William Kaufman, M.D., Ph.D (Physiology), discovered that niacinamide (vitamin B-3) can effectively treat symptoms in arthritic patients. This collection documents Kaufman's niacinamide research, his work as an author of academic and popular medical articles, and his personal life. William's wife's, Charlotte (Schnee) Kaufman's papers are also included, especially those relating to the Family Life Film Center of Connecticut.
The William and Charlotte Kaufman Papers document many facets of both William and Charlotte Kaufman's professional and personal lives. The collection has been arranged into fourteen series: Niacinamide, Other Medical Topics, Other Writings, General Correspondence, Professional Organizations, Personal, Charlotte Kaufman, Patient Records, Computer disks, Artwork, Audiovisual, Slides, Photographs and Negatives, and Realia.
William Kaufman's research in the therapeutic use of niacinamide and its effect on arthritis is documented by professional correspondence, correspondence with interested members of the public, patient records, published and unpublished writings, notes, photographs and negatives, and relevant writings by others. Kaufman's involvement in various medical organizations and his work as an author of popular and academic articles are also well represented. Drafts of plays and poems, an autobiography, sketchbooks, and paintings show William's creative work as an amateur artist, playwright, and poet. Papers relating to Kaufman's personal life are also present in the collection.
Material relating to Charlotte Kaufman mostly stems from her work as Executive Director of the Family Life Film Center of Connecticut, Inc. A wide range of materials document the workings of the Film Center: correspondence, leaflets, memos, discussion notes, training materials, posters, newspaper clippings, and photographs. Charlotte's activity in other community organizations and her personal life are represented by photographs, schoolwork, biographical material, creative writings, invitations, newspaper clippings, and correspondence.
Series Level Scope and Contents Notes:
The Niacinamide series consists of approximately 4.5 linear feet and provides insight not only into Kaufman's research and writing on niacinamide as a therapy for arthritis but also into his research's impact and general reception. This series includes data such as charts and summary results, but please note that some niacinamide study data is in other parts of the collection: forms recording individual patients' joint measurements are in the Patient Records series and are mostly restricted due to the presence of personally identifiable health information; a significant number of photos, slides, and negatives of Kaufman's patients who participated in the niacinamide studies are part of the Photographs and Negatives series and many of these visual materials are also restricted.
Niacinamide correspondence constitutes the largest group of material in the Niacinamide series and this correspondence is subdivided into three groups: professional correspondence and name files (exchanges with doctors and other health care providers, companies, government agencies, etc.); requests for niacinamide or arthritis advice or treatment testimonials from members of the public; and simple requests and delivery confirmations for Kaufman's articles and books on niacinamide. The professional correspondence includes exchanges between Kaufman and important medical figures such as Linus Pauling, Abram Hoffer, Jonathan Wright, Andrew Saul, and others. Researchers interested in Kaufman's niacinamide work may also want to consult the General Correspondence series as it contains a small amount of correspondence mentioning niacinamide.
The Niacinamide series documents Kaufman's niacinamide work in several other ways: through drafts, publications, notes, press notices on Kaufman's two monographs, material related to Kaufman winning the Tom D. Spies Award, as well as material related to Kaufman's role in a 1942-1943 study at the Bridgeport Brass Company, in which workers were given vitamin supplements and the effect on their overall health and mental state was assessed.
The Other Medical Topics series is composed of roughly 2 linear feet of material directly related to Kaufman's medical writings (those not about niacinamide). The writings cover a wide range of topics, from electrocardiography to psychosomatic eating problems and are intended for a wide range of audiences, from medical specialists to members of the public. Drafts, copies of Kaufman's publications, and notes make up the bulk of the series. There is also correspondence, published background material, drafts, and notes related to the Béla Schick Festschrift (1958) , which Kaufman edited, and about the Lowenfeld Mosaic Test (the test, which consists of a set of colored plastic shapes that the subject is supposed to arrange into a pleasing pattern, is part of the Realia series).
Other Writings consists of about 6 feet of mostly unpublished material directly related to Kaufman's writings that are neither medical nor niacinamide-related in subject. They are divided into four subseries: creative writing, money, autobiography, and miscellaneous.
The creative writing subseries consists of drafts, publications, and notes and fragments of Kaufman's short stories, poems, plays, and novels. This subseries also contains a small amount of correspondence and other material related to Kaufman's efforts to publish and publicize his creative writings.
Kaufman's interest in money led to the publication of a few articles, most notably "Some Emotional Uses of Money," primarily about what Kaufman termed "psycho-economic behavior." The money subseries contains drafts, publications, notes, source material for Kaufman's articles, and an unpublished book on money. The subseries also includes letters expressing readers' reactions to Kaufman's money pieces, as well as requests for advice.
Two draft versions and some notes and fragments of William Kaufman's autobiography, Snippets , make up the autobiography subseries. The miscellaneous subseries consists of drafts, notes, and publicity on writings of Kaufman's that don't fall into any of the above categories (i.e. are neither medical, nor creative pieces, nor money-related), for example, an opinion piece on writing obituaries .
The General Correspondence series (roughly 3 linear feet) is divided into two groups: personal correspondence between William and Charlotte Kaufman and general correspondence (correspondence that doesn't primarily concern niacinamide, the business of William's professional organizations, or William's employment) between William and others.
The correspondence between William and Charlotte Kaufman spans their relationship from their first meeting in Ann Arbor in 1936 until just before William's death in 2001. The early correspondence also includes a fair amount of attachments, including creative writings by both William and Charlotte, letters from others, and some sketches by William. The bulk of the letters date from 1938 and 1939, the years just before Charlotte and William were married. Their correspondence is arranged chronologically by, but not within, year.
The general correspondence subseries ranges in subject from personal to medical and includes correspondence with: Dave Brubeck, Luke Bucci, Rodrigo Carozo, William Crook, Thomas Dorman, Carlton Fredericks, John Fulton, Anna Freud, Bernard Halpern, David Harley, Fred Hodges, Paul Kallós, Heinz Karger, Sam Kaufman, John Leonard, Marshall Mandell, Theron Randolph, Samuel Schnee, Béla Schick, Nicholas Spinelli, Frank Wilson, and White House staff members during the Franklin D. Roosevelt and Dwight Eisenhower administrations.
The Professional Organizations series (approximately 1 linear foot) details Kaufman's involvement with various medical organizations, including as American Editor-in-Chief of the International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology , President of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, and in various posts in the American College of Allergists and other organizations. The series consists primarily of correspondence and memos. It also contains programs, menus, schedules, some newspaper clippings, and meeting minutes.
The Personal series consists of about 3 feet of papers that relate to William Kaufman's personal affairs. The material falls in nine groups: biographical, education, employment, family, finances, health, homes, inventions and copyrights, and articles and press releases.
A broad swath of material documents Kaufman's basic personal information. Included are passports, a diary, and Who's Who entry material. William Kaufman's academic achievements are well represented and span from Pottsville High to University of Michigan Medical School to continuing education courses. His academic life is reflected in grades, notes, yearbooks, newspaper clippings related to scholarships and honors, fraternity materials, student identification cards, financial records, graduation programs, and alumni correspondence and reunion materials.
Periods of William Kaufman's employment in hospitals and New York pharmaceutical advertising agencies are documented in memos, drafts of industrial writings (interpretation of FDA regulations, drug labeling, promotion and education, etc.), announcements and press about Kaufman's professional appointments, and other business papers. The family material documents particular episodes in the lives of the Schnee and Kaufman families. These papers were originally grouped together and have been retained in this order. Besides these few groups, all correspondence with members of the Schnee and Kaufman families is part of the General Correspondence and Charlotte Kaufman series.
The remainder of the Personal series is composed of two smaller groups: information related to the selling, buying, rezoning, taxation, and insuring of the Kaufmans' homes; and certificates of copyright, letters patent, legal paperwork, correspondence, and design plans related to the construction of Kaufman's joint measuring instruments.
The Charlotte Kaufman series is 7 linear feet of Charlotte Kaufman's files. The bulk of the series arises from Charlotte Kaufman’s role as Executive Director of the Family Life Film Center of Connecticut (established February 22, 1967). The Family Life Film Center papers overlap with Charlotte’s involvement with other citizens’ groups championing causes such as better schools and better police-community relations. Charlotte’s original topical folder organization, where present, was retained and most folder labels are hers. All dates assigned to the folders are rough bulk dates and not necessarily comprehensive. There is a significant amount of material related to a grant given to the Family Life Film Center by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social & Rehabilitation Service to conduct a pilot program designed to raise awareness of career options for handicapped individuals.
Also included in the Charlotte series are materials relating to Charlotte's other community activities (such as her involvement with the Alliance Française du Comte de Fairfield), correspondence between Charlotte and other individuals (not related to niacinamide--those letters have been included in the Niacinamide series), and personal materials, which include biographical material, papers relating to Charlotte's education, employment, family, and health. A highlight of the personal Charlotte material is a folder of material about her 1939 trip to Alaska and Charlotte's interest in Alaska becoming a place for resettlement of refugees from Hitler's Europe.
The Patient Records series (one linear foot) consists primarily of joint measurements of and case histories of patients, most likely collected as part of William Kaufman's niacinamide studies in the 1940s. A few patients have more extensive files that may include correspondence or additional charts. Due to the presence of personally identifiable health information, much of the material in this series is closed to researchers and consultation with Special Collections staff is required before accessing this series. Original binder and folder titles have been retained where present. This series contains a few photographs, but most patient photos have been transferred to the Photographs and Negatives series.
The Computer Disks consists mostly of 3.5 inch floppy disks that contain backups of emails and files the Kaufmans had on their home computer. The majority of the disks are indexed and organized in binders and their original order and housing has been retained. The series also includes 3 CDs.
The Artwork series is comprised of William Kaufman’s drawings, sketches, and paintings. This includes a series of mostly black-and-white drawings of imaginary creatures titled “Kaufman’s Kritters.” Documents complementing the artwork are also in this series and include Kaufman’s efforts get his artwork published and his entries into various shows and contests.
The relatively small Audiovisual series is comprised of cassette tapes, including a 1978 interview William Kaumfan did with Carlton Fredericks, and film in various formats including 16mm motion pictures reels, microfilm, and canisters of 36mm film. Among the films is a short film, A Day in the Life of P. T. Barnum, that Charlotte Kaufman produced.
The Slides series consists of a few thousand color slides, including a small number of glass-plate slides. The patient studies slides, which are mostly images of mouths, tongues, eyes, and, to a lesser extent, other body parts, make up the largest part of the series. It is very likely that these slides were produced as part of William Kaufman's niacinamide studies. The patient studies slides are divided into three groups: boxed, sleeved, and glass-plate. All three groups are organized alphabetically by patient name. Most of these patient slides are closed due to the presence of personally identifiable health information. Researchers interested in the slides should consult Special Collections staff. Additionally, there are a small number of personal and other slides.
The Photographs and Negatives series is divided into three subseries: Photographs, Negatives, and Photographs and Negatives (the Photographs and Negatives subseries, while redundant, is used because some photographs were bundled together with their original negatives and these were kept together). All three subseries contain a variety of sizes and formats. The Photographs subseries and the Negatives subseries both include a substantial number of patient images, mostly demonstrating the flexibility of a particular joint. While some of these photographs are restricted (please consult with Special Collections staff if interested), some do not contain personally identifiable information and are open for research. All three subseries contain personal images (which include portraits, images of homes and artwork, as well as travel and conference pictures). The Negatives subseries also encompasses color transparencies, many of which are images associated with the Lowenfeld Mosaic Test .
Finally, the Realia series contains three dimensional artifacts, mostly metal medical instruments that William Kaufman invented and used in his niacinamide studies. In particular, many of the objects are goniometers, or instruments for measuring flexibility. The Lowenfeld Mosaic Test , in its original green case, is also part of this series.