator in the Yazoo lands who would eventually become embroiled in the landmark Supreme Court Case Fletcher v. Peck in relation to the Georgia land claims.

Henry Newman, Jr., also wrote detailed letters to his father describing his travels, meetings, and financial difficulties as he worked to manage issues with land titles, taxes, surveys, squatters, and determining the quality of their disputed properties in Virginia, Mississippi, Alabama, and Ohio. Several of Henry Newman, Jr.'s, letters also describe his interest in Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky, and western New York as developing centers of settlement, commenting on business prospects and rising land prices.

William Newman's letters detail his business enterprises in Buffalo, New York, where he settled in the 1820s. Other letters written between members of the Newman family, particularly the siblings, document the family's social life.

Some letters of note include:
  • Descriptions of meeting Samuel Blodget (1757-1814) in Debtor's Prison and discussions regarding his failed lottery to finance construction in Washington, D.C. (November 26, 1803; November 30, 1803; December 11, 1803; December 21, 1803)
  • Land speculators' deliberate fraud in Virginia (December 10, 1803; November 9, 1805)
  • Legislative negotiations concerning compensating Yazoo claimants (March 5, 1804; March 14, 1804; December 2, 1804; December 18, 1804; February 4, 1805; February 18, 1805; February 28, 1807)
  • Mentions of the Burr conspiracy (January 28, 1807; February 1, 1807)
  • Tennessee Governor Willie Blount's comments on Congressional support for settlement in the state and the possible threat of Native American conflict should war break out with Great Britain (March 17, 1812)
  • Discussion of Ohio's promise as a site of settlement (December 2, 1804; January 28, 1807; February 28, 1807)
  • Description of Huntsville, Alabama Territory, and its prospects (July 16, 1818; May 5, 1819)
  • Prospects for settling in Texas and inducements provided by the Mexican government (October 27, 1833)
  • Commentary on a German communal society (the Community of True Inspiration) and how the rising value of western New York lands convinced them to emigrate (April 15, 1856)

The Land and Estate Documents Series consists of eight items relating to the estates of William Newman and Henry Newman, Jr., as well as documents concerning Newman lands in Alabama, Mississippi, and Virginia, including three survey maps.

The Genealogy, Family Record, and Poetry Series consists of six items, which relate to the Newman and Cushing families' histories, including a detailed account of Henry Newman's final illness and an acrostic poem written for Henry Newman.


Joseph K. and George C. Wing collection, 1863-1930 (majority within 1863-1864, 1872-1924)

1.25 linear feet

This collection is made up of correspondence, writings, a journal, a scrapbook, and published material related to George Clary Wing of Bloomfield, Ohio, and two account books kept his father, Joseph Knowles Wing, during his military service in the Civil War. George C. Wing's correspondence pertains mostly to his career in the United States government in the late 19th century, and his writings cover topics such as history, literature, and travel.

This collection is made up of correspondence, writings, a journal, a scrapbook, and published material related to George Clary Wing of Bloomfield, Ohio, and two account books kept by his father, Joseph Knowles Wing, during his military service in the Civil War.

The Correspondence series (32 items) consists of personal and professional correspondence related to George C. Wing. Most items are incoming letters that Wing received from acquaintances and politicians who discussed Wing's career in the United States Department of Justice and the United States Department of State from 1872-1884. Some items are signed by prominent politicians, including George Henry Williams, Charles Devens, Benjamin Brewster, and Frederick T. Frelinghuysen. The series also contains a small number of draft letters from Wing to various individuals, also concerning his career in Washington, D.C. George C. Wing received personal letters from his father, Joseph K. Wing, and one letter and one telegram from his brother, Francis J. Wing; both provided news from North Bloomfield, Ohio, and offered professional advice. The final item is a brief personal letter from "George" to "Julia" (July 23, 1923).

The Journal and Notebooks series contains 2 notebooks and 1 journal. George C. Wing kept two notebooks from 1872-1924 (280 pages) and 1884-1920 (150 pages, not all of which are used). These contain quotations, essays, and notes about many subjects, including lectures at Georgetown Law School, English-language literature, classical history and literature, American history, and scientific subjects. Wing also composed some poetry. The second volume includes some one-line journal entries about Wing's business trips and family news from 1884-1910. He laid newspaper clippings, loose essays, photographs, and notes into the volumes.

George C. Wing's journal includes 51 pages of daily entries describing the scenery during his railroad and steamship journey from Ohio to Valdez, Alaska, and back between June 5, 1901, and July 9, 1901. He mentioned his daily activities and sometimes noted the types of plants prevalent in different areas of the country. The later pages (around 15 pages) contain a drawing of "Jake," a sketch of the Alaska coastline along a glacier, additional trip notes, memoranda, a railroad ticket and steamship purser's ticket, and a photograph of a woman.

The Writings series consists of three items. George C. Wing compiled a group of manuscript writings and draft letters in a volume entitled "Brands- from the Burning!" from the mid-1880s to the mid-1910s. Included are stories, essays, translations, and poems about history, literature, and other topics. Wing's draft letters include an opinion piece about the country's relationship with Germany in 1915. The series also includes a manuscript draft of Wing's book, The Western Reserve Home and The Manuscript Letters of Ephraim Brown and Family, 1805-1845 (1915, later published as Early Years on the Western Reserve) and a group of correspondence and essays about a road in Bloomfield, Ohio, and a related property dispute, entitled "The Lane in Section Sixty, Bloomfield, Trumbull County, Ohio" (1925).

The Joseph K. Wing Account Books (320 total pages, fewer than half of which are used) contain financial records and supply lists related to Wing's service in the 16th Army Corps during the Civil War (1863-1864). Wing, a quartermaster, compiled records about purchases of horses, including the price of each animal; lists of supplies, including the number of items and occasional remarks about items' condition; lists of clothing items available, including remarks about whether each item was damaged or new; a list of forage vouchers cashed by Wing, including the name of the soldier who claimed each voucher; and lists of supplies held by various regiments. Notes regarding prison returns mention a few female prisoners. The volumes also contain notes about army transportation and food supplies.

The collection's Scrapbook (27 pages) primarily contains newspaper clippings about many different subjects, including articles and photographs pertaining to steamship travel to and around Alaska, particularly regarding the ships Dolphin and Bertha. Other clippings concern various members of the Wing family, such as George C. Wing and Francis J. Wing, and the history of Bloomfield, Ohio. Items laid into the back of the volume include printed Personal Instructions to the Diplomatic Agents of the United States in Foreign Countries (1874), George Wing's manuscript report about "Proceedings for the Extradition of Criminals (June 14, 1883), George Wing's drawing of "The Encyclopedant" (February 1895), and a menu for the Alaska Steamship Company vessel Dolphin (July 4, 1901).

Printed Items (4 items) include a copy of George C. Wing's book Early Years on the Western Reserve with Extracts from Letters of Ephraim Brown and Family, 1805-1845 (Cleveland, 1916), inscribed to his sister Elizabeth and to a niece, and a copy of Neighborhood: A Settlement Quarterly containing several articles about pottery (July 1930). George C. Wing also collected court briefs from his time with the United States Court of Claims (1879-1882), and received a United States Senate report about the relationship between Great Britain and the United States with regard to each country's naval presence on the Great Lakes between the War of 1812 (1892).


Joseph Rockhold journal, 1834-1858

1 volume

This journal contains daily entries that Ohio farmer John Rockhold composed between 1834 and 1858. Rockhold discussed the weather, farm work, interactions with family members and neighbors, and a trip he took to Des Moines, Iowa, in the summer of 1852.

This journal contains daily entries that Ohio farmer John Rockhold composed between 1834 and 1858. Rockhold discussed the weather, farm work, interactions with family members and neighbors, and a trip he took to Des Moines, Iowa, in the summer of 1852.

The earliest pages in Rockhold's journal contain financial accounts, many of which pertain to sheep; the inside cover contains a short description of the manufacture of whiskey. Rockhold kept his diary between November 12, 1834, and January 31, 1858, writing most frequently in the 1850s. The bulk of the journal is made up of single-line entries, in which Rockhold described aspects of his life as a farmer, noted deaths, and maintained an account of his family's genealogy. In 2 entries, Rockhold mentioned the 1844 Presidential election and the Liberty Party (page 20).

In October 1854, Rockhold suffered a paralyzing stroke, and his later entries frequently reflect the state of his health. He also commented on his relationship with his son, particularly after November 1856. In addition to diary entries, Rockhold copied some legal documents, including a petition to erect a religious meeting house at Cove Spring (April 12, 1840, pages 10-11). Seven loose financial records and fragments are laid into the volume.


Josiah Harmar papers, 1681-1937

14 linear feet

The Josiah Harmar papers contain the official and personal correspondence, military records, and diaries of Harmar, with particular focus on his military leadership during the Northwest Indian War.

The Josiah Harmar papers contain 14 linear feet of material, spanning 1681 to 1937, with the bulk concentrated around 1775-1810. The collection includes a huge variety of document types, including correspondence and letter books, military documents, orderly books, financial and land documents, school notebooks, and diaries. It covers many aspects of Harmar's career, including his Revolutionary War service (1775-1783), duties in the Northwest Territory (1784-1791), and tenure with the Pennsylvania militia (1793-1799), with some documentation of the activities of his wife and four children and a few other descendants.

The Chronological Correspondence and Documents series (Volumes 1-24 and 45) makes up the largest part of the collection and primarily contains incoming letters and documents relating to Harmar's military career, and to a lesser extent, to his family and personal life. A few scattered, outgoing letters by Harmar are also present. The pre-1775 materials in the series are small in number and relate mainly to the land and property holdings of the Jenkins family, who were relatives of Harmar's wife, Sarah (Jenkins) Harmar. These include wills, inventories, sketches of property, and land indentures, several of which pertain to lands in Pennsylvania.

A few dozen items in the series relate to various aspects of the Revolutionary War and Harmar's service in it. These include muster rolls of Harmar's company in the Pennsylvania Line (February 19, 1776; June 22, 1776), an account of clothing delivered to the company (March 18, 1777), a copy of Baron Friedrich von Steuben's instructions to the American Army at Valley Forge (March 23, 1778) and a set of "Maneuvers" for April 13, 1782. Also present are incoming letters to Harmar from other Continental Army officers, including Major Thomas L. Moore, Brigadier General William Irvine, and Colonel Francis Johnston. In a letter of September 30, 1781, Moore expressed nervousness about a potential British attack on Philadelphia and concern about yellow fever, "which at present rages in New York." Other letters discuss the British interception and publication of American correspondence ([before September 10, 1781]) and provide updates on happenings in Philadelphia. An outgoing letter from Harmar to Irvine contains Harmar's reaction to the death of the aunt who raised him: "I have lost my best Friend" (October 6, 1780). Several additional incoming letters reference the negotiations to end the war, including the appointment of Richard Oswald as British peace commissioner (December 25, 1782). Another item mentions the logistics of bringing soldiers home from South Carolina (May 22, 1783). Also included are a letter by John Dickinson, praising the officers of the Pennsylvania Line (May 22, 1783), and Nathanael Greene's signed certification that Harmar acted as adjutant general to the Southern army (May 9, 1783). Although the series contains the certificate appointing Harmar as courier of the ratified Treaty of Paris (January 14, 1784) and several related documents, his journey to Paris is not otherwise referenced.

From 1784 to 1791, when Harmar acted as commander of the Army, the series contains ample detail on military activities, strategy, and logistics; encounters with Native Americans in present-day Ohio and Indiana; dealings with white settlers in the Northwest Territory; the construction of forts; and other topics. Several items cover the negotiations of the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in January 1785, including preparations for the meeting (December 17, 1784), Harmar's brief description of the progress made in negotiations (January 10, 1785), a copy of the treaty (January 21, 1785), and an inventory of United States property at the fort. A few letters mention the difficulties of leading a poorly paid and largely untrained force, including one by Captain Derick Lane, in which he lamented the poor pay of soldiers and noted that it was "impossible" to keep troops in service for any significant length of time (March 15, 1785).

Another theme of the series is the dealings between the army and the white settlers who attempted to settle on prohibited land. A series of letters in April 1785 between Harmar and a group of settlers west of the Beaver River (a tributary of the Ohio River near the present-day Pennsylvania-Ohio border) sheds light on this squatter settlement, and includes the pleas and signatures of several dozen men who claim to lack "homes or lands to move to" if evicted (April 15, 1785). Although the settlers admitted their mistake in a letter of April 8, 1785 ("We have erred in settling her without the advise [sic] and consent of government"), Harmar maintained his insistence that they remove themselves (April 21, 1785). Also included are the comments of Ensign John Armstrong, who wrote, "[I]f the Honorable Congress, don't fall on some speedy method to prevent people from settling on the Lands of the United States, West of the Ohio--that country will soon be inhabited by a banditi whose actions are a disgrace to human nature" (April 13, 1785). Letters in the series also refer to Native American responses to settlement; Captain David Luckett wrote on July 10, 1785, that two chiefs, "[Cayasutu] and the Corn Planter" had complained about the settlers' encroachment on native lands. In a copy of a speech written by Wyandot chiefs Abraham Coon and Massayeh Haire in Sandusky to Richard Butler, they warned him to "keep back your people from coming this Way" (October 28, 1786).

The collection also includes approximately 130 letters containing instructions to Harmar from Secretary of War Henry Knox, 1785-1791, setting forth many aspects of the government's policy for the Northwest Territory. His letters concern army administration, discipline, land policy, incidents involving Native Americans, the recruitment of troops, traders, settlers, supplies, and numerous other issues.

A few noteworthy examples of items by Knox include:
  • Knox's letter to Harmar concerning "Moravian Indians," whom Congress will allow to "return to their former settlement on the Muskingum" and will provide with corn (August 24, 1786).
  • A letter containing orders that the militia "be drawn from the nearest Counties of Kentuckey [sic] to rendezvous at Fort Washington" and noting that the "peace of the frontiers" is a "great object" (June 7, 1790).
  • Knox's letter suggesting that Colonel Benjamin Logan lead an expedition against Native Americans and noting his "powerful influence over the conduct of the militia" (September 3, 1790).

Many additional letters written to Harmar by various army officers and merchants relate incidents concerning Iroquois, Mohawk, Cherokee, Wyandot, Delaware, and other Native American groups.

A few items of particular interest include:
  • Merchant Obidiah Robin's description of relations between Wyandot Indians and whites near Tuscarawas, Ohio (May 17, 1785).
  • Colonel Richard Butler's address to Seneca chief Corn Planter, which references Joseph Brant and his recent return from England, as well as relations between the Shawnee and Six Nations (September 10, 1786).
  • The answer of the Wyandot and Delaware Indians to a speech by Richard Butler, which thanks the Americans for appointing him "to take Care of us" and states that the western Native American tribes "would Whip us Very Sorely" if given the chance (September 23, 1786).
  • An incident described in two letters by Captain William Ferguson (September 13-14, 1786) and Obidiah Robins (September 25, 1786), in which Cherokee warriors assembled at the "Shawana Towns" burned several white female prisoners to death.
  • A letter by Thomas Hutchins, which notes that unspecified Native Americans stole eight horses and "marked the figure of a Man, without the head, on the side of Tree…which indicates their having killed a Man and taken his Scalp" (November 6, 1786).

Letters and documents in the series also shed light on the Harmar Campaign in the fall of 1790. On October 1, 1790, Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory, discussed the "object" of such an expedition: "to chastise the Indian Nations who have of late been so troublesome to the Frontier, of Virginia, and upon the Ohio River; and to impress proper Notions upon the others with respect to the United States." Several letters by Jean Francois Hamtramck concern his expedition against Native American villages on the Vermilion, Eel, and Wabash Rivers, intended to distract native forces from Harmar's own operations. These include his discussion of his preparation and goals for the mission (September 21, 1790), as well as a lengthy account of his actions near the Vermilion River (November 2, 1790). One of the few references in the series to the events of Harmar's Defeat also comes from Hamtramck, in a letter requesting more information on rumors he heard from "two frenchmen who came from the Weiya" that Harmar's forces had suffered a major blow (November 28, 1790).

After the failure of his campaign, Harmar continued to receive letters concerning news of the frontier and requests for help from settlers. Among these are a petition from the inhabitants of Clarksville, Ohio, reporting problems with Native Americans and asking for protection (December 3, 1790), and a notification that the inhabitants of Dunlap's Station planned to abandon the settlement because of an attack on their livestock and grain by natives (January 16, 1791). In another letter, the inhabitants of Bethany, Ohio, requested army protection and reported the recent killing of Abel Cook by Native Americans (February 28, 1791). Other letters concern Harmar's culpability in Harmar's Defeat; one item from John Armstrong notes, "You are censured for making detachments and the loss of some men improperly attributed to this cause" (March 1, 1791). Another from Major William Ferguson states, "Some have reported that you was intoxicated the greater part of the time, and others that misconduct had marked the whole of your expedition" (March 28, 1791). Also included is the March 18, 1791, appointment of Arthur St. Clair to succeed Harmar.

Later items in the series illuminate Harmar's experiences as adjutant general of the Pennsylvania Militia (1793-1799), and his retirement at his estate, The Retreat, from 1799 until his death in 1813. They also document some aspects of his family life. Sarah Jenkins Harmar took charge of the finances and management of her husband’s Ohio and Pennsylvania lands after his death in 1813; approximately 15 letters to and from various agents (including John B. Alexander and John Reynolds) concern renters, taxes, and other administrative details. In the mid-1820s, Sarah’s sons, Josiah, Jr., and William, provided increasing assistance with land management responsibilities. The collection also contains correspondence between Sarah Harmar and sons during their residence in Ohio, regarding the business of her land holdings in the 1830s and 1840s.

Fourteen large deeds (1682-1786) pertain to lands in Pennsylvania. Additional items in this series are commissions, passports, newspapers and newspaper clippings. For a list of newspapers represented, see "Additional Descriptive Data."

The Diaries series (Volume 46) contains three volumes of diary entries and a set of loose diary pages by Josiah Harmar. Altogether, they span November 11, 1778-February 14, 1800, and provide an excellent record of his activities in both the Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. The Revolutionary War diary covers November 11, 1778-September 2, 1780, and contains Harmar's account of duties, troop movements, and major events during his military service in New York and New Jersey, including the Battle of Stony Point (July 16, 1779) and an attack on a blockhouse at Bull's Ferry (July 21, 1780). Of the latter event, he noted that several Americans "were kill'd inside the Abbatis" and that the British had the blockhouse "mann'd with about Seventy Negros, Tories & Vagabonds." He also wrote about the drunkenness of the Irish on St. Patrick's Day (March 18, 1780), sowing lettuce in his "Camp Garden" (April 6, 1780), and a quickly-quelled mutiny within the Connecticut Line (May 25, 1780). Of interest are Harmar's comments on Benedict Arnold, for whose 1779 court martial Harmar had been ordered to serve: "General Arnold objected against General Irvine, Colonel Butler and myself, at the same Time expressing great personal Regard for us, but without assigning his Reasons" (June 1, 1779). Two additional notebooks are "weather diaries" of meteorological conditions at Fort Washington, June 1, 1790-September 25, 1791.

Of particular importance are approximately 75 sheets containing brief diary entries for August 8, 1783, to February 14, 1800. Harmar folded the sheets into pocket-sized pages, on which he recorded observations on military actions, encounters with Native Americans, weather conditions, and other topics. The diary opens with his preparations for a journey to France as the courier of the ratified Treaty of Paris; entries for the summer of 1784 describe his travel across the Atlantic, a visit to the Palace of Versailles, and attendance of several theater performances. After Harmar became commander of the army, he primarily recorded activities around forts in Pennsylvania and Ohio, as well as information about his campaign against the Miami in the fall of 1790. He most commonly wrote about troop and Native American movements, hunting, crossing rivers, and the arrival of provisions and clothing. On March 31, 1785, he wrote that he had sent Ensign John Armstrong to dispossess squatters on land across the river from Wheeling [present day West Virginia].

A few other entries of note:
  • On May 13, 1785, Harmar noted the capture of a Delaware Indian who had stabbed four men (killing one) near Pittsburgh.
  • On March 7, 1787, he wrote that Cornplanter and three other chiefs had visited him at Fort Steuben before "setting out for the Six Nations."
  • On July 27, 1787, Harmar described a fatal attack on "Capt. Mason's boat" on the White River by Piankashaw Indians (July 27, 1787).
  • On March 31, 1788, he wrote "Old Captain Pipe with several of his Nation arrived this day--they are encamped about a mile from hence up the Muskingum."
  • On October 18, 1789, he noted that the state of Pennsylvania had appointed commissioners "to purchase from the Indians the triangular tract of Land adjoining Lake Erie."

The unbound diary pages also provide the collection's most complete description of Harmar's Campaign and Harmar's Defeat. On October 18, 1790, Harmar noted that two Native Americans had been killed and scalped by "the Cavalry" near Chillicothe, Ohio. Several days later, he wrote that his forces had "completed the destruction of the Maumee Towns," and he had detached Major John P. Wyllys with 60 federal and 300 militia troops "in hopes he may fall in with some of the Savages" (October 21, 1790). On October 22, 1790, he gave an account of the Battle of Pumpkin Fields, stating that the detachment under Wyllys and Colonel John Hardin "performed wonders altho' they were terribly cut up." He called the deaths of several officers, including Wyllys, a "heavy blow," but noted as a consolation that the men had "sold themselves very dear." On November 3, 1790, he further reflected on the losses suffered during the defeat. Later diary entries pertain mainly to the weather, activities such as fishing and hunting trips, and other routine pursuits.

The Letter Books series contains nine volumes of bound, outgoing correspondence, written by Harmar to various recipients. The volumes, which are lettered chronologically, A-I, span January 19, 1784, to January 7, 1797. The series opens with an account of Harmar's visit to France in 1784, as courier of the ratified Treaty of Paris, including his delay in sailing from New York, comments on the journey to Europe, and some references to the Treaty of Paris and British politics. Thereafter, the letters mainly concern official military matters and business; Harmar addressed most of them to other army officers, such as Secretary of War Henry Knox; Captains Walter Finney, David Zeigler, and John Francis Hamtramck; and Major John Hardin. Harmar also wrote occasionally to surveyors, merchants, and land speculators in present-day Ohio.

The letters concern a variety of topics, including military strategy, troop movements and distribution, provisioning, disagreements between military officers, and reports of intelligence. They also reference encounters with the Wyandot, Delaware, Mingo, Miami, and Chickasaw, and several unspecified groups of Native Americans. Two different accounts of Colonel Logan’s 1786 expedition mention the imprisonment of Native American women and children (December 7, 1786; December 16, 1786). Harmar variously discussed the make-up of his forces (October 11, 1786), the arrangement of his troops between Fort Vincennes and headquarters (August 18, 1790), strategies for dealing with old and unfit soldiers (August 27, 1790), and the importance of punctual payments in ensuring military discipline (September 2, 1790). The letter books contain a gap between September 29, 1790, and November 12, 1790, and thus do not directly mention the events of Harmar's Defeat. After Harmar's resignation from the service, the letters become much less frequent, but contain references to the death of John Hardin (September 6, 1792) and the printing of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben's "Manoeuvres" by "Mr. Cist" of Philadelphia (August 20, 1793).

The Bound Military Volumes series (Volumes 31-32) contains 12 books kept by Harmar between 1775 and 1788.

The muster rolls and letter book volume 31 (B) includes Harmar's letter to Anthony Wayne, dated January 20, 1778, in which he requested clothing for the men of his regiment, camped near Valley Forge, whom he described as "almost naked and in want of every necessary." The orderly books in Volume 31 contain orders at the regimental and battalion level for 1778-1783, and concern military discipline, placement of troops, courts martial, appointments, and routine matters.

All the books pertain to the First American Regiment, which Harmar commanded. Volume B primarily records garrison orders for Fort McIntosh, 1784-1786, while the other volumes include more general regimental orders.

The Financial Documents series (Volumes 25-27, 33-34, 38-42) contains bills, receipts, account books, bank books, ledgers, and other items relating to financial matters. Spanning 1742-1911 (bulk 1780-1840), the series brings together financial information on Josiah Harmar, as well as many other Harmar family members, including his wife, children, and grandchildren. Many of the volumes contain military spending, as well as more personal financial transactions. See "Detailed Box and Folder Listing" for more information.

The School Books series (Volumes 35-37) contains 35 exercise and drawing books kept by members of the Harmar family during their time as students. The books, which span ca. 1790s-1830s, cover many subjects, including arithmetic, history, art, English, French, and penmanship. Many of the volumes belonged to Harmar's sons, Charles and Josiah, Jr. One book, dated 1766, contains manuscript copies of stories from Roman history by Josiah Harmar.


Samuel Huntington papers, 1768-1828

0.25 linear feet

The Samuel Huntington papers contain letters and documents of a prominent Ohio settler and political leader. Included are items on his business, political, and military activities.

The Samuel Huntington papers (60 items) contain letters and documents of a prominent Ohio settler and political leader. The Correspondence and Documents series contains 23 letters and 27 documents and financial records. Many of the early items are records and receipts for sales of land and legal services. Other documents include an agreement for Elija Gunn to build a fence around Huntington's home (November 10, 1804), a transfer of land in Cleveland Township from Huntington to Augustus Gilbert (May 4, 1808), Huntington's payment receipt for his services to the Ohio Militia (May 24, 1813), and numerous other land transactions.

Notable letters include:
  • A letter from fellow Ohio settler David Bryant asking for investments to buy a still for whiskey making (August 28, 1801)
  • A letter from Turhand Kirtland, Connecticut Land Company agent, inquiring about the companies' interests in settling new towns (March 27, 1802)
  • A second letter from Kirtland discussing politics and congratulating Huntington on his election as Trumbull County delegate to the constitutional convention (March 3, 1803)
  • A congratulatory letter from William Law on Huntington's election as state governor accompanied by a number of state policy requests (December 18, 1808)
  • A personal letter from Samuel Huntington to his eldest son, Francis, that describes his travels through Cincinnati, including an Indian attack, and provides instructions to his son for handling the tax collector (July 3, 1813)

Items related to the military include four Quartermaster documents from Detroit and Washington (August 11, 1813-July 16, 1814), and Samuel Huntington's letter to Simon Huntington of Grand River, Ohio, in which he discussed his opinions on the War of 1812 (December 14, 1814). The collection concludes with a farewell letter and religious diatribe from the dying 86-year-old Moses Lyman, a prominent citizen of Goshen, Connecticut.

The Account Book series consists of a 23-page booklet of "Copies of Notes and other Obligations due to me with their Indorsments" (1795-1814). These notes record large transactions (most between $70 and $1,000 with one as high as $4,716.96), and provide details on reasons for the deals and the parties involved.

The Photographs and Newspaper Clippings series holds one of each item. The clipping is undated and likely from a local Cleveland newspaper. The clipped article is "Colonel Samuel Huntington Surveys his Property" by S.J. Kelly, about Huntington's early property holding in Cleveland. The photograph is unlabeled but is possibly a painted portrait of Huntington.


Wilkinson-Burbeck letters, 1796-1797

15 items

This collection is made up of letters that Brigadier General James Wilkinson sent to Major Henry Burbeck from Ohio and Michigan in the late 1790s. He discussed logistical affairs related to the Northwest Territory, mentioning roads, trade, and relations with Native Americans and Europeans, and other subjects.

This collection is made up of letters that Brigadier General James Wilkinson sent to Major Henry Burbeck from Ohio and Michigan in the late 1790s. He discussed issues related to the United States Army's affairs in the Northwest Territory, commenting on relationships with Native Americans and with French and Spanish forces. He remarked on events in the Mackinac region and occasionally mentioned General Anthony Wayne. Some of the letters contain instructions for Burbeck and others, such as a letter discussing Wilkinson's interest in furs, are personal correspondence or letters authorizing the bearer to certain goods. The letters are dated from Greenville, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; and St. Joseph, Michigan. See the Detailed Box and Folder Listing for more information.