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Charles-Eugène-Gabriel, maréchal de Castries papers, 1722-1814

86 items (0.5 linear feet)

The Castries papers include four major areas of interest: The civil and military administration of French Caribbean colonies; French participation in the American Revolution; the 1784 trial to fix blame for the defeat of the French Navy at the Battle of Saints Passage, 1782; and Royalist conspiracies against the French Republic during the 1790s.

The Castries papers represents only a small portion of the original "archives" of the Maréchal. The core of the Castries Papers includes four major areas of interest:

1. The civil and military administration of French Caribbean colonies;

2. French participation in the American Revolution;

3. The 1784 trial to fix blame for the devastating defeat of the French Navy and the capture of Admiral de Grasse at the Battle of Saints Passage, 1782, and;

4. Royalist conspiracies against the French Republic during the 1790s.

The materials relating to French Caribbean colonies were collected by Castries in his capacity as Ministre de la Marine, a position that gave him some oversight of colonial affairs. Though undated, many of these documents appear to have been prepared in about 1783, and are perhaps related to negotiations at the Treaty of Paris or to the immediate outcome of that treaty. These documents include detailed descriptions of the French colonies in the Isles du Vent and Isles sous le Vent, with notes on administration, police, religious advancement, agriculture, trade, and defense.

Among the items from the period of the American revolution is an important document titled "Memoire en forme de Plan de la Campagne en Amerique dans l'année 1783 redigée par la Compte d'Estaing..." in which the author lays out a plan for global imperial conquest, beginning with the defeat of the British in North America. Also of great interest is the "Order à prendre du Roi, relativement à l'amérique Septentrionale," which contains an analysis of French military strategy in the Americas following Yorktown. A "Projet d'Arrêt du Conseil" of January, 1782, relates to reparations to the residents of Saint Eustatius for depredations committed there during its capture by British forces. Also present is the 1782 appointment of François Barbé de Marbois as consul in the United States.

The de Grasse trial materials contain an extensive body of records of the Conseil de Guerre Extraordinaire held at L'Orient, France, in 1784. These include a minute-by-minute reconstruction of the action at the Battle of Saints Passage (including manuscript maps, housed in the Map Division), interviews with French naval officers, manuscript and printed version of the findings of the Conseil with judgments against the naval officers (most were acquitted of any misconduct), and defenses written by the baron d'Arros d'Argelos and Pontèves-Gien to justify their conduct. All together, these comprise a thorough, though not quite complete documentation of the official inquiry into a major French naval defeat.

The 14 items relating to counterrevolutionary activity in the 1790s present a somewhat less complete picture than that for the de Grasse trial, but serve to indicate the breadth and depth of Castries' involvement in Royalist circles. These include letters from Royalists seeking assistance, documents outlining plans for a proposed invasion of the west coast of France, discussions of the possibility of Royalist forces capturing the colony of Saint Domingue and reestablishing it as a monarchy under Louis XVIII, and analyses of the potential for support among other European powers. Perhaps the most intriguing item in this part of the collection is a lengthy report from a British spy containing information on influential members of the French Directory with notes on whether they can be made useful to the Royalist cause.

The Castries papers are arranged chronologically. Eight maps entered as evidence at the Conseil de Guerre held at L'Orient have been transferred to the Maps Division.


Upjohn Family Papers, 1795-1974

7.1 linear feet — 1 oversize volume

Papers of the Upjohn family of Hastings and Kalamazoo, Michigan, collected by Dr. E. Gifford Upjohn. Papers and genealogical materials of Upjohn and related families, especially the Mills family, Kirby family, and Clough family; include materials concerning family activities, medical practice, and daily life; also papers concerning the work of Clough family members as missionaries to southern India; and selected Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company historical records; and photographs.

The Upjohn family papers, collected and preserved by Dr. E. Gifford Upjohn, consist of materials brought together by various family members primarily for genealogical purposes. More than a "family archive" because of the importance of the Upjohns as founders of the Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company in Kalamazoo, the collection includes material spanning the period from the early 1800s to the present. The Upjohn Collection consists of three feet of manuscripts, two feet of family related books and bound manuscripts, and two feet of photographs.

Because of its diversity, the collection has been divided into five series of papers: Upjohn family; Families related to the Upjohns; Upjohn Company; Printed Materials; and Photographs.


Davis family (Grand Rapids and Pontiac, Mich.) papers, 1796-1891

0.3 linear feet


Letters from relatives in New York, New Jersey and Iowa discussing in part plans to migrate westward; letter, 1852, recounting missionary life in India; Civil War letters from Townsend M. Luce (Co. F., Third Michigan Infantry), Rufus Cheney (Co. D, 2nd Michigan Cavalry), Charles O. Reed (probably Co. A, 4th Michigan Cavalry), Philip Segur (Co. A, 7th Michigan Cavalry), and one tentatively identified as Albert H. Freeman (Battery B, 1st Michigan Light Artillery); and miscellanea.


Tracy family papers, 1815-1903 (majority within 1815-1893)

34 items

The Tracy family papers consist of letters written by members of a large family from Norwich, Connecticut while living away from home, including two letters from a missionary in India.

This collection is somewhat of a hodgepodge; a few curious lives come to light, but there are not enough letters to entirely flesh out the various writers, or connect the lives of what must have been a large, tight-knit family group. There are 4 letters written by Charles, shortly before his death, 6 letters from William, while he was in Philadelphia, 2 excellent letters from his wife Emily, written from India, 5 written by George, who went down to Mobile, 5 other family letters, 4 letters written by friends, including a female schoolteacher, and 8 letters written much later to Louise and Antoinette Tracy, who were trying to gather genealogical material.

The two most fascinating letters are from Emily, who described the Indians and their ways, as well as the missionary work that brought the Tracys to Southern India. Predictably, she was rather negative about the people she was there to convert. The combination of what she viewed as laziness and lying left her with little respect for the Indians. "I know of nothing in America, which is so universal, as falsehood is among this people, they have a proverb, 'that where the mouth opens a lie comes out,' and this seems to be litterally the case," she fulminated (1838 November 16).

After overpaying a couple times, she pronounced that "their great aim is to get all the money they can, and do as little as possible in return." To Emily, itinerant beggars were the embodiment of this aim, so distasteful to her Protestant work ethic: "You would be surprised to know what a quantity of persons there are in this country, whose business it is to go from village to village begging . . . some time ago one of these beggars came to me, and I said I cannot give you anything, you are a strong stout man, if you will do this work, I will pay you for it but I cannot encourage any body in idleness, who is able to work as you are, said he, 'it is not my custom to work, I am a beggar,' well then, said I, you can go, it is not my custom to support people who can work, but who are too lazy to do so."

Rats and mosquitoes disrupted their sleep, but an even greater trial of missionary life was the difficulty of remaining connected to the loved ones back in America. Writing to the Tracys, Emily asked if they knew why she had not heard from her own parents. After writing thirty letters and receiving no response, she had stopped writing, but not worrying (1839 February 13).

Emily's main preoccupation, however, remained the Tamil people, and she lamented, "Oh how easily are this people led captive by Satan at his will." Witnessing people unselfconsciously bathing in public, and married women performing a fertility ceremony "in the presence of multitudes of people without the least thought that their was any indelicacy in it" seemed to intensify her desire to "guide them to the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sins of the world."

While she was talking to some "deluded pagans" after they had completed their ceremonies, Emily was asked, "Where did you, a woman, get so much wisdom'"? She was struck that "this people seem not to get the idea, that a woman could know how to do anything else beside cook rice, carry burdens, and gather cow dung for fuel." Emily thought some of the women she spoke to were bright, and "looked as though they might have made smart intelligent women had they been properly educated, whereas now they seem scarcely to have a thought above their food and dress. O when will the time come when the blindness be taken from their eyes"?

Norwich was the home base of the Tracy family, and several of the daughters seem to have never left it, or each other. They probably all worked to earn their keep. William wrote to his sister Mary Ann, "I am glad to hear you have steady work some where or other as father will not have to work so hard as he did before you knew the trade" (1821 June 24). The sons, on the other hand, moved to other places to make a living, either because they wanted to see the world, or there was no future for them in Norwich. This collection of letters written to the women back home documents the men's struggles to get accustomed to being apart from those they were supposed to support, and be supported by. A New Year's greeting filled with religious exhortations is the only "out going" letter from Norwich, written by Susan to her brother Charles (1815 December 31). This intimates that the sisters provided their wandering brothers with religious and moral guidance, as well as keeping them apprised of local news.

Maintaining long-distance familial support was a challenge. Writing after Charles' death, David eloquently reassured his mother, "I feel the only legacy he has left writ deeply on my heart, to comfort and be all to you which we both might have been" (1818 May 1). He was relieved that his mother had visited Charles just before he died, and noted that he had "some of the dear boys hair which I mean to have set in something for my sisters." William told his sister Elizabeth why it was better that they did not live together: "I should like to see you, and be with you, but if we were always together, we should lose much of that pleasure which we feel at meeting after a long seperation, and when duty calls us apart we should yield to her voice with contentment" (1825 June 13). At the same time, he asked her to write to him more frequently, even if he had not responded, for "there are many of you, while I am alone," indicating his need for frequent contact with his family.

George had less time to spend thinking about the folks back home: "I have not been able to think of much except cotton -- it has been cotton from before day break, untill late in the evening. Some times it is eleven o'clock before I can leave the office. I have some times thought that there was more cotton in my head than there was in all the cotton factories in New England" (1831 May 29). Although he was unsure if he wanted to stay in Mobile and keep working in the cotton trade, he was still there a few years later -- but still talking of moving on: "My future exertions in business may be differently directed, but as I am not yet determined that it will, or if it is, in what way, I do not speak of it" (1834 March 10).

Lucinda, a properly educated female native of Norwich, did leave her home in order to make her living. Unlike the men, who stressed the flexibility of their business plans -- George in particular -- Lucinda felt trapped in her position. She wrote to Sarah, "I thought if I should leave my school it would be uncertain when or where I could collect one again. This is the way in which I expect to gain my support & it is best for me to keep with my business. Don't you think so?" (1832 April 14). She rhapsodized about the haunts of her childhood home in a rather morose fashion, and blamed her melancholy on being spurned by a friend, whose desertion had left her quite alone with her pupils.


Jabez Thomas Sunderland papers, 1868-1936

49.4 linear feet — 1 oversize folder

Unitarian minister, anti-imperialist, and advocate of independence for India. Extensive professional and family correspondence, diaries, sermons, manuscripts of books and articles, research notes, topical file on India, printed material, newspaper clippings, and miscellanea; also papers concerning his career first as a Baptist minister, later a Unitarian minister in Ann Arbor, Michigan and elsewhere, including his involvement in the Western Unitarian Conference.

The Sunderland papers are very complete for the early years of his career (1868-1887). The collection is divided into the following thirteen series: Correspondence, undated and 1868-1936, Visual Materials, Student papers and notebooks, Church and Ministerial Activities, Western Unitarian Conference, Diaries, Notebooks, etc., Sermon file, Manuscripts of Books and Articles, Research Notes and Manuscripts, Printed Materials, Topical Files on India, Miscellaneous Papers and Notebooks, Biographical/Autobiographical Material, and Topical File.


Walter Koelz Papers, 1873-1989 (majority within 1910-1989)

8 linear feet

Zoologist-botanist, collector of plant and specimens for the University of Michigan in the Middle East and South Asia. The collection includes biographical and personal materials, correspondence, topical files, journals, writings, estate materials, photographs and motion pictures. Much of the collection relates to his travels and collecting expeditions in the Middle East and South Asia.

The Walter Koelz papers document Koelz's travel and work in South Asia and the Middle East in the 1930s and 1940s, as well as his life in Michigan, both before and after traveling abroad. The collection has been divided into seven series: Biographical and Personal, Correspondence, Topical File, Journals, Writings, Estate Materials, and Visual Materials.


Rebecca Shelley Papers, 1890-1984

21 linear feet — 1 oversize folder

Pacifist, participant in World War I peace movement and later peace activities, member of Fellowship of Reconciliation, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and Women Strike for Peace. Papers include Correspondence, newspaper clippings, pamphlets, periodicals, reports, photographs, and other materials relating to the International Congress of Women, 1915, the Ford Peace Ship, the American Neutral Conference Committee, the Emergency Peace Federation, and the People's Council of America.

The papers of Rebecca Shelley (1887-1984) were donated by Shelley in several accessions between 1964 and 1984. The papers make up twenty-one linear feet of materials and cover the years 1890-1984, though only a few photographs and printed items predate 1910. Her anti-war activism, legal battles, writing career, and courtships with Franz Willman and Felix Rathmer are all well-represented. In addition to her personal papers, there are groups of material belonging to Emily Balch, Richard Olsen, Felix Rathmer, Paul Shelly, and William A. Shelly.

Many peace organizations are also documented in these papers through flyers, pamphlets, periodicals, newsletters, and correspondence. These include the American Neutral Conference Committee, Emergency Peace Federation, People's Council of America, Fellowship of Reconciliation, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Women Strike for Peace, and many others. As Shelley served as an officer in the Michigan Fellowship of Reconciliation (F.O.R.) through the 1950s and 1960s, many of the organization's official papers came to be in her possession. Therefore, an effort was made to remove most of these official papers to the separate Michigan F.O.R. collection.

The collection is arranged in eleven series: Biographical; Newspaper Clippings; Correspondence; Topical Papers; Miscellaneous Papers; Papers Of Other Individuals; Printed; Periodicals; Diaries And Notebooks; Photographs; and Writings.


Stewart family papers, 1890-1991 (majority within 1950-1991)

3 linear feet — 1 oversize folder

Papers of R. R. Stewart, United Presbyterian missionary in India and adjunct research investigator of the University of Michigan Herbarium, and papers of his wife, Hladia Porter Stewart, educator at Kinnaird College in Lahore and later Gordon College in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Reminiscences and other autobiographical writings, correspondence, diary, articles concerning flora of India and Pakistan, and files relating to teaching and missionary work of R. R. Stewart; also letters, memoirs and poetry of Hladia Porter Stewart; and photographs

The Stewart Family Collection consists of two linear feet of documents and photos relating to the life of Ralph Randles Stewart and one linear foot relating to the life and writings of Hladia Porter Stewart. Both spent most of their lives on the northern Indian subcontinent.


Irma Bielenberg papers, 1893-1974

2 linear feet

Teacher and Methodist missionary to India, 1924-1927.Correspondence and printed material concerning her work in India, college notebooks and papers from Detroit Teachers College; thesis "Economic Detroit--1860-1870"; family letters, many in Swedish, relating in part to Michigan's Upper Peninsula at the end of the nineteenth century; and miscellaneous journals, papers, and photographs.

The papers of Irma Bielenberg cover the period of 1893 to 1974 and include correspondence and printed material concerning her work in India, college notebooks and papers from Detroit Teachers College, a thesis entitled, "Economic Detroit--1860-1870," travel diaries, photographs from India and from South America, and family letters (many in Swedish) relating to life in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan at the end of the nineteenth century.


G. B. Harrison Papers, 1910-1981

7 linear feet — 18 microfilms

Scholar and professor of English at University of Michigan. Diaries, manuscripts of dramas and other writings, Shakespearean notes and lecture materials and personal and professional correspondence, including correspondence and other material relating to his service with the British Infantry during World War I.

The collection contain diaries, personal and professional correspondence, articles, lectures, research notes, and literary manuscripts; material relates extensively to Shakespearean, Elizabethan, and Jacobean literary scholarship and the teaching thereof, to Catholicism (including the English liturgy), and to Harrison's service with the British Infantry in India and Mesopotamia (Iraq) during World War I. There is also material relating to feminism, publishing and copyright, rare books, and staging Elizabethan plays. Noteworthy is the extensive and substantive correspondence with Guy Hamilton and Gerald Cullinan, which ranges over literature, scholarship, politics, and personalities in the U.S. and England.

The G.B. Harrison collection is divided into the following series: Diaries; Correspondence; Religious Activities; Addresses and Lectures; Articles, Reviews, and Pamphlets; and Manuscripts of writings.