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Collection

Cuba collection, 1798, 1824, 1830-1893 (majority within 1845-1858, 1865-1883)

0.25 linear feet

The Cuba collection contains around 90 individual manuscripts (mostly documents) related to the economic, racial, and political history of Cuba largely from the early to the late 19th century. The collection primarily focuses on the indentured servitude of Chinese workers, as well as Cuba's enslavement, trade, and manumission of largely African people. Another subset of the materials relates to 19th century insurrections and filibusters on the Island, including the López Expedition and Cuban resistance pertinent to the Ten Years' War.

The Cuba collection contains around 90 individual manuscripts (mostly documents) related to the economic, racial, and political history of Cuba largely from the early to the late 19th century. The collection primarily focuses on the indentured servitude of Chinese workers, as well as Cuba's enslavement, slave trading, and manumission of largely African people. Another subset of the materials relates to 19th century insurrections and filibusters on the Island, including the López Expedition and Cuban resistance pertinent to the Ten Years' War. The collection includes correspondence, documents, business records, citizenship certificates, death records, and contracts. The bulk of the materials were created in or relate to activities or people in Havana. Others relate to Santiago de Cuba.

Please see the box and folder listing below for details about each item in the collection.

Collection

Woman's Cuba Travel diary, 1854-1855

1 volume

An unnamed woman kept this diary, documenting her sojourn to Cuba from October 1854 to April 1855. She traveled with members of her family, including "Uncle M" (likely Montgomery Livingston), Margaret (possibly Margaret M. Tillotson), Mary, and a servant Bridget. Staying primarily in Havana and Güines, the writer described Cuban vegetation, religious and social practices of white and Black residents, cuisine and dress, military and political figures, enslaved laborers and hired servants, sugar, tobacco, and coffee plantations, and other international travelers.

An unnamed woman kept this diary, documenting her sojourn to Cuba from October 1854 to April 1855 with members of her family, including "Uncle M" (likely Montgomery Livingston), Margaret (possibly Margaret M. Tillotson), Mary, and a servant Bridget. Staying primarily in Havana and Güines, the writer described Cuban vegetation, religious and social practices of white and Black residents, cuisine and dress, military and political figures, enslaved laborers and hired servants, sugar, tobacco, and coffee plantations, and other international travelers.

The party travelled from New York aboard the steamboat Black Warrior, captained by James D. Bulloch, in October 1854. The diarist described their voyage, other passengers, and their arrival in Cuba. Because the captain and vessel had been embroiled in an international conflict earlier in the year, Cuban authorities scrutinized the Black Warrior upon their arrival in Havana. While staying at a boarding house in Havana, the writer described the city, food, merchants, residents and their fashion, and the presence of enslaved people.

Upon leaving the city, they took up residence in Güines. Frequently exploring the area by horseback, the writer detailed local vegetation, produce, and crops, while also noting the social and religious life of the community. She commented occasionally on books she was reading, and she wrote of the people she encountered, such as local vendors, enslaved people, other Americans, or the poor (see November 28, 1854). She provided commentary on practices like smoking, culinary dishes, music, and balls. Marginal figures are also remarked upon, including an American woman living under the protection of the Jesuits who was being pursued by her ex-husband seeking custody of their children (see December 1, 1854; December 6, 1854; December 18, 1854).

The writer regularly remarked on enslaved and free people of color and their activities, including their participation in Mass and religious holidays, such as Epiphany / El Dia de los Reyes (January 6, 1855). She noted their presence at balls, their relationships with their children, work as vendors, and labor on plantations and in the town. She visited a number of plantations and wrote of their crops, buildings, operations, and enslaved laborers. Several times, she noted violence against enslaved people, including evidence of beatings and punishments (December 1, 1854; December 2, 1854; December 16, 1854; January 22, 1855). On another occasion, she witnessed a two-year-old boy sold separately from his mother, and wrote about their distress (March 13, 1855). The writer also made at least two references to Chinese laborers (October 31, 1854, and November 25, 1854). The family hired several servants during their stay in Cuba, and the writer periodically remarked on their displeasure with them and their dismissal.

The diarist commented on military troops and government officials in the region. Several entries pertain to the "Lopez Expedition" and its aftermath, referring to American-backed efforts by Narcisco López to liberate Cuba from Spanish rule several years earlier (October 16, 1854; November 19, 1854; December 19, 1854). She wrote about orders by José Gutiérrez de la Concha to inquire into residents' "character" and take up any of ill repute (seemingly targeting Black populations), and attendant police presence (November 25, 1854; December 3, 1854; December 4, 1854; December 11, 1854; December 13, 1854; January 23, 1855; March 1, 1855). She noted the uniforms of the "gens d'armes" and their participation in Mass. The diary includes occasional remarks about the local jail.

The family made occasional trips to Havana for shopping and made a brief visit to Matanzas in February 1855, where they met with the American consul who was working to protect American sailors (February 7, 1855). The diary ends on April 15, 1855, as the family prepared to depart for Havana to return to the United States.