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Charles H. Hosmer collection, 1870-1885

0.25 linear feet

The Charles H. Hosmer collection is made up of a diary (365 pages, 1877), 13 stereoscopic photographs (1872-1877), and a published volume (1870) related to the Hosmer's career as an assistant surveyor with the United States Coast Survey. The diary covers his experiences working along the Banana River in Florida and in Bar Harbor, Maine.

The Charles H. Hosmer collection is made up of a diary (365 pages, 1877), 13 stereographs (1872-1877), and a published volume (1870) related to Hosmer's career as an assistant surveyor with the United States Coast Survey.

The Diary is a partially printed Excelsior pocket diary for the year 1877, with each page devoted to one day. Hosmer wrote brief daily entries, covering his experiences on a surveying expedition along Florida's Banana River onboard the steamer Steadfast; his journeys to Bar Harbor, Maine, and Chicago, Illinois; and his daily life in Bristol, Rhode Island, between his travels.

From January to mid-May, Hosmer wrote from the Steadfast along Florida's eastern coast. He frequently visited Titusville and often recorded his successful duck hunting excursions. Entries also pertain to his hydrographical work for the United States Coast Survey, other workers onboard the ship, and Hosmer's acquaintances. He discussed his railroad journey home to Bristol, Rhode Island, various aspects of his social life, and later working journeys to Bar Harbor, Maine, and other locations. Memoranda at the back of the volume include a list of letters written by Hosmer, an address list, and tide gauge statistics recorded along the Banana River (1876 and 1877) and in Maine (undated).

A collection of 13 black-and-white Stereoscopic Photographs depict three-dimensional scenes from the southern United States and from Taunton River, Massachusetts, and Rockford, Illinois.

The scenes include:
  • Photographs of Bonaventure Cemetery, Savannah, Georgia (3 items)
  • Pavilion Hotel, Savannah, Georgia (undated)
  • Fort Sumter (1872)
  • The Charleston Hotel, Charleston, South Carolina (undated)
  • A storefront in Rockford, Illinois (undated)
  • John R. Porter residence, Rockford, Illinois (undated)
  • Surveying equipment and men at a camp near Taunton River, Massachusetts (2 items, September-October 1876)
  • Number 707 Glen House, [Littleton, New Hampshire?] (undated)
  • United States Steamship Bavataria [sic] (undated)
  • Burnham slate quarry (undated)

The Printed Publication is a copy of United States Coast Survey. Memoranda Relating to the Field-Work of the Secondary Triangulation, written by Richard D. Cutts and published by the Government Printing Office in 1870. The text includes related tables. Charles Hosmer's name is printed on the front cover. A 10-page packet of manuscript documents laid into the book, contains Hosmer's descriptions of flagstaffs and signals "Between New Rochelle and Greenwich" (3 pages); tables recording several geographical positions with brief copied notes from G. Bradford (6 pages, June 1885 and undated); and a letter to Charles Hosmer from C. O. Bontelle of the C. & G. Survey (1 page, June 1, 1885). Bontelle's letter contains a small diagram showing old and new Bessel data lines, used in surveying.


Clinton H. Haskell Civil War collection, 1841-1895

120 items

Clinton H. Haskell Civil War collection contains miscellaneous letters, military orders, telegrams, and documents related to the Civil War.

Clinton H. Haskell Civil War collection (120 items) contains miscellaneous letters, military orders, telegrams, and documents related to the Civil War from 1843 to 1895. The bulk of the collection is comprised of letters written by army officers and politicians, both Union and Confederate, during and after the Civil War.


Green-Mitchell family papers, 1780-1883 (majority within 1785-1812, 1831-1862)

3.75 linear feet

The Green-Mitchell family papers are made up of correspondence, legal documents, receipts, and other financial records pertaining to the business and personal affairs of New York attorneys Timothy Green and John W. Mitchell (Timothy Green's son-in-law). Much of the collection pertains to mercantile affairs and land speculation in the South, Northeast and Western United States. A large portion of the collection pertains to South Carolina (Charleston), New York, and Massachusetts (Worcester).

The Green-Mitchell family papers are made up of correspondence, legal documents, receipts, and other financial records pertaining to the business and personal affairs of New York attorneys Timothy Green and John W. Mitchell (Timothy Green's son-in-law). Much of the collection pertains to mercantile affairs and land speculation in the South, Northeast and Western United States. A large portion of the collection pertains to South Carolina (Charleston), New York, and Massachusetts (Worcester).

The Correspondence series contains 1,470 letters to and from members of the Green and Mitchell families between June 26, 1780 and October 1, 1880. Four hundred and sixteen incoming letters to Timothy Green date between 1780, and 1812. He received the bulk of them from family members, business partners, and clients in South Carolina, New York, and Worcester, Massachusetts. Timothy's brother, Samuel Green, a prominent merchant in Columbia, South Carolina, was among his most frequent correspondents. The collection includes 160 letters by Timothy Green, primarily sent from New York. Timothy Green's correspondence comprises the bulk of the collection's materials related to land speculation.

John W. Mitchell received 540 letters, approximately a third of the series, between 1806 and 1880. His primary correspondents wrote from Charleston, South Carolina; Fort Wayne, Indiana; and New York. The subject matter represented in these letters is diverse, pertaining to business and personal affairs, and the Episcopal Church. Other frequent writers include Timothy Ruggles Green, Clarence G. Mitchell, Samuel Green, and Judge Peter P. Bailey, founder of Trinity Episcopal Church in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

The Legal Documents series relates to estates administration and 48 legal suits in which the Green and Mitchell families were involved, either as attorneys or as parties to a suit. Materials for some of these cases are extensive and others include only a few pages. The cases comprising much of the series are Conklin v. Mitchell and Davis v. Duffie. Conklin v. Mitchell (New York, 1852-57) pertains to a land dispute between George Conklin and defendant John W. Mitchell. Davis v. Duffie (New York, 1825-1861) concerns charges brought against Smith Davis for fraud and a related mortgage taken out by Cornelius R. Duffie. John W. Mitchell and Clarence G. Mitchell defended Duffie.

Five certificates document commissions held by John W. Mitchell and Clarence G. Mitchell. Additional legal papers include insurance policies, powers of attorney, deeds, civil actions, summonses, depositions, agreements, and other items compiled by Timothy Green and John W. Mitchell in carrying out their work as attorneys.

The Financial Documents series contains 143 receipts, checks, bank notes, accounts, and other financial records dating from 1785-1874. Timothy Green compiled 11 summaries of accounts, representing a portion of his business transactions between 1787 and 1809.

Printed materials include a quarterly chronicle for the Mission to the Working Men of Paris (1877), two monthly bulletins for the Charity Organization Society in New York (1884), a notice of sale, and a cover page from the book One Day With Whistler.

Miscellaneous materials include two items: a partially-printed report card for Clarence G. Mitchell at the Episcopal Institute at Troy, New York, in 1837, and a genealogical document concerning the Boudinot family of Philadelphia.

The Manuscripts Division has also created an inventory of the letter-writers in the collection: Green-Mitchell Family Papers Correspondent Inventory.


James Douglas account book, 1784-1792

1 volume

This volume contains invoices and accounts related to London-based merchant James Douglas, who shipped fabrics, woven goods, and other items between Great Britain and the United States during the 1780s. The bulk of the records document the amount and cost of goods shipped on behalf of various firms and consignment agents. Later accounts reflect the shipment of tobacco, indigo, rice, and other goods from the United States to Great Britain.

This volume (329 pages) contains invoices and accounts related to London-based merchant James Douglas, who shipped fabrics, woven goods, and other items between Great Britain and the United States during the 1780s. The bulk of the records (317 pages) pertain to shipments of cloth goods from Great Britain to the United States between April 1784 and August 1786. His goods included domestic and imported cloths, handkerchiefs, blankets, and other finished products. Daily records include the name of the ship carrying the goods from London or Liverpool to North American ports, including Charleston, South Carolina. Some records include the price of related items such as buttons and tassels. One entry concerns a shipment of books (pp. 202-204).

The remaining accounts (12 pages) pertain to shipments of tobacco from Savannah, Georgia, and Charleston, South Carolina, to British ports between January 1, 1789, and July 7, 1792. These accounts, recorded sporadically, primarily pertain to the value of the tobacco and, less frequently, other items such as rice and indigo.


Jeffery Amherst papers, 1758-1764

2 linear feet

The Jeffery Amherst papers (763 items) consist of the correspondence, documents, and military orders of Jeffery Amherst, British commander-in-chief in North America from 1758-1763. Included are Amherst's letters to General Thomas Gage and the papers given to Gage with the transfer of authority in 1763.

The Jeffery Amherst papers (763 items) contain the correspondence, documents, and military orders of Jeffery Amherst, British commander-in-chief in North America from 1758 to 1763. The collection constitutes the papers given to General Thomas Gage at the transfer of authority in 1763. Also included are letters and petitions addressed to Amherst, Amherst's letters to Gage, and letters addressed to Amherst that arrived in New York City after his departure for England.

The Letters and Documents series (241 items) contains letters between Amherst and Thomas Gage, as well as material left for Gage, and letters that arrived at the New York headquarters for Amherst after his departure to England. Items include administrative letters concerning military matters and news, troop instructions and orders, details on troop movements and the outcomes of battles, court martial reports, intelligence reports on enemy forces, promotions, petitions, memorials, troop returns, and accounts for provisions and other military expenses. These document the French and Indian War, British control over Canada and the western territories after the war, management of Indian Affairs, and dealings with Pontiac. Also discussed are activities and construction at forts Crown Point, Edward, George, Herkirmer, Louisbourg, Niagara, Oswego, Pitt, Stanwix, and Ticonderoga. The letters mention and discuss John Appy, John Bradstreet, William Browning, Henry Gladwin, Frederick Haldimand, William Johnson, supplier Christopher Kilby, Robert Monckton, John Prideaux, Robert Rogers, John Stanwix, and John Stuart, among others.

Of note:
  • August 1758-January 1759: Material related to Amherst's successful siege at Louisbourg, including letters, orders, returns, and a report on the condition of the camp
  • May 7, 1759: Plans for an invasion into Canada and for the taking of Fort Ticonderoga
  • July and August 1759: Preliminary action before the taking of Ticonderoga
  • July 28, 1759: News of the death of Brigadier General John Prideaux
  • August 5, 1759: A description of the design of the proposed fort at Oswego
  • March 31, 1760: A letter describing a great fire in Boston that destroyed one quarter of the city
  • October 18, November 4, 1760, and August 31, 1761: Mentions of Mrs. Gage traveling from Albany to Montreal, of her pregnancy, and of her interactions with "the religious ladies"
  • August 1, 1761: Description of Lieutenant Colonel Grant's success against the Cherokee with details on the attack; consideration of a tax on spirits to encourage spruce beer
  • September-October 1761: Amherst's headquarters at Staten Island
  • December 12, 1761: Lord Egremont stresses the use of gentleness and kindness with the French and Indians in Canada
  • 1762-1763: Letters to Gage regarding provisioning forces in Canada and transmitting news from America, England, and Europe
  • January 16, 1762: Sir William Johnson reports on relations with Seneca Indians
  • October 13, 1762: News of the retaking of St. Johns from the French, making the entire island of Newfoundland British
  • July 1, 1763: Sir William Johnson's report on steps to take to appease the Six Nations
  • August 1, 1763: Report that Michilimackinac has fallen to the Potawatomi Indians
  • November 1, 1763: A letter from Henry Gladwin from Detroit recounting the settlement of peace with Pontiac - enclosed are 8 letters from Neyon de Villiere to Gladwin and the Indians of Detroit and a letter from Pontiac to Gladwin (in French)
  • November 17, 1763: Amherst advices the colonial governors that he is returning to England
  • January 30, 1764: Accounts for Henry Gladwin of Detroit with receipts and account records spanning October 1762-October 1763

The Schedules series (306 items) comprises the "Papers Delivered by Major General Sir Jeffery Amherst, on his giving up the Command of the Troops in North America, to Major General [Thomas] Gage." The letters and documents are organized into 14 "schedules" grouped by geography and sender/recipient. Letters are primarily copies and extracts, and the bulk of the items date from April to October 1763.

Schedule 1 (Volume 1, pages 1-34) documents Amherst's communications with the British administration at Whitehall, primarily with King George III and Secretary of State Charles Wyndham Egremont.

Discussed are:
  • Pages 9-12: The Treaty of Paris
  • Pages 18 (see also Schedule 2 pages 45-47, 51-53): Captain John Dalrymple's petition concerning accusations from North Carolina Governor Arthur Dobbs
  • Pages 19-26: Britain's new acquisitions in America after the Treaty of Paris, and the boarders with the Indian tribes in Canada and Florida
  • Pages 20 and 29: Suspicions of Catholics and priests in Canada

Schedule 2 (Volume 1, pages 35-61) documents relate to Secretary of War Welbore Ellis and Treasury Secretary Henry Jenkinson.

These contain:
  • Pages 38-39: Lists on the makeup of the regiments of Major General Robert Monckton and Lieutenant General James Abercromby
  • 45-47, 51-53: A memorial for Captain John Dalrymple and communications between Amherst and Governor Arthur Dobbs regarding Dalrymple's arrest and trial
  • Page 50: Amherst's report on the troops along the Mississippi and in Canada, including a suggestion that the commander-in-chief's headquarters be either at New York or Philadelphia

Schedule 3 (Volume 1, pages 62-93) documents relate to commanders on the Southern and western frontier, including officers at Pensacola, St. Augustine, Mobile, the Bahamas, Bermuda, Canada, and Fort de Chartres.

These contain:
  • Page 62-68: Instructions for armies across the continent
  • Page 71: A list of transport ships under Lieutenant Colonel Robertson
  • Page 81: Report on the Seneca Indians from Amherst
  • Page 83-87: Provisions and returns for troops stationed at St. Augustine and Pensacola

Schedule 4 (Volume 2, pages 1-29) documents relate to Major Henry Gladwin stationed at Detroit, and Major John Wilkins at Fort Niagara, concerning Pontiac's rebellion.

These contain:
  • Pages 5-9: Intelligence from Detroit
  • Pages 16-17: A description of an Indian attack on the schooner Queen Royal, leaving Niagara for Detroit, and Amherst's response
  • Pages 19-21: Courts of inquiry on soldiers captured by Indians
  • Pages 22-28: Reports on the 60th Regiment at Niagara and Indian relations
  • Page 29: Discussions concerning the offer of a reward of 100-200 pounds to the person who kills Pontiac

Schedule 5 (Volume 2, pages 30-37) contains the letters between Amherst and General Henry Bouquet.

Discussed are:
  • Page 30-31: Plans for troop reductions in the Southern District
  • 34-37: Details on the 60th Regiment at Fort Pitt

Schedule 6 (Volume 2, pages 38-39) letters to Lieutenant Colonel Browning of the 46th Regiment at Niagara concerning a robbery at Fort Pitt, and to Lieutenant Colonel Campbell of the 17th Regiment regarding disbanding regiments

Schedule 7 (Volume 2, pages 40-74) concerns scaling back operations at Fort Halifax, including many accounts and expense reports.

These concern:
  • Pages 41-45: Orders to Otho Hamilton for the 40th Regiment to move to Halifax
  • Pages 46-52: Proceedings of councils of war at Halifax concerning supply stoppages (September 1, 1752, August 3, 1759, September 3, 1763)
  • Page 60: A list of persons "as judged as absolutely neccissary for office at Halifax"

Schedule 8 (Volume 2, pages 75-82) contains information on operations at Louisbourg, primarily with Colonel John Tulleken.

Schedule 9 (Volume 3, pages 1-38) documents operations at the fort at St. John and the troops at Newfoundland, primarily through communications with Captain Stephen Gauly.

Discussed are:
  • Page 5: Expenses for 1762
  • Page 8: Disbursements for September 1762-August 1763
  • Pages 9-38: Accounts for the Newfoundland operations

Schedule 10 (Volume 3, pages 39-42) contains letters between Amherst and Sir William Johnson, concerning Indian relations, including the Seneca and Six Nations tribes in Western New York, Canada, and the Illinois and Ohio territories.

Schedule 11 (Volume 3, pages 43-60) documents communications with John Stuart from Charleston, South Carolina, concerning southern Indian affairs. Of note is a speech from Cherokee Chief Little Carpenter

Schedule 12 (Volume 3, pages 61-80) contains letters from Governor Thomas Boone of South Carolina; Lieutenant Governor Fauquier of Virginia; Colonel Adam Stephen at Winchester, Virginia; Lieutenant Governor James Hamilton and Governor John Penn of Pennsylvania; New Jersey Governor William Franklin; New York Lieutenant Governor Cadwallader Colden; and Amherst. These concern purchasing lands from various Indian tribes, settlement on Indian lands, and troop levels in the various colonies.

Schedule 13 (Volume 3, pages 81-91) concern Henry Bouquet and the regiment organized at Fort Pitt.

Schedule 14 (Volume 3, pages 92-117) contains troop dispositions, expense accounts, military returns, and letters received in New York after Amherst had left for England.

Included are:
  • Page 81: A disposition for all British forces in North America in August 1763
  • Pages 92-95: Reports from Bouquet regarding Fort Pitt (October 24, 1763)
  • Pages 95-110: Reports from John Hopkins of Detroit including accounts and returns
  • Page 111: A letter from Robert Rogers at Detroit who was too deep in debt to pay his creditors
  • Pages 112-115: Letters from Colonel John Bradstreet on the forces at Albany, New York
  • Pages 116-117: Letters from Thomas Hancock of Boston concerning the sale of supplies at Louisbourg

The Commissions, Reports, and Articles of Capitulation series (11 items) contains various treaties and reports relating to the British victory over France in the French and Indian War.

These are:
  • November 24, 1759: Proclamations for the British takeover of Ticonderoga and Crown Point (2 items)
  • September 8, 1760: Articles of Capitulation for the surrender of Canada from Amherst to French Governor Pierre François de Rigaud
  • May 29, 1762: Appointment of Lieutenant Launcelot Hill to the 55th Regiment
  • February 10, 1763: "The Definitive Treaty of Peace and friendship Between His Britannick Majesty, the Most Christian King, and the King of Spain, Concluded at Paris," printed in London, 1763
  • June 8, 1763: "A Report of the Board of Trade" relating to the new British possession in America from France and Spain and the board's "opinion by what regulations the most extensive Advantages may be derived from them" (2 copies)
  • July 9, [1763]: A customs act from George III along with a printed list of ships in Newfoundland and America and additional instructions to the fleet under Captain Graves (4 items)

Photographic views of Sherman's campaign : from negatives taken in the field. Embracing scenes of the occupation of Nashville, the Great battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the sea and the great raid through the Carolinas, [1866]

1 volume

This volume is a published collection of photographic prints of battlegrounds, ruins, works, and other scenes from the America Civil War in Tennessee, Georgia, and South Carolina. The photographs were taken between the spring of 1864 and the spring of 1866. Along with the published photographs of Mathew Brady, and Alexander Gardner's Photographic sketchbook, Barnard's Views of Sherman's campaign is one of the main photographic monuments of the Civil War, containing some of the most famous images of the war's destruction.

Photographic Views of the Sherman Campaign (41cm x 51cm) is a collection of 57 photographic prints published in New York by Wynkoop & Hallenbeck in 1866. An abbreviated title is stamped in gold on the album's brown leather cover and the full title is printed on the first page. Clements Library's copy is imperfect: four plates lacking; one missing plate, acquired separately, is shelved at: Photo Div F.20.1. Inscriptions indicate that this copy was presented by Edward Hoffmire to John M. Hoffmire, his brother, in 1868, and John M. Hoffmire later gave it to his daughter Emma on April 15, 1916.

Each print is labeled with the location of the photograph, often including the names of natural and manmade landmarks. Some areas are represented in multiple images, though each item provides a unique view of landscapes and urbanized areas in Tennessee, Georgia, and South Carolina. Many show evidence of military activity, including soldiers, tents and camps, earthworks and trenches, blasted trees, destroyed railroads and buildings. One item is a group portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman and seven other Union generals. See the list of photographs in Additional Descriptive Data for more information about specific locales pictured.


Richard Oswald collection, 1779-1783

6 items

The Richard Oswald collection contains three of Oswald's memoranda ("Plans for Russian Conquest of the North-West Coast--1781," "London, 9th August 1779--General Observations, Relative to the Present State of the War," and "Supplement to the Papers of August 1779 Relative to the State of the Present War") and three letters to and from Oswald concerning the Revolutionary War.

The Richard Oswald collection contains three memoranda and two letters written by Oswald, as well as a letter written to Oswald by William Pulteney, all spanning 1779-1783.

Volume One contains two memoranda of 1779: the 72-page "General Observations, Relative to the Present State of the War" and its continuation, the 33-page "Supplement to the Papers of August." In the former, Oswald anticipates a prolonged conflict (p. 25: "…if we wish to have a good Peace, we ought to prepare for a long War.") and speculates on the relationship between the Americans and French ("…I am of opinion that we have a much better chance of making France tired of the Contest by taking of America, than of recovering America by dint of our attack upon France." [p. 9]). He also suggests that the British "break the Internal Union amongst these Colonies by Dismembering one part from the other" (p. 27), and recommends that this be accomplished by expeditions into Georgia and South Carolina. In the "Supplement," Oswald doubts the value of "be[ing] so tenacious of every Individual part of these possessions as to suppose that the preservation thereof, in the Interim of this War, may not cost more than it is worth" (p. 2). He also comments further on the French, and emphasizes the necessity of taking possession of Charleston, South Carolina, in order to defeat the Americans (p. 9).

Volume Two of the Richard Oswald collection contains a 1780 letter from William Pulteney announcing the surrender of Charleston, South Carolina, and two letters by Oswald to unspecified recipients. In the earlier of the two letters, dated November 16, 1782, Oswald described the willingness of the Americans to continue fighting ("America would carry on the War with Eng'd for 50 years rather than subscribe to…evidence of their own iniquity…") and treaty negotiations concerning the treatment of Loyalists. In the later letter, dated January 8, 1783, he discussed the conflict over rights to cod fishing in Newfoundland. Also included is a memorandum written by Oswald and dated April 12, 1781, suggesting the formation of a Russo-British alliance in order to attack Mexico and California, and thereby challenge Spain in the New World. The 19-page document, entitled "Plans for Russian Conquest of the North-West Coast--1781," presents the unusual idea as an inexpensive way of "cripling [sic] the power of the Bourbon Family for ever."


Richard Tomson, "Book of Extracts and Memorandums", 1759-1765

1 volume

Richard Tomson of Charleston, South Carolina, copied poems, religious and moral advice, prayers, and other writings in this "Book of Extracts and Memorandums" between 1759 and 1765.

Richard Tomson of Charleston, South Carolina, copied poems, religious and moral advice, prayers, and other writings in this "Book of Extracts and Memorandums" (30 pages) between 1759 and 1765. Many entries pertain to aspects of Christianity, such as faith, salvation, prayer, and moral living; one cautions against drinking alcohol and others concern topics such as love and marriage. The book contains quotations from the Bible, John Milton, and Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. One short poem was written on the Diana, a French privateer, after its capture en route from Maryland in 1761. Tomson also copied several collects from the Book of Common Prayer in 1765.


Rogers-Roche collection, 1758-1881 (majority within 1758-1801)

53 items

The Rogers-Roche papers contain the outgoing letters of Robert Rogers and his stepson, John Roche. The Rogers material mainly concerns his military activities and money-making endeavors in North America and England, while the Roche letters relate to Roche's service on the U.S. Ship Constitution during the Quasi-war with France.

The Rogers-Roche collection contains 53 letters and documents, spanning 1758 to 1881, with the bulk concentrated around 1758 to 1801.

Approximately half the collection consists of letters written by Robert Rogers to his wife, Elizabeth ("Betsy"), between 1761 and 1775, while he was in New York, South Carolina, Michigan, Ontario, Quebec, and London. The most frequent topic of letters is Rogers' finances; he often informed his wife of various attempts to get money that he believed the British government owed him, whether for commanding at Lake George during the French and Indian War (June 2, 1758), or for his expenses related to service at Fort Michilimackinac (March 8, 1770). On April 7, 1774, he notified his wife of his plan to send a memorial to General Thomas Gage requesting reimbursement and included a copy of the document on the verso of the letter.

The collection also includes three letters written by Rogers to his wife during his imprisonment at Montreal on charges of colluding with the French. On August 25, 1768, he noted, "my confinement…is made as agreable for me as possible," but several months later, he angrily noted, "I hop to soon have it in my power to reveng on my Enemys" (December 24, 1768). His early letters to Betsy are very loving in tone; he referred to her as "dearest dear," and soon after their marriage, wrote that he wished "once more to feast my Eyes on hir who so suddenly made me a prisoner to love" (November 9, 1761). In the same letter, written from South Carolina, he noted that a peace had been made between the Cherokees and British forces. His fine description of the capture of Fort Presque Isle by Native Americans during Pontiac's War is dated July 15, 1763.

The remainder of the collection primarily relates to John ("Jack") Roche, Jr., who joined the Navy and served on the U.S.S. Constitution during the quasi-war with France. The letters mainly concern his naval career and wartime service between 1798 and 1801. On May 7, 1798, Edward Livermore wrote to Roche, informing him, "I have entered your name as a midshipman on board the frigate-- You must come immediately if you mean to secure the place" and notified him of the pay and terms. In a letter of June 19, 1798, Roche described conditions onboard the Constitution, including the excellent provisions, the crew, and the ship's ordnance. In other letters, he made note of his duties and the capture of prizes. On September 25, [1798], he described the capture of the 24-gun French ship Niger, carrying "large sums of money in bags & chests which have not been op'ned, probably the plunder of defenceless Americans."

Other topics include the death of several shipmates from yellow fever (September 29, [1798]), the difficulty of finding French privateers off of Prince Rupert's Bay, Dominica (March 16, [1799]), and the capture of a ship called the Indiaman (November 26, 1799). Roche also commented several times on conditions in Haiti, which had recently experienced a revolution. On Toussaint l'Ouverture, Commander-in-Chief of French Forces in Saint Domingue, he wrote, "we may shortly see the whole Island containing near a million of Inhabitants govern'd despotically by an ignorant negro, formerly a slave" (January 30, 1801). Several orders are also included among the papers, including one by the Constitution's commander, Silas Talbot, which required that "each Lieut, Master and Midshipman Keepe an exact Journal of the Ships way" (December 15, 1800). The collection closes with a few scattered letters relating to Arthur Rogers and conveying family and financial news.


Thomas Smith papers, 1730-1762

160 items (0.5 linear feet)

The Thomas Smith papers primarily contain the incoming correspondence of Admiral Thomas Smith, concerning naval patronage, foreign engagements, and Smith's service with the Royal Navy.

The Thomas Smith papers contain 159 letters and 1 financial document relating to Admiral Thomas Smith. The materials span 1730-1762, with the bulk covering the period between 1748 and 1755. Smith wrote three of the letters in the collection to various recipients; the remainder is his incoming correspondence.

The letters document many aspects of Smith's service in the Royal Navy between 1734 and his 1758 retirement. Much of the correspondence concerns the patronage and assistance that Smith extended to promising young officers, including Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood; John Amherst; brothers Michael and John Becher; and Benjamin Moodie. Hood wrote 21 letters in the collection, beginning in 1748, when he was just 23 years old. His correspondence relates to the development of his naval career, his personality, and his relationship with Smith. On May 8, 1753, Hood described spending a week attending to the wreck of the HMS Assurance off the Isle of Wight, during which time he was denied a government-funded servant, about which he wrote, "choler still up." In other letters, Hood mentioned gifts of prawns and wine that he had secured for Smith. Hood wrote his final two letters in the collection from North America. On August 5, 1754, he wrote about his enjoyment of Charleston, South Carolina, and his desire to command the HMS Jamaica. On May 5, 1755, while in Hampton Roads, Virginia, he anticipated General Edward Braddock's expedition against the French and their Indian allies, and worried that the French would "quit all the Forts…before any of them can be knock'd in the head." Smith's other protégés wrote to express their gratitude at his continuing assistance and to provide news on their families and careers.

Several of the letters in the collection relate to naval engagements and foreign affairs. On April 1, 1741, William Frederick Huxley wrote details about the taking of Boca Chica during the Battle of Cartagena de Indios in present-day Colombia, including travel through "Fire & Smoke" and the death of 20 sailors. On September 8, 1745, George Anson, 1st Baron Anson, requested that Smith "hasten" several ships in order to prevent communications between France and Scotland, stating that the safety of England "depends in a great measure upon our Cruizers." In a retained copy of a letter to Tyringham Stephens, dated September 14, 1755, Smith ordered that captured French ships be sent to a convenient English port and guarded to prevent theft. A letter from an informant who called himself "Tel Truth," warned Smith about the trade encroachments of foreign ships piloted by the English and the Irish, and gave a list of names of the traitors (June 10, 1756).

Although nothing in the collection relates to John Byng's trial, it does contain an affectionate earlier letter from Byng to Smith, thanking him for his good wishes on his promotion and looking forward to sailing together on the Royal Sovereign (August 25, 1746).