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Marie "Alida" Taber, wife of whaling Captain George Taber, kept daily records of wind direction, speed, weather conditions, geographic location, and crew activities during two whaling voyages: the Brig Magdalene's 174-day voyage from Honolulu to Connecticut, January-July 1853, and the Barque William Wilson's 1,192-day voyage from Rhode Island to the island of Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean, May 1860-January 1861. The volume also contains personal journal entries kept by Marie Taber during her time in Acushnet, Massachusetts, while her husband served aboard the Barque William Wilson from October 1857 to 1859.

This logbook and journal contains 150 pages, 51 of which are blank and 99 of which contain writing by Marie "Alida" Taber, wife of whaling Captain George Taber. The opening flyleaf features a carte-de-visite photograph of Marie with the inscription "Alida Taber, Long Plain, Massachusetts, U.S.A." During conservation the carte-de-visite was temporarily removed, and the inscription "Elida Taber" was visible on the verso of the card. While most of the printed photographer's advertisement on the card was obscured, its location in New Bedford, Massachusetts, was present. The volume consists of three sections: two whaling expedition logs and a personal journal.

The first section is a daily record of the Brig Magdalene's return voyage from Honolulu to Connecticut carrying whale oil and bone from January 12 to July 4, 1853. During this voyage, the Magdalene went south from Honolulu, through the Pacific Cook Islands, around the southern tip and east coast of South America before making final port in New London, Connecticut, on Independence Day, 1853. Mentioned ports of resupply include Pernambuco, Brazil. All entries begin with "remarks on board" followed by the date, weather conditions, the ships geographic location, steering adjustments, and any crew or ship activities of note. She described riggings, repairs, spotting of other ships or land, and acquisition or removal of cargo and supplies. Most of her entries are structured into 'first' (12pm to 8pm), 'middle' (8pm to 4am) and 'latter' (4am to 12pm) parts of the day. Some entries include remarks on porpoises caught and harvested for oil, supplies thrown overboard, and processing of whalebone.

Her logbook entries largely conform to the following format:

Upper left margin: Number of days out

"Remarks on board" [Day of Week, Month, Date, Year]

[Part of the day]: wind strength and direction, weather conditions, sail and/or steering adjustments and sightings/activities of note

Bottom right corner: Latitude and Longitude coordinates

While most of the navigational and weather condition data recorded stayed largely consistent, she specifically mentioned ocean currents on April 13 and 14, 1853 (95 and 96 days out).

Since this voyage was a return trip from a whaling expedition, Taber did not mention whale pursuits or captures; the ship was already full of oil and bone. Although, during the latter entries the crew brought whalebone and oil to the deck to clean, bundle, and prepare the products for market. On May 17, 1853 (117 days out), for example, she wrote that they "Took on deck 22 bundles of bone, some in a damaged state."

The crew captured and processed porpoises on this leg of the voyage to provide lamp oil. Mentions of these porpoise captures can be found in the following entries.

  • "Caught 4 porpoises" April 9, 1853 (89 days out)
  • Boiling porpoise blubber. April 16 and 17, 1853 (95 and 96 days out)

As the Magdalene sailed closer to the eastern coast of South America and the United States, ship sightings became more frequent. These entries include:

  • Bark sighting. January 25, 1853 (14 days out)
  • "At 10am saw a merchant Bark steering to S.West" April 19, 1853 (99 days out)
  • Unidentified ship, April 21-22 , 1853 (101-102 days out)
  • "Saw a manawar steam brig" Saturday, April 30, 1853 (110 days out)

Other entries of interest include:

  • Taking supplies on board, wood, pumpkins, coconuts, bananas, turkeys, ducks, fowls, and pigs, February 10 -12, 1853 (31-33 days out)
  • "Note: during the night one half Barrel of Beef was thrown overboard by some of the crew," March 14, 1853 (63 days out)
  • Leaking oil, March 25, 1853 (74 days out)
  • "Found six bags of bread wet and rotten," April 1, 1853 (81 days out)
  • "Rats almost got possession of the Brig," April 20, 1853 (100 days out)
  • "Saw a comet, westward," May 7, 1853 (111 days out)
  • Waiting for Portuguese holy days to pass, as business is prohibited during this period. Saturday, May 14-18, 1853 (124-128 days out)
  • "Mr. Bolton ashore without permission from master," May 16, 1853 (126 days out)
  • "Mr. Bolton still onshore," May 17, 1853 (127 days out)

The second section of the logbook contains Marie Taber's journal entries from January 1 to August 15, 1859. While Captain Taber was away on the Barque William Wilson, which left Warren, Rhode Island, in October 1857, Marie described her daily activities in Acushnet, Massachusetts, as well as detailed listings of her social activities. The largest portions of these entries list the names of whom she spoke with in person and through letters that day. The most common activities mentioned in these entries include sewing, cooking, baking, shopping, writing letters, and reading. Frequently she spent her days mending, cutting, quilting, and sewing garments for herself, family, and friends. Holding true to her logkeeping skills, she commented daily on the weather and wind, often noting specific wind direction and general conditions throughout the day. Marie noted births, deaths, weddings, and activities such as the circus, church events, and holidays. Marie often wrote of feeling weak or ill and complained of headaches, backaches, and stomach pains. In the latter portions of the journal, Marie's entries took on a more personal tone as she described her loneliness and sadness about town gossip about her--even among her husband's family. In these entries, she expressed her reliance on Christian faith to help her cope with illness and the emotional toll of being far away from home and from her own friends and family. The journal section provides insight into the events and residents of the community of Acushnet, Massachusetts, and the broader community of Bristol County.

The third section of the volume contains a daily record of the whaling voyage of Barque William Wilson, traveling off Rodrigues Island, from May 27, 1860, to January 5, 1861. Marie began the log about 2 years and 6 months into the whaling voyage (the complete voyage spanned October 1857 to January 1861). The log is of a similar format as that of the Brig Magdalene, but fewer entries contain specific latitude and longitude coordinates and it lacks a running count of the days passed since the voyage began. As in Mrs. Taber's earlier log, entries include weather conditions, wind direction, sail and steering adjustments, ships spotted, and specific activities. Days on which whale captures were attempted and successful are marked with black ink whale body stamps, the number of stamps equaling the number of whales killed. Instances where whales evaded capture are indicated with black ink tail stamps. Processing of the whales into product is described with phrases "employed boiling", "employed cutting", and "commenced cutting." These entries frequently made note of the vessel's specific distance from land or other ships and listed many of the ships spotted and communicated with by name.

Vessels mentioned include:

  • Bark America (August 16, 1860)
  • Bark John A. Robb (September 17, 1860)
  • Barque Millwood (July 7, 1860 [incorrectly written in log as June]; August 2, 1860; August 22, 1860)
  • Bark Ocean Pierson (August 23, 1860)
  • Bark Pamelia (September 4, 1860; September 22, 1860)
  • Bark Tyne (August 3, 1860)
  • Bark San Francisco (August 17, 1860; August 22, 1860; August 30, 1860; September 24, 1860)
  • Ship Alimire (August 23, 1860)
  • Ship Elmiro (August 30, 1860)
  • Ship Mercury (September 1, 1860; September 19, 1860)

At the beginning of this log, Marie wrote with a slightly more personal tone, including information about her general feelings of wellbeing, or feeling unwell (entries dated May 27 and 28, 1860). Generally, the entries in the first portion of this log (July-early October, 1860) emphasize the frantic chase and hunting of whales. Many entries refer to sightings of whales by species and note that when nothing was seen, they were actively "looking for whales." The latter half of the log (mid October 1860 to early January 1861) focuses on the goal of returning with the whale products. Most of these entries emphasize wind and sail orientation, navigation, and reading important geographic landmarks. On the return voyage ship maintenance was a priority and the crew painted and repaired parts of the ship.

Stamps indicating whale captures and escapes can be found in the following entries:

  • June 6,1860
  • July 9, 1860
  • August 2, 1860
  • August 15, 1860
  • August 19,1860
  • September 26, 1860
  • 1 sperm whale killed, September 28, 1860
  • 4 sperm whales killed, 1 escaped October 4, 1860
  • 3 sperm whales killed, October 5, 1860

This volume also contains the following:

  • 2 blank logbook pages with running header "Bark Sea Bird towards Cape of Good Hope"
  • Inscription on inside back pastedown, handwritten in pencil, "Sadie Taber lived on Long Plain Rd Sunds Corner outside of New Bedford Mass"
  • A list of New Bedford ships (pencil handwriting, differing from Marie Taber's script) on page 144. The names include:
    • Bark Millwood
    • Ocean River
    • Almira
    • San Francisco
    • Thomas Pope
    • St. Peter
    • Mercury
    • John A. Roff
    • Bark America
    • Tarmelia
    • Congress
    • Bartholomene
  • Laid into the volume, between pages 92 and 93 is a handwritten slip of paper reading, [in ink]"See if you can find any vessel bound to the Cape of Good Hope or the island of Mauritius if any the price of passage and time of sailing" [in pencil] "first of week $150 or 125; 1 Brig 1st next week $150 Edmund Boynton, 1 vessel about a month $150 Isaac Taylor 16 Kirby Sr."
  • A clipping of a poem "For the New York Mercury My Nelly's Eyes: Inscribed to Miss Ellen M.M, by: John F. Gilwee (September 7, 1858)," laid in between pages 132 and 133
  • At various points in the blank section of the volume, pages have been ripped out.

In addition to this finding aid, the Clements Library has created a partial name index for the journal portion of the Taber journal: Partial Name Index .

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Marie Taber logbook and journal, 1853-1861

1 volume

by Marie "Alida" Taber, wife of whaling Captain George Taber. The opening flyleaf features a carte-de
-visite photograph of Marie with the inscription "Alida Taber, Long Plain, Massachusetts, U.S.A." During

2 linear feet

The Hoit Family Papers are made up of correspondence, diaries, documents, financial papers, photographs, and other items related to the family of New Hampshire state legislator Daniel Hoit (1778-1859) and Sally Hoit (1786-1837); their children Julia Maria, Eliza Flanders, portrait painter and artist Albert Gallatin, and Reverend William Henry Harrison Hoit; and their children-in-law Ira A. Bean, Susan Ann Hanson Hoit, and Enoch P. Sherman. The family was based in Sandwich, New Hampshire.

The Hoit Family Papers are made up of 965 letters; 21 diaries, account books, and notebooks; 11 speeches, poems, and other writings; 49 documents and financial papers; six photographs, and other items related to New Hampshire state legislator Daniel Hoit (1778-1859) and Sally Hoit (1786-1837); their children Julia Maria, Eliza Flanders, portrait painter and artist Albert Gallatin, and Reverend William Henry Harrison Hoit; and their children-in-law Ira A. Bean, Susan Ann Hanson Hoit, and Enoch P. Sherman. The family lived primarily in Sandwich, New Hampshire.

The Correspondence Series contains 965 letters, including 39 by Sarah "Sally" Flanders / Sarah "Sally" Flanders Hoit, dating between December 3, 1803, and January 30, 1837. She wrote largely from Loudon and Sandwich, New Hampshire. In her courtship letters to Daniel Hoit, she offered her thoughts on marriage, the state of their relationship, the future, virtue, and remarks on living a good life. After their marriage, the topics of her correspondence turned to the health and welfare of their family. To her daughters Eliza and Julia she gave motherly advice while they attended a female academy in Concord, New Hampshire (beginning in 1822).

Sally Flanders's husband Daniel Hoit authored around 300 letters from June 6, 1808, to June 19, 1859. He sent over half of them to his wife, Sally Hoit (between 1808 and 1835), and his daughters Julia Hoit Sherman (between 1821 and 1859) and Eliza Hoit Bean (between 1822 and 1856). In them, he showed concern for the education and welfare of his children and family, and advised his wife on home and financial matters. Daniel appears to have had a close relationship with his daughter, Julia. In over 70 letters to her, he reflected on the importance of parenthood and morality; discussed politics, his speeches, elections, and other business matters; and praised her for her academic prowess. To Eliza, he sent 37 letters on the health and welfare of family members and friends. Many of these were co-authored by other Hoit family members. Daniel Hoit's letters include content respecting the state legislature and a small number of items during and after the War of 1812 pertain to recruiting. He remarked twice on local extramarital relationships (June 18, 1815, and June 20, 1830) and attended public Shaker worship in Concord, New Hampshire (June 20, 1814).

The Hoit's oldest child, Eliza Flanders Hoit / Eliza Flanders Hoit Bean, sent 22 letters between April 27, 1822, and September 16, 1859. She wrote the first six letters to her mother and sister while attending school in Concord, New Hampshire, from April to September 1822. The remainder of the letters date from 1836 to 1859, mostly from Urbana, Ohio. These letters focus on the health of friends and family, housework, and her spiritual life. She wrote several travel letters to her father from Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. Her husband Ira A. Bean wrote 30 letters, December 30, 1828-December 30, 1863, regarding his business and political endeavors, largely to his father-in-law, Daniel Hoit.

Julia Maria Hoit / Julia Maria Hoit Sherman sent around 110 letters to her mother, father, siblings, and other family members between February 3, 1827, and March 24, 1876. The majority of them originated from Sandwich, New Hampshire. In her often-lengthy correspondence, she discussed fashion, gossip about friends and family, weddings, marriages, clothing, and current events. She was independent and highly opinionated about the social behaviors of those around her. Particularly notable is her criticism of the fashion and diet of the women in Boston (1829). The Hoit Family Papers also contain around 50 political, financial, and property-related letters of her husband, Enoch P. Sherman, dating between June 9, 1828, and February 6, 1843, and around 10 from their son, Daniel H. Sherman between 1849 and 1873.

The Hoit's oldest son Albert Gallatin Hoit / Albert Gallatin Hoyt wrote approximately 110 letters between November 27, 1820, and October 21, 1853. His earliest correspondence, largely to his parents and sisters, covers his time at Effingham Academy, Wolfeborough & Tuftonborough Academy (1825), and Dartmouth College (1826-1829). In 1829, he established a school at Newport, Connecticut, but quickly found himself in debt. Struggling to remedy his plight, he took a trip to Rochester, New York, in 1830, where he decided to embark on a career as a portrait painter. He then wrote from Portland and Bangor, Maine, until 1839 when he settled in Boston with his wife Susan. His letters regard his everyday life, education, career, and relationship with his father. Susan A. Hanson Hoyt, originally of Conway, New Hampshire, wrote approximately 40 letters between March 28, 1837, and February 11, 1873. They focus on health and her daily routine, anxieties about her husband Albert's career as an artist, the art scene in Boston in the early 1840s, and the activities of her husband. Albert traveled a great deal, and stayed in Europe from 1842 to 1844 to paint. Susan also wrote about her stillborn children (i.e. March 30, 1845), concerns over the presidential election of 1844, sewing, dressmaking, and her efforts to learn how to draw. By 1853, she moved to Roxbury, Massachusetts, with her husband. In a series of letters from there, she wrote about the sickness and death of Albert in 1856. She then returned to Conway. In early 1872, she traveled to Minneapolis where she apparently remained.

William Henry Harrison Hoit / William Henry Hoyt's approximately 70 letters date from May 13, 1826, to November 15, 1882. Beginning at around age 11 with letters from school at Wolfborough & Tuftonborough Academy (where he studied along with his brother Albert), informed his parents about his studies and asked them to send books and educational advice. He then wrote to his parents, sisters, and brother-in-law while studying at Dartmouth College (1827-1831). From 1835 to 1836, he sent letters from the Episcopal Theological Seminary in New York, and, by 1838, he settled in to his parish at St. Alban's, Vermont. His conversion from the Episcopal Church to Catholicism in the later 1840s is the subject of a portion of his correspondence. The collection includes three letters by William Hoyt's wife, Anne Deming Hoyt, dated October 6, 1838; March 30, 1856; and July 11, 1867.

The collection's remaining 190 or letters are from almost as many correspondents. They are addressed to members of the Hoit family, particularly Sally, Daniel, Eliza, and Julia, from various members of their extended family and business associates. Updates on deaths, marriages, health, education, and children predominate in the letters by women. Of interest are letters pertinent to Albert Hoyt's debt in the early 1830s and five letters from Julia's niece, Frances Prescott, a teacher in Ellenburg, New York. She briefly remarked on her school and wages (late 1850s).

The Diaries, Account Books, and Notebooks Series includes 10 daily diaries and account books of Daniel Hoit (1814-1817, 1851-1859), one diary by Sally Flanders Hoit (1823, 1830), two diaries of Ira A. Bean (1829-1859), one volume of notes and accounts of Enoch P. Sherman's estate (1843-1849), three sparse diaries and two notebooks by Daniel H. Sherman (1870, 1873, 1878, 1900, and 1918), and one daily diary of Julia M. Hoit Sherman (1884).

The Speeches, Poems, and Other Writings Series includes a poem by William Burleigh to Mr. and Mrs. Hoit (March 4, 1812) a fragment of a verse by Sarah F. Hoit (undated), three essays by Albert G. Hoit (two from his school days and one entitled "Early Recollections" (undated), and a written renewal of vows to God by Julia M. Hoit on her 24th birthday (November 15, 1831). Also present are a temperance address by Ira A. Bean (October 1823), an incomplete address to the Franklin Society (November 1, 1824), and a 4th of July 1834 temperance speech by Daniel Hoit.

The Hoit Family Papers contain 49 Documents, Accounts, and Receipts, dating from [1809?] to 1863. The various financial papers include good documentation of the Hoit children's educational expenses and Albert G. Hoit's expenditures and debts of the later 1820s and early 1830s. Among the documents are Enoch P. Sherman's June 11, 1840, resignation from a colonelcy in the 19th Regiment New Hampshire Militia.

The Photographs Series is made up of seven carte-de-visite photographs, all bearing Civil War era tax stamps. Identified individuals include "Mrs. E. G. Weaver" and "A. J. Church & wife & daughter."

The collection includes two Maps:

  • Rand Avery Supply Co. Map of Lake Winnipesaukee and Surroundings issued by Passenger Dept. Concord & Montreal R.R. [Boston]: Concord & Montreal R.R., 1891.
  • [Tamworth Township, Carroll County, New Hampshire], 1870s.

The collection also contains 14 Printed Items, among which are The Dairyman’s Daughter (religious tract, 1831), a copy of a bill to extend an 1838 act to grant half-pay and pensions to certain widows (1841), Final Notes on Witchcraft in Massachusetts by George H. Moore (1885), a program for the Semi-Centennial celebration of the New Hampshire Conference Seminary and Female College (1895), The Shepherd of Salisbury Plain, by Mrs. Hannah More, and a children's book Jocko and Minette (1846). See the box and folder listing below for a complete list of the printed materials.

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2,910 items (11 linear feet)

This collection is made up of the papers of five generations of the Dwight, Willard, Alden, Allen, and Freeman families of the East Coast and (later) U.S. Midwest, between 1752 and 1937. Around 3/4 of the collection is incoming and outgoing correspondence of family members, friends, and colleagues. The primary persons represented are Lydia Dwight of Massachusetts and her husband John Willard, who served in the French and Indian War; Connecticut mother Abigail Willard along with her husband Samuel Alden, who ran an apothecary in Hanover, New Jersey; Allen Female Seminary School alumna and teacher Sarah J. Allen; American Civil War surgeon Otis Russell Freeman; Presbyterian minister and temperance advocate Rev. Samuel Alden Freeman; and prominent public librarian Marilla Waite Freeman. The papers also include diaries and journals, writings, school certificates, military and ecclesiastical documents, photographs, newspaper clippings, advertisements, business and name cards, invitations to events, and brochures for plays and other performances.

The collection is arranged first by family grouping, then by material type. These series roughly reflect the arrangement of the collection when it arrived at the William L. Clements Library.

The Dwight-Willard-Alden Family Papers are comprised of around 250 items, dating between 1752 and 1884. One fifth or so of this grouping is predominantly correspondence between Lydia Dwight/Lydia Dwight Willard, her father, stepmother, siblings, husband, and sons, 1752-1791. These intermarried families were based largely in Sheffield and Stockbridge, Massachusetts. The letters include discussions about mending and cleaning clothing; feelings about their father/husband gone to serve in the French and Indian War; putting up a monument to replace faltering graves; the return of Elijah and Col. Williams from the field on account of sickness; coming and going of soldiers; moral and practical advice; teaching and boarding young students during the war; settling into (“no longer free”) married life; the death of Bathsheba Dwight; the meeting of local men in private homes and the training of minute men in Stockbridge; the prolonged case of smallpox experienced by Lydia’s son in 1785; and news of John Willard, Jr.’s admission to Harvard.

The remaining four fifths of this grouping are largely incoming correspondence of Abigail Willard Alden (1771-1832) and her daughter Abigail Alden (1809-1854). Their correspondents were located in Stafford, Connecticut; Hanover and Lancaster, New Hampshire; Lunenburg, Vermont; and elsewhere. They begin with letters from siblings and parents to the newly married Abigail Willard Alden (ca. 1800); Samuel Alden travel letters to New York City; and news of a Stafford doctor named Chandler who had promised marriage to a woman and then fleeced her for $500 before fleeing to parts unknown. A group of letters regard pharmacy matters, the burning of Samuel Willard’s drugstore (January-April 1802), and the state of Anti-Federalists and Federalists in Stafford (1802). A large portion the letters include content on sickness and health, with varying degrees of detail, including several family members sick and dying from measles in 1803. Other topics include Hanover, New Hampshire, gossip on local premarital sex; a debate on whether or not to hire a black female domestic laborer; comments on a local suicide attempt; a young woman deliberating on objections to women spending time reading novels (April 10, 1806); and treatment by a quack doctor. These papers also include two diaries, poetry and essays, two silhouettes, genealogical manuscripts, and miscellaneous printed items.

The Allen Family Papers are largely incoming letters to Sarah Jane Allen prior to her marriage to Samuel A. Freeman (around 300 items), and from her father-in-law Otis Russell Freeman (around 60 items) between 1860 and 1865. An abundance of the letters were written to Sarah while she attended the Allen Female Seminary in Rochester, New York, and afterward when she lived at Honeoye Falls, New York. They include letters from her parents, cousins, friends, and siblings. A sampling suggests that the bulk are letters by young women attempting to eke out a life for themselves through seminary education, teaching, and domestic labor. Among much else, they include content on Elmira Female Seminary, New York state travel, and female friendship and support.

The Otis Russell Freeman letters date between 1862 and 1865, while he served as a surgeon in the 10th and 14th Regiment, New Jersey Volunteers. He wrote about the everyday camp life with a focus on the health and sickness of the soldiers. His letters include content on the defenses of Washington, D.C., fighting at Cold Harbor and outside Richmond, Virginia, the surrender of Robert E. Lee, the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, and Lincoln's body lying in state at Jersey City. Two carte-de-visite photographs of Otis Freeman are present.

A diary kept by Sarah J. Allen began on the day of her marriage, September 26, 1865, documents her honeymoon to Niagara Falls. It ends in November 1865. The remainder of the volume is filled with recipes for baked goods, pickles, and other foods. The printed items include ephemera from Sarah Jane Allen’s tenure at Elmira Female College five issues of the Callisophia Society’s newspaper The Callisophia (vol. 1, nos. 1, 3-6; March/April 1860-January/February 1861), as well as a Catalogue of Books in Callisophia Library, December 1862.

The Samuel Alden Freeman Family Papers include approximately 300 largely incoming letters to Presbyterian minister S. A. Freeman, plus printed materials, ephemera, photographs, and bound volumes, dating in the 1810s and from the 1860s to 1880s. Correspondence of his second wife Olive dates from the 1810s in central New York. The collection includes letters to S. A. Freeman from his first wife Sarah, daughter Abigail Alden Freeman (1873-1925), and Sara Harriet Freeman (1879-1946). These materials include courtship correspondence of Sarah Jane Allen and S. A. Freeman. A considerable portion relates to Presbyterianism and at least one temperance society pledge sheet is present. Approximately 50 photographs, about half of them identified, are largely of Samuel A. Freeman and the Freeman daughters Marilla and Abigail. Among the printed ephemeral items are advertisements for programming at Corinthian Hall (probably Rochester, New York), items related to a Sunday School Association (including a printed broadside catalog of books at a N.J. Sunday School), and pamphlets on Presbyterianism. A medicinal recipe book from the mid-19th century and a commonplace book of poetry are examples of the S. A. Freeman family bound volumes.

The collection concludes with letters, photographs, ephemera, and printed items comprising the Marilla Waite Freeman Papers. Around 600 letters are largely incoming to public librarian M. W. Freeman from female educators and librarians. They discussed their profession, books, reading, and intellectual topics. A small clutch of letters, about three dozen manuscript and typed poems, and a dozen or more newspaper clippings, 1900s-1910s, comprise poet Floyd Dell’s contributions to the collection. Marilla also corresponded with poets and writers Margaret Todd Ritter, Robert Frost and Mrs. Frost, and Marie Bullock about public and private recitations and lectures. Examples of subjects covered by the printed materials include orations, educational/school/college items, library-related items, newspapers and clippings, fliers, women's clubs, New York City theater, the American Library Association, Poetry Society of America, poems by various authors, such as Ina Robert and John Belknap, visiting and business cards, and travel.

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