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Alexander G. Ruthven Papers, 1901-1961 (majority within 1906-1951)

65.4 linear feet — 1 oversize folder

Zoologist, college professor, president of University of Michigan, 1929-1951. Professional files relating to his career with the University Museum and as a professor of zoology, and presidential files containing correspondence, reports, speeches, and other University materials, including budget and legislative files, material relating to changes in University administration, his relationship with faculty, students and alumni, and photographs.

The Alexander Ruthven papers consists of two series of records. The first is the papers of Ruthven as president of the University of Michigan, 1929 to 1951. The second, and smaller, series is the files maintained by Ruthven as a zoologist with the University Museum and as professor of zoology. This latter series dates largely from 1908 to 1929 but also includes collected earlier files from the 1870s.


Arthur H. Vandenberg papers, 1884-1974 (majority within 1915-1951)

8 linear feet (on 11 microfilm rolls) — 25 volumes — 20 phonograph records — 1 film reel — 1 audiotape (reel-to-reel tapes)

Republican U.S. Senator from Michigan; advocate of the United Nations and bipartisan foreign policy. Correspondence, scrapbooks, diaries, and visual materials.

The Arthur H. Vandenberg collection consists of 8 linear feet of materials (available on microfilm), 25 volumes of scrapbook/journals, and assorted audio and visual materials. The collection covers Vandenberg's entire career with a few folders of papers post-dating his death in 1951 relating to the dedication of memorial rooms in his honor in the 1970s. The collection is divided into four major series: Correspondence; Speeches; Campaign and Miscellaneous Topical; Clippings, Articles, and Scrapbooks; Miscellaneous and Personal; Visual Materials; and Sound Recordings.


Auguste Hervieu Watercolors, ca. 1819-1830

1 volume

The Auguste Hervieu watercolors consist of seven watercolor illustrations attributed to French painter and book illustrator Auguste Hervieu.

The Auguste Hervieu watercolors consist of seven watercolor illustrations attributed to French painter and book illustrator Auguste Hervieu. These illustrations are not known to have been used in any publication(s), and while it is unclear what publication(s) they were originally associated with it is possible that many were produced in relation to Hervieu’s collaboration with Frances M. Trollope during their travels together in the United States of America in the late 1820s. A number of items feature inscribed titles in an unidentified hand.

The title and contents of each watercolor illustration are as follows:
  • [Boy with hogs] - a young barefoot boy wearing tattered clothing wields a stick while opening the door to a hog corral.
  • “Love among the Quakers” - a Quaker man and woman stoically sit near each other while cupid is sat between them. Both the woman and cupid have their eyes closed while the man looks straight ahead.
  • [Fourth of July event] - a tough looking well-dressed young man who has taken his hat off while extending a hand (possibly signifying that he is a ticket-taker) poses near an open stone archway leading to a courtyard occupied by soldiers in uniform listening to a man giving a speech. The stone wall next to the young man bears several inscriptions including “Order of Celebration of the 4th July,” “502 Hog,” “Declaration of Independence,” and a partially illegible inscription reading “Tales ? ? Slaves’.”
  • “The Village Politicians” - two men and one woman holding a child observe a sign that reads “Reportie - Black List.”
  • “Love among the Negroes” - a well-dressed African American couple sit closely next to each other on a park bench while cupid covertly observes their romantic interaction with a smile. The man can be seen using a monocle to intimately examine a miniature portrait kept in the woman’s locket while she uses a fan to partially cover her face. A white waiter carrying a wine bottle and wine glasses also looks on from the background.
  • “A Philadelphia Exquisite” - a well-dressed African American man stands carrying a hat in one hand while holding a stick monocle to his eye in the other.
  • “The sad reality on arrival” - view showing the interior of a house with a group of people (possibly the Trollope family). At the center of the room there is a comically large fire that appears to have been fueled by furniture that was hewn in desperation while several leaks are shown pouring through the roof. The woman at left can be seen holding an umbrella.


Daniel Satterthwaite papers, 1855-1856, 1859

1 oversize box

Diary and diploma belonging to Daniel Satterthwaite, University of Michigan Class of 1859. Caricature sketch of the full class of 1859, including Satterthwaite, by Stephen H. Webb.

This collection consists of material related to Daniel Satterthwaite, a University of Michigan graduate from the class of 1859. His diary, dated between 1855 and 1856, contains his personal thoughts on student life, religious activities, farming, and events current to the time. Excerpts from the diary were printed in volume 35 of The Michigan Alumnus, a publication run by the Alumni Association of the University of Michigan. The collection also includes his 1859 bachelor's degree diploma from the University of Michigan, as well as a caricature of the class of 1859 that was sketched by Stephen H. Webb.


Dean C. Worcester papers, 1887-1925

4.4 linear feet — 1 oversize folder

University of Michigan professor of zoology and museum curator, participated in or and led several research expeditions to the Philippines, member of the First and Second Philippine Commissions and involved in several Philippines business ventures; records includes notes, correspondence, publications and photographs relating to research expeditions, service on Philippines Commissions business activities, of special interest are notes of a trip taken to Mindoro and Palawan in July of 1910 and papers pertaining to the special Wood-Forbes Investigating Mission to the Philippines in 1921.

The Dean C. Worcester papers filed at the Bentley Historical Library consist of correspondence, subject files, newspaper clippings, publications, and photographs pertaining to his activities in the Philippines. Of interest are notes of a trip taken to Mindoro and Palawan in July of 1910 and papers pertaining to the special Wood-Forbes Investigating Mission to the Philippines in 1921. The collection includes correspondence with William Howard Taft and Leonard Wood.


Edward Williams Clay Watercolors, Scrapbook Fragments, and Silhouettes, 1816-1853 (majority within 1820-1830)

28 watercolors, 1 drawing book, 37 scrapbook fragments, 11 silhouettes

The Edward Williams Clay watercolors, scrapbook fragments and silhouettes consist of 28 original watercolor drawings created by Edward Williams Clay, a drawing book with art by Clay and James Pemberton Morris, 37 fragments of a scrapbook believed to have been compiled by Clay, and 11 cut paper silhouettes. The bulk of materials are watercolors by Clay of Europeans and Americans abroad from 1825-1828, and satirical, genre, and theatrical prints by Clay and others.

The Edward Williams Clay watercolors, scrapbook fragments and silhouettes consist of 28 original watercolor drawings created by Edward Williams Clay, a drawing book with art by Clay and James Pemberton Morris, 37 fragments of a scrapbook believed to have been compiled by Clay, and 11 cut paper silhouettes. The bulk of materials are watercolors by Clay of Europeans and Americans abroad from 1825-1828, and satirical, genre, and theatrical prints by Clay and others.

In 2002, the Clements Library became aware of a scrapbook containing an extensive collection of Edward Williams Clay prints and artwork in possession of a Virginia antique dealer. After most of the individual pages were separately sold on eBay, it became apparent that the source, John Duncan Marsh (1931-2021) of Purcellville, Virginia, was a direct descendent of Clay's sister, Mary Ann Clay Bolton (1801-1818), and the scrapbook was likely compiled by the artist himself. Given that the contents of this collection were created after the death of Mary Ann, it is presumed that they were in the custody of one of her children, although the relationship between Clay and his nephews, James Robert Bolton (1817-1890) and Edward Clay Bolton (1818-1892), is unknown. The remaining remnants of the scrapbook were purchased by the Clements Library at auction along with the watercolor sketches and family silhouettes. All of the materials present were consigned to auction from the same source except for the drawing book, which had earlier been acquired by the Clements Library from a Philadelphia book dealer.

Series I - Watercolors

The collection contains 28 original watercolor works by Edward Williams Clay. A subset within this series represents Clay's journey from the Eastern United States to France between 1826 and 1828. Several works include inscribed titles, locations, and dates. A number of sketches also bear evidence of having been previously cropped, mounted, and framed.

Of particular note is one sketch from December 1825 showing two women and a man dressed in comically large winter clothing captioned "Life in Philadelphia - (going home from a tea-fight)." This unpublished satire is the earliest appearance of content later found in Clay's notorious series Life in Philadelphia.

Clay documented his 1826 journey to France with a series of caricatures, including the following works:
  • A portrait of a well-dressed man wearing a top hat while holding spectacles and a cane with a verso caption reading "Steam boat Bellona from Brunswick to New York April 1826"
  • Two portraits of well-dressed men in top hats captioned "Thayer - on board the ship Edward [Quesnel at sea July 1826]" and "Constancio - On board the ship Edward Quesnel at sea July 1826"
  • A portrait of a sailor wearing a brimmed hat and smoking a pipe with a caption on the verso reading "[French?] Pilot - [Edward] Quesnel, off the coast of France 18 July [1826?]

Note: The steamer Bellona ran from Brunswick, New Jersey, to New York City, while the Edward Quesnel is recorded as regularly running between New York City and Marseilles, France.

Other scenes illustrate aspects of European society and street life from Clay's visit to Europe between 1826 and 1828. Many of these works depict men's and women's fashions in fine detail. As several subjects are identified by name, it is presumed that some of these depictions were likely based on real people observed by Clay.

Items of interest in this group include:
  • A portrait of two French priests captioned “Les Curés - Paris 1827”
  • A street scene captioned "Postellers & Conductors - Paris 1827" showing several uniformed drivers (including individuals wearing heavy duty protective knee-high boots insulated with straw)
  • A street scene showing five well-dressed men including man identified in a partially cutoff caption as "Count Dep..."
  • A scene depicting a masked ball with a large man at center identified as "Prince Borghese"
  • A scene showing a man in Artois bathing and reading Le Constitutionnel while being attended to by a servant
  • An equestrian scene showing riders in a park including an Arabian horse-drawn cart carrying the driver and a Mamluk groom wearing a turban
  • Two ballroom dancing scenes with couples wearing formal dress
  • A wedding portrait showing a couple identified as "Hercule de B. s." and "Mde Leverd"
  • A formal dinner scene showing a number of couples entering a dining room attended by servants
  • A comical scene showing a young woman identified as "Josphine" being introduced by an older French-speaking woman to two men, an unidentified English speaker and an apparently German individual identified as "Becker"
  • A scene showing a couple of street minstrels performing outside of an inn
  • Two portraits of unidentified well-dressed men

Items that may represent American content include sketches of a young couple dancing and a restaurant dining scene showing patrons and staff.

Ethnic caricatures include:
  • A portrait of a woman holding a qanon titled "A Turkish female slave playing on the Kanoon" dated to December 1827
  • A portrait of the Greek goddess Iris dated January 21 1828
  • A portrait of a woman captioned "A Greek Lady in her walking dress" dated to December 1827

One satirical scene titled “Compliments of the Season 1829” shows a young boy wishing merry Christmas while handing a bill from a “Mr. Smith” (presumably an American) to an irate French musician wearing a robe who appears to have been in the middle of having his face shaven by an amused servant. This scene corresponds to an 1830 lithograph published by Clay which is in the collection of the American Antiquarian Society.

Undated watercolors include:
  • A portrait of a carriage driver wearing a heavy fur-trimmed coat
  • A street scene showing two boys in patched-up clothing and wooden shoes in possession of a crank-organ and a performing monkey
  • A street scene showing a wealthy man visiting a dog grooming business

Series II - Drawing Book

The drawing book bears a retail label from a Parisian shop and an ownership inscription dated 1816 from James Pemberton Morris (1795-1834), a member of a prominent Quaker family who resided at Bolton Farm in Buck County, Pennsylvania (note: Bolton Farm is not related in any way to the family of James McLean Bolton). 1816 is also the year in which Morris was married to his wife Rosa Gardiner (?-1828) in a ceremony in Edinburgh, Scotland. Drawings of note include a sketch of a “Judge Duncan;” multiple pencil sketches of women; a watercolor drawing of a maritime scene; and rough sketches of various cartoons. Clay's signature is attached to some of the works (including a sketch of Rosa Gardiner Morris), while others are initialled "JPM." Handwriting in the drawing book matches writing on many watercolors attributed to and signed by Clay. The nature of the relationship between Morris and Clay remains unclear.

Series III - Scrapbook fragments

The collection’s 37 scrapbook fragments are the remains of a personal scrapbook that likely once belonged to Edward W. Clay. Based on conversations with the dealer John Palmer, this scrapbook had contained a significant set of over 60 prints by Clay prior to being disassembled. A majority of the remaining fragments are satirical, genre, and theatrical prints produced by other artists, some of which may have been collected by Clay during his European travels.

Scrapbook items of interest include:
  • Five lithographs by Charles Motte representing scenes from various works by Charles Perrault (Griseledis, L’Adroite Princesse, Cendrillon, Riquet a La Houppe, and Le Petit Chaperon Rouge)
  • Multiple works depicting character costumes from various theatrical productions including The Prophet, The Queen of Cyprus, Tsar and Carpenter, and The Star of Sevilla
  • Engraved depictions of a French “Infanterie de Ligne” and a Scottish “Tambour du 42e Regiment D’Highlanders,” both by Edouard Detaille
  • An engraved portrait of George Washington by H. S. Sadd
  • Two lithographs by Charles Motte of scenes involving children titled “Les Belles Dames. The Fine Ladies” and “A Fishing Party”
  • Engravings of “Bolton Abbey in the Olden Time” by Schuler and “Weehawken, From the Elysean Fields. Hoboken” by Archibald L. Dick

Several engravings and lithographs focused on women's fashion include:
  • “Soubrette” by Paul Gavarni
  • “Modes de Paris Petit Courrier des Dames”
  • “Vous ne direz plus que la mode est indécente!!”
  • “Mde De Nouveautés” by Charles Philippon
  • “Déclaration d’un Maître de Cham” by Frederic Bouchot

Other items of interest include:
  • Drawings of various men, women, children (some of whom are identified)
  • A pencil drawing of a ship captioned “Brigantine New Castle April 8th 1853”
  • Six lithographic portraits of French generals Charles Nicholas Fabvier, Pierre Claude Pajol, Étienne Maurice Gérard, Horace Sébastiani, Maximilien Sébastien Foy, and the Marquis de Lafayette

Of particular note are two caricature lithographs depicting African Americans that are attributed to Clay, including one print published in 1830 titled "Back to Back" that depicts an African American couple dancing in fine clothing with the caption reading: "I reckon I've cotcht de figure now!". The other print (which is mounted on a scrapbook page) titled "A Black Cut" dates to 1839 and depicts an African American chimney sweeper being shunned by a wealthier mixed-race couple.

Series IV - Silhouettes

This series includes 11 cut paper silhouette portraits, nine of which bear the stamp of the Peale Museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Several include subject identifications and dates of creation. Eight of these items were originally mounted in 20th-century frames prior to being rehoused in archival mats by the Clements Library. The framed items carried the following notation in reverse at the top: "Property of / Miss Mary Clay Bolton / Mechanics and Metals Bank / 204 Fifth Avenue, New York City;" and at the bottom "Theodore Bolton," along with the frame shop label of S. Friedman, E. 9th St., New York, N.Y.

Of particular importance is a silhouette of Edward W. Clay inscribed "E.W.C. Ann: ÆTAT 21" (age 21) from the Peale Museum, ca. 1820. This work is believed to be the only known portrait of Clay outside of a painted portrait held by the Marsh family (descendants of Mary Ann Clay Bolton). The additional inscriptions “Cut at Peale’s Museum, Philadelphia” and “Edward Williams Clay, Portrait Painter” appear to have been added later.

Other identified individual silhouettes include Charles Heyward, William Heyward, George Douglass, William Graham, and George Cuthbert. These men were prominent members of South Carolinian society and were all either closely or distantly related. Three of the silhouettes are of Charles Heyward, who owned one of the largest rice plantations in the South and was the grandson of Thomas Heyward, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. The connection between these people and Edward W. Clay and/or Mary Ann Clay Bolton is unknown.


Gerald T. and Charlotte B. Maxson Printed Ephemera Collection, ca. 1750s-1999 (majority within 1850s-1900)

approximately 5,000+ items in 23 volumes

The Gerald T. and Charlotte B. Maxson printed ephemera collection contains over 5,000 pieces of assorted ephemera, the majority of which were commercially printed in the United States during the mid to late 19th-century.

The Gerald T. and Charlotte B. Maxson printed ephemera collection contains over 5,000 pieces of assorted ephemera, the majority of which were commercially printed in the United States during the mid to late 19th-century.

The Maxson collection provides a valuable resource for the study of 19th-century visual culture, commercial advertising, and humor in addition to the role of gender, ethnicity, and race in advertising. American businesses are the predominant focus of the collection, though many international businesses are also represented. While trade cards are by far the most prevalent type of ephemera found in this collection, an extensive array of genres are present including die cut scrapbook pieces, photographs, engravings, maps, serials, and manuscript materials.

The 23 binders that house the Maxson collection were arranged by the collectors themselves. Items are organized somewhat randomly in terms of topical arrangement. While pockets of related materials can be found here and there (for instance, the entirety of Volume 16 contains circus-related items while Volume 11 contains an extensive number of Shaker-related materials), for the most part any given subject may appear in any given volume. In some cases, items are clustered as a result of having been acquired together or due to a documented common provenance. Occasional typed annotations written by the Maxsons help provide additional context for certain items.

The Maxson Collection Subject Index serves as a volume-level subject index for materials found throughout the binders. The subjects indexed here are generally representative of both visual and commercial content. In addition to more general subjects, many names of specific people, places, buildings, events, and organizations that appear in the materials have also been listed. Researchers engaging with this collection should be aware that they will encounter numerous examples of racist caricatures, especially ones depicting African American, Native American, Irish, and Chinese people.


G. Mennen Williams papers, 1883-1988 (majority within 1958-1980)

843 linear feet — 42 oversize volumes — 147 audiotapes (3 3/4 - 7 1/2 ips; 5-10 inches; reel-to-reel tapes) — 46 audiocassettes — 30 phonograph records — 42.1 GB (online)

Governor of Michigan 1949 to 1960, under-secretary of state for African Affairs from 1961 to 1965, and Michigan Supreme Court justice from 1970 to 1986 and leader in state and national Democratic Party. Papers document his public career and aspects of his personal and family life and include correspondence, subject files, staff files, speeches, press releases and news clippings, photographs, sound recordings, films and videotapes.

The G. Mennen Williams Papers consist of official and personal files arranged into six subgroups: 1) Gubernatorial papers, 1949-1960 (681 linear ft.); 2) Non-gubernatorial papers, 1883-1948 and 1958-1988 (107 linear ft.); 3) Visual materials, ca. 1911-1988 (ca. 25 linear ft.); 4) sound recordings, 1950-ca. 1988 (5 linear ft.) Scrapbooks, 1948-1987 (43 vols.) and State Department Microfilm, 1961-1966 (23 reels).

As part of its own control system, the governor's office maintained a card index to the correspondents in many of the subgroups and series within the gubernatorial papers. This card file is located in the library's reading room. In addition, Nancy Williams and her staff compiled an extensive and detailed run of scrapbooks covering the Williams years. There is a separate inventory to these scrapbooks in a separately bound volume.

Strategy for Use of the Gubernatorial Papers: Although the Williams gubernatorial collection consists of hundreds of linear feet of material, the file arrangement created by the governor's staff is a fairly simple one to understand and to use.

The bulk of the collection falls within specific functional groupings, corresponding to the various activities and responsibilities that Williams performed as governor. Thus, if the researcher is uncertain of what portions of the collection might be relevant to his/her research, he/she is advised to think in terms of gubernatorial function. Does the proposed research concern the workings or area responsibility of a state board? If so, the Boards and Commissions series would be the most likely place in which to find material. The election of 1954? Then Democratic Party/Campaign Papers should be first choice. The passage of a specific piece of legislation? Here, Legislative Files is an obvious choice. The possible choices (called subgroups and series) that the researcher has are listed in the Organization of the Collection section. A description of the contents of each of these subgroups/series is provided below.

If, at first, unsuccessful in finding material on any given topic, the researcher might consider these additional strategies:

1. Refer to the Williams card index (located in the library's reading room). Sometimes, the name of an individual associated with a subject provides the easiest point of access into the collection. This file is arranged alphabetically and lists the dates of letters between an individual and the governor's office. This file only indexes the larger series and subgroups in the collection. It does not index the staff files, or parts of the Democratic Party/Campaign subgroup. Nevertheless it is an invaluable tool, and can uncover important material otherwise buried.

2. Refer to the various series of staff papers. Staff members were often closely involved in a specific subject areas (Jordan Popkin and aging, for example) and thus their files are frequently rich in source material.

3. If only partially successful in locating desired material, the researcher should think of an alternative subgroup or series. The governor's office, for a variety of reasons, often filed related material in different locations depending upon the source of a document. Thus, information relating to a strike might be filed both under the Labor Mediation Board in Boards and Commissions, and Strikes in General Subjects. Furthermore, if the strike influenced a specific piece of legislation, there could be material in the Legislative Files.


Jack Keenan World War II Sketches, 1941-1945

165 sketches housed in 3 navy blue clam-shell tray cases with gold inlay on the spines.

The Jack Keenan World War II Sketches are a collection of over 150 pieces of original art, in the mediums of pencil, pen and watercolor, created by John “Jack” Keenan during his service with the Seventh Armored Division, Third Army, under General George C. Patton. The collection contains scenes from the daily lives of soldiers in this division and chronicles Keenan’s experiences from the beginning of his training at Camp Polk in Louisiana, through his service in Europe and finally his trip back to the United States following the Allied victory.

The contents of this collection correspond with John “Jack” Keenan’s service in the Seventh Armored Division, Third Army, during World War II, from 1941 to 1945. Included are sketches of military personnel, living quarters, landscape vistas, battlefields, weaponry, military transportation, urban scenes, ruins, civilians, prisoners of war, and other topics. Specific locations depicted in these sketches include the states of Louisiana, California, Arizona, Georgia and the countries of England, France, Belgium, Germany, Poland and Scotland.


John Shields Pyle visual materials collection, circa 1912

1 folder

1912 graduate of the University of Michigan Law School. Consists of caricatures of fellow law students and unidentified photographs.

The collection consists of caricatures of fellow law students and unidentified photographs.