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Latin America collection, 1518-1883 (majority within [18th-19th century])

57 volumes

Collection of bound and miscellaneous manuscripts relating to the history of Latin America between 1518 and 1882. These materials pertain to laws, religious doctrines, indigenous cultures and interactions with Europeans, city ordinances, land holdings, and other subjects.

The Latin America collection is made up of 57 volumes of miscellaneous items related to New Spain, Mexico, Peru, and Guatemala. The items span from 1518 to 1882. The materials came to the Clements Library from multiple dealers and donors between 1928 and 1951. The New Spain series is made up of volumes that broadly cover the areas under Spanish control in Latin America. The Mexico, Peru, and Guatemala series is made up of materials that specifically address each of those areas. Topics addressed in the letters and documents include laws, religious doctrines, indigenous culture and interactions with Europeans, city ordinances, land holdings, viceregal matters, and many other subjects. Of particular note is a 1760 manuscript copy of a 1587 original of three religious dramas in the Nahuatl language. In 2023, an 1822 contemporary manuscript copy of Manuel de la Barcena's Manifiesto al Mundo: La Justicia y Necesidad de la Independencia de Nueva-España was added to Volume 38.

In addition to this finding aid, the Clements Library has created detailed the following descriptions of each volume in the collection: Latin America Collection: Volume Descriptions.


Van Vechten family collection, 1672-1947 (majority within 1768-1896)

1 linear foot

This collection is made up of correspondence, military documents, financial records, and other items related to the Van Vechten (also Van Veghten) family of Albany and Catskill, New York, and Detroit, Michigan. Most of the material dates from the mid-1700s to the late 1800s.

This collection is made up of correspondence, military documents, financial records, and other items related to the Van Vechten (also Van Veghten) family of Albany and Catskill, New York, and Detroit, Michigan. Most of the material dates from the mid-1700s to the late 1800s.

Two loose Correspondence items are a letter from Abraham Van Vechten to Harmanus Bleecker regarding news from Albany, New York, and local politics (January 20, 1813) and a letter that Abraham Van Vechten received from an acquaintance (November 10, 1813).

The Scrapbook (37 pages), currently disbound, contains printed and manuscript documents, notes, and other items from the late 1700s and early 1800s. Military records include muster rolls and related registers concerning Samuel Van Vechten's Continental Army company; a muster roll for John Van Vechten's company of the 66th Regiment of New York militia, pertaining to his service in the War of 1812; and military commissions for Samuel and John Van Vechten, signed by Cadwallader Colden and Daniel D. Tompkins. A Revolutionary War parole claim and several additional documents concern Jonathan, Lucas, and other members of the Elmendorff family. Additional items include a land survey conducted by Samuel Van Vechten in 1773, indentures pertaining to lands in the state of New York, a political broadsheet printed by the Albany Argus (October 12, 1824), and a letter from George Clinton to Christopher Tappen dated July 1, 1768.

The Orderly Book (34 pages) pertains to John Van Vechten's service in the New York Milita in the War of 1812. Orders, dated September 14, 1814-November 29, 1814, concern troop movements, drills and parades, and logistical matters. John's son Peter presented the volume to his own son, James, in 1913.

The Financial Records series contains loose and bound items. The Accounts subseries (7 items) contains brief notes and calculations; an undated document by Philip Phelps of the Albany Comptroller's office is also present.

Two Account Books belonged to members of the Van Vechten family in the 18th century. The first (approximately 310 pages) contains records dated from approximately 1672-1752, some of which were written in Dutch. The second half of this volume is an extensive genealogical record of the Van Vechten family and related families, compiled by Peter Van Vechten in the early to mid-1890s. The second account book (approximately 260 pages), which may have belonged to Teunis Van Vechten (1707-1785), contains records pertaining to individuals customers, dated from approximately 1768 to 1787 (bulk 1770s). Most entries pertain to sales of foodstuffs and related services, such as grinding wheat; at least one customer regularly paid for postage. Many of the individuals referenced in the volume were residents of Catskill, New York, including farmers, blacksmiths, and other laborers.

The Maps series includes 3 Loose Maps and a Survey Book. The individual maps include John Van Vechten's manuscript survey of lands along Batavia Kill; a printed map of the "Hollow Land" in the Netherlands, including the area around Amsterdam, showing city locations, the North Sea, and the Zuiderzee; and a blueprint map of lands belonging to Teunis Van Veghte [sic] in September 26, 1770. Samuel Van Vechten's Survey Book (approximately 40 pages) contains instructions for conducting land surveys, with illustrated examples and problems. Some pages bear small sketches of buildings.

The Photographs series (5 items) includes reproduced 19th-century portraits of Charlotte Scott, Harmon William Van Veghten, and Mary Jane Tigert, as well as a 20th-century portrait of John J. Tigert IV. The final item is a photograph of a house that belonged to the Schuyler family.

The undated Recipe Book contains manuscript instructions for making cakes, puddings, custard, blancmange, whipped cream, and other items. Newspaper clippings pasted into the front page include recipes for numerous types of cakes and puddings.

The Genealogy series (13 items) includes manuscript and typed notes about the Van Veghten (or Van Vechten) and Schuneman families, genealogical charts and trees pertaining to the Vanderpool and Van Vechten families, and reproduced images of manuscript notes about the Van Vechten family. Also included is a reproduced image of the Van Vechten family crest. The notes concern persons born as early as the mid-1600s and as late as the mid-1940s. Additional genealogical material may be found in one of the collection's account books (see above).

Miscelleanous material (5 items) includes fragments and an etching of a man and dog in front of a country home.


John Morin Scott family papers, 1679-1893 (majority within 1800-1846)

3.25 linear feet

The John Morin Scott family papers are made up of correspondence, legal and financial documents, and other items related to multiple generations of the Scott family, including New York City lawyer John Morin Scott; his son, Lewis Allaire Scott; and his grandson, John Morin Scott, mayor of Philadelphia from 1841-1844.

The John Morin Scott family papers (3.25 linear feet) are made up of correspondence, legal and financial documents, and other items related to multiple generations of the Scott family, including New York City lawyer John Morin Scott; his son, Lewis Allaire Scott; and his grandson, John Morin Scott, mayor of Philadelphia from 1841-1844.

The collection's Personal Correspondence series (approximately 750 items, 1767-1889) is comprised primarily of letters between John Morin Scott and Mary Emlen Scott (whom Scott often addressed as "Bonny") from 1816 to the 1850s. During business trips to cities such as Harrisburg and Easton, Pennsylvania, John Morin Scott discussed his legal career, his work in the state legislature, political issues, and personal news; Mary Emlen Scott wrote about her life in Philadelphia. John Morin Scott also received letters from his children and from individuals respecting his term as Philadelphia mayor. Other correspondence includes an early series of letters to Mayor Richard Varick of New York City.

Lewis A. Scott's correspondence (132 items, 1868-1893) relates to the Scott family genealogy. Lewis A. Scott corresponded with family members about their ancestors and wrote to authors and publishing houses about printed accounts of the family lineage. Some letters pertain to Scott's attempts to locate documents about his early ancestors.

The collection's Legal Correspondence, Documents, and Financial Records series (approximately 800 items, 1764-1893) regard property, finances, and the legal affairs and estates of the Scotts and related families. John Morin Scott's legal correspondence (333 items, 1812-1844) contains business letters to Scott about court procedures, decisions, and financial matters. At least one item mentions a reward offered for the return of a captured slave (May 20, 1822). Documents include legal and financial contracts and agreements, financial accounts, bank checks, indentures, letters, and estate administration papers. Many items concern property in New York and one small group pertains to Revolutionary War surgeon Charles McKnight.

One small account book tracks the owner's expenses, and includes notes about the author's travels and activities, around 1850. A notebook contains a list of the Scott family silver in Mary Emlen's possession in 1874.

The Maps seriesincludes 19 surveyors' maps for land in Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and other locations. Many of the surveys relate to members of the Scott family and allied families; some pertain to Philadelphia real estate. Three undated survey notebooks pertain to land in "Orange County" and "Deer Park," and include notes about deeds and surveys conducted in these areas.

The Genealogical Materials series (47 items, [1887-1891]) largely concern members of the Scott family and they include essays, extracts from published histories, notebooks, loose notes, a family tree, and applications for the Pennsylvania Sons of the American Revolution. At least 2 items relate to the Emlen family. Sketches of two coats of arms are accompanied by descriptions.

The Printed Items series includes 2 advertisements for genealogical and historical works, Mary Scott's reprinted will, a poem by W. T. Meredith titled "Ancrum's Cross," and 12 newspaper clippings. The clippings are obituaries and biographical articles about the younger John Morin Scott, including an account of an assassination attempt during his term as mayor of Philadelphia (1843).


Lamb-Sykes family papers, 1680-1947 (majority within 1819-1911)

11 linear feet

The Lamb-Sykes family papers contain correspondence, financial and legal documents, daguerreotypes, and other materials related to the Philadelphia families' daily lives and business endeavors. The collection reflects their legal and mercantile affairs, investments, real estate, and involvement with the Mechanics Bank of Philadelphia.

The Lamb-Sykes family papers date from 1683 to 1947, with the bulk of the materials concentrated between 1819 and 1911. They form a record of the lives of the Lamb and Sykes families of Philadelphia, especially their financial, legal, and business activities. The collection includes approximately 300 letters; 9 linear feet of accounts, receipts, tax records, promissory notes, and legal documents; 60 account and expense books; 6 daguerreotypes; and 0.5 linear feet of school papers, family history, printed and ephemeral items, and other materials.

The Correspondence series is made up of approximately 300 letters to and from members of the Lamb, Sykes, and Norris families, between 1819 and 1907. Few writers sent more than a small number of letters to their family and friends. The correspondence reflects a variety of different activities and experiences, and many different geographical locations. Selected examples include:

  • Six letters between the Carswells and the Jacksons. Andrew Jackson and his wife Rachel sent four letters to Margaret and Margaretta Carswell between 1819 and 1822; Margaretta and Andrew Jackson each wrote 1 letter in 1843. These letters refer to historical events, such as the Treaty of Doak's Stand (Rachel Jackson's letter of October 20, 1820). In 1843, Margaretta wrote to Andrew Jackson about her intention to create a school for girls. The former U.S. President commended her for her proposal, and promised to spread the word amongst his female relations.
  • Five letters by Margaret Carswell, cousins, and siblings to Margaretta Lamb, from West Ely, Missouri, in the winter of 1837-1838
  • Approximately 10 letters between Margaretta and her husband, written when Lemuel traveled to London in the late 1830s. In these letters they discussed business and domestic life in Philadelphia.
  • Four letters written by Margaretta's daughter Margaret, during her travels to France and Germany in 1846
  • Six letters to Margaretta Lamb from her (former) pupils in 1851
  • Five letters by Margaretta's son Samuel, written from Panama, then San Francisco, in 1854. By the following year, he moved to St. Paul, Minnesota, where he wrote approximately 15 letters. In his letters from San Francisco, he described the quality of life in the West difficulties finding work, and the influx of people to the area.
  • Approximately 21 letters by Lemuel Lamb, Jr., in the mid-late 1850s from Detroit, Michigan; Superior, Wisconsin; St. Louis, Missouri; Chattanooga, Tennessee; New Orleans; Dubuque, Iowa; Pittsburgh; Marshall, Texas; and others. In letters to his mother and father, he remarked on his journey west, a cholera outbreak, his own good health, and his business affairs.
  • Twenty letters to Isaac Norris, Jr., from Jennie Carlile Boyd in Newport, Rhode Island, between April and July 1890. She wrote 15 of them on mourning stationery.
  • Approximately 27 letters from Harriet Lamb, Charles [Grugan?], and [Anne Grugan?] about their stay in Paris in 1851 and detailing the final illness and death of Margaret Lamb.

The Documents and Financial Records series consists of approximately 9 linear feet of financial, legal, and land documents of the Lamb and Sykes family. The series includes documents related to court cases; estate administration records for Margaretta Lamb, Franklin Wharton, Sarah Moore, and others; documents related to land holdings in Philadelphia, New Jersey, Delaware, and Rhode Island; and papers related to trade, investment, and banking.

The Photographs series includes 6 cased daguerreotypes. One postmortem portrait of Harriet Lamb in her coffin is accompanied by Philadelphia photographer Marcus Root's receipt of sale and the undertaker's bill for funeral expenses (1853). The other daguerreotypes are undated portraits of unidentified individuals and groups.

The Poetry, Recipes, Lists, and Fragments series contains 9 poems and writing fragments, 1 medicinal recipe, 1 recipe for cream pie, 1 book of lists, and 1 blank book. One poem, dated 1850 and titled "Fools and Their Money Parted," laments a decision to provide money to family members for the purposes of investment. The medicinal recipe is a "Cure for Cancer, Erysypelas, Humours, Diseases of the Liver, & Coughs" (undated). The book of lists is a volume of approximately 80 pages, which contains lists of books, Christmas gifts, prints, the contents of trunks, and other household objects (ca. 1880s).

The Printed Materials series consists of 2 circulars, 2 books, 16 stock reports, 23 issues of the serial Infant's Magazine, 2 pamphlets, approximately 60 newspaper clippings, and 2 engravings. See the box and folder listing below for more information about these items.

The Genealogy series consists of approximately 45 genealogical manuscripts pertaining to the Lamb, Norris, Pepper, Sykes, and Wharton families. One document regards Lemuel Lamb's immediate family, with birth and death dates for most of his siblings, and for some of his brothers-in-law. The Norris family genealogical materials include a 395-page family album with original and copied 18th- and 19th-century correspondence, photos and illustrations, newspaper clippings, and other items. A booklet printed by the "Provincial Councilors of Pennsylvania" includes a history of the Norris family. A similar booklet, prepared for an October 19, 1947, family reunion, describes the genealogy of the "Pepper Clan." The Sykes family materials are made up of copies of letters and writings documenting the early history of the family and their emigration to America. The Wharton family items include copied letters and writings, and an incomplete draft of the memoirs of Robert Wharton.

The Realia series includes 2 circular medals from the Bulldog Club of America, 1924 and 1925, and a metal nameplate from the urn of "Isacco Norris," Dr. Isaac Norris, who died in Italy.


Anthony Wayne family papers, 1681-1913

7 linear feet

The Anthony Wayne family papers contain correspondence, diaries, documents, and accounts relating to several generations of the Wayne family of Pennsylvania. Of particular note is material concerning Anthony Wayne's service in the American Revolution and the Northwest Indian War, and William Wayne's service with the 97th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment in the Civil War.

The Correspondence and Military Documents series (Volumes 1-17) contains approximately 1,450 items (3.5 linear feet), spanning 1756-1853, and arranged chronologically. The bulk of the series is correspondence, but it also contains various types of documents, including legal materials, military returns, land surveys, and lists.

Anthony Wayne

The 18th-century material in the collection (Volumes 1-10) relates primarily to the career of Anthony Wayne, including his surveying activities; acquisition and maintenance of a plantation near Savannah, Georgia, and the activities of Native Americans in its vicinity; service in the Revolutionary War; and leadership as commander-in-chief of the Legion of the United States during the Northwest Indian War. It includes incoming correspondence from numerous notable government and military officials, as well as a considerable amount of Wayne's outgoing correspondence and memoranda.

A portion of materials in the collection shed light on Wayne's activities and opinions during the American Revolutionary War, in which he served as a brigadier general. On November 22, 1777, Wayne wrote to Thomas Wharton, the "president" (i.e., governor) of Pennsylvania, on the subject of recruitment, arguing that allowing the hiring of substitutes and the paying of an "enormous bounty" would hinder efforts to attract soldiers. He also discussed the importance of uniforms to morale, arguing that they caused "a laudable pride which in a soldier is a substitute for almost every other virtue." Additionally, Wayne exchanged several letters with a friend, Colonel Sharp Delany, in which they discussed various war-related matters. On July 26, 1780, he provided a defense of his raid on Bull's Ferry, which failed and resulted in substantial American casualties. Other letters pertain to Wayne's injury from a musket-ball lodged in his thigh (November 12, 1781), his uniform (May 10, 1783), and the concerns of Savannah merchants who feared the loss of protection after the British evacuation (June 17, 1782). Also of interest is a memorandum spanning the dates June 20, 1777-October 21, 1780, in which Wayne gave his criticisms of the decisions of the Executive Council and of the Continental army in Pennsylvania, and complained of demoralization of the troops, especially the Pennsylvania Line.

A large number of letters and documents, particularly in the late 1780s, pertain to Wayne's rice plantation in the vicinity of Savannah, called Richmond and Kew, which was given to him by the state of Georgia for his wartime service there. Wayne took out large loans in order to revive the estate in 1785, two years after he left it "in a depreciating state" (June 29, 1783) to return to Pennsylvania. Wayne's letters describe his great difficulty in purchasing affordable slaves to work the land, his efforts to produce and sell rice and corn, and the scarcity of currency in Georgia, which compounded his troubles turning a profit. The papers also document Wayne's struggle to repay his loans and his dispute with his creditors, which became particularly intense in 1787, and resulted in his loss of the plantation in 1791. On that subject, he wrote, "I have been in treaty with my Persecutors" (March 1, 1791). His primary correspondents on these matters were William Penman, James Penman, Adam Tunno, Samuel Potts, Sharp Delany, and Richard Wayne.

Several items during this period also refer to the ongoing conflict between white settlers in Georgia and Native Americans there. One letter to Wayne from Benjamin Fishbourn concerns a Creek uprising in Georgia, during which the natives burned homes and absconded with corn and rice ([October 1786]). Although Wayne claimed that "the Indian depredations in this State have been so much exaggerated as to deter any purchasers" (February 20, 1788), he nonetheless kept track of many strife-filled incidents. On October 7, 1788, he wrote, "We are all confusion here on account of the Indians and Spaniards - the first carrying off our Negroes and other property - the latter Countenancing and protecting them!" He also described the imprisonment of his tenants by Native Americans (October 7, 1788), the abandonment of plantations by white settlers out of fear of "depredations" by natives (December 5, 1788), and the arrival of troops in the south to challenge the Creeks (December 5, 1791). On October 21, 1789, he wrote that he and his neighbors expected an "Indian war" at any time. After Wayne left the south permanently, he continued to receive periodic reports on conflicts between natives and white settlers, including an attack on Creeks at "Buzzard Town," during which whites killed and imprisoned many natives, as described in letters dated October 26 and December 17, 1793. Also of interest is a list of settlements in the Upper and Lower Creek Nation, including towns and villages called "The Buzzard Rost," "New Youga," "Swagelas," and "Cowetaws" (July 2, 1793).

The collection also documents several aspects of Anthony Wayne's political career, and includes his notes on the Constitutional Convention, including his assertion that "The Constitution is a Dangerous Machine in the hands of designing men" (filed at the end of 1788). Also of note are his several letters to President George Washington, requesting favors for himself and his friends, and a letter describing Washington's visit to Savannah, during which Wayne escorted him around the city (May 18, 1791). Well-represented is the conflict between Wayne and James Jackson over the election of 1791 for a seat in the 2nd United States Congress to represent the 1st District of Georgia.

A large portion of the collection concerns Wayne's prosecution of the Northwest Indian War as commander-in-chief of the newly created Legion of the United States between 1792 and 1796. Early letters and documents record the Legion's travel across Pennsylvania, gathering recruits en route (June 8, 1792); the smallpox inoculations for the soldiers (July 6, 1792); the arrangement of men into sublegions (July 13, 1792); Secretary of War Henry Knox's decision to delay operations until after the winter (August 7, 1792; August 10, 1792); and the foundation of Legionville, Pennsylvania, the first formal military basic training facility in the United States (November 23, 1792). Numerous letters concern military administration, including provisioning, appointments and promotions, furloughs, and other routine matters. Discipline of the troops was also a frequent concern, and Wayne and his correspondents frequently made references to desertion, disciplinary measures, the distribution of whiskey as a reward for successful target practice, and courts martial. Examples of the latter include the court martial of Captain William Preston, whom Wayne called "a very young Officer-with rather too high an idea of Equality" (June 25, 1795); the case of a private, Timothy Haley, who was convicted but released under pressure from the civil courts (July 1, 1795); and the proceedings against Lieutenant Peter Marks for "ungentleman and unofficer-like conduct" (July 20-21, 1794). A booklet covering July 19-August 2, 1793, contains a number of court martial proceedings, for such offenses as drunkenness while on guard duty and use of abusive language.

The correspondence and documents created during this period also shed some light on various Native American tribes in the Midwest and their encounters with Wayne's forces. In a letter to Wayne, Henry Knox frets over the yet-unknown fate of Colonel John Hardin, who died in an ambush by the Shawnee (August 7, 1792).

Also addressed are the following conflicts:
  • Attack on Fort Jefferson by a Potawatomi force (September 9, 1792)
  • Attack on a forage convoy near Fort Hamilton by Native Americans (September 23, 1792)
  • Attack on Fort Washington, resulting in the capture of three prisoners by native forces (October 2, 1792)
  • Attack on Fort St. Clair by 250 Native Americans under Little Turtle (November 6, 1792)
  • Skirmishes with Native Americans in southern Ohio (October 22, 1793) in which "the Indians killed & carried off about 70 officers leaving the waggons & stores standing"

Also of interest is a description by Israel Chapin of a Six Nations council at "Buffaloe Creek," which lists some of the attendants: "the Farmer's Brother, Red Jacket and Capt Billy of the Senkas; the Fish Carrier, head Chief of the Cayugas,; Great Sky head chief of the Onondagas; and Capt Brandt of the Mohawks; and great numbers of inferior Chiefs" (December 11, 1793). On January 21, 1794, Wayne voiced his suspicions concerning peace overtures from "Delaware, Shawanoes and Miami tribes" and accused them of buying time in order to "secure their provisions, and to remove their women and children from pending distruction." Jean-Francois (sometimes known as John Francis) Hamtramck, commandant of Fort Wayne, wrote very informative letters to Wayne, discussing the Native American traders in the area and the possibility of starting a trading house at Fort Wayne (February 3, 1795), the arrival of Potawatomi at the Fort (March 5, 1795), and a meeting with the Le Gris, chief of the Miamis, whom he called a "sensible old fellow, in no ways ignorant of the Cause of the war, for which he Blames the Americans, saying that they were too extravagant in their Demands in their first treaties" (March 27, 1795).

The Battle of Fallen Timbers receives only minor attention in the collection in the form of letters, expressing praise for Wayne's victory, from army paymaster Caleb Swan (October 19, 1794) and Francis Vigo (February 22, 1795). However, efforts to end hostilities are well documented with such items as a copy of the Treaty of Greenville (August 3, 1795), Wayne's account of the signing and its impact on various tribes and their leaders (August 14, 1795), and letters from several civilians requesting help in locating family members captured by Native Americans (June 1, 1795; July 27, 1795).

Isaac and William Wayne

After Anthony Wayne's death in December 1796, the focus of the series shifts to his son, Isaac Wayne, and then to Wayne's great-grandson, William Wayne (née William Wayne Evans); the activities of the two men occupy much of the material in Volumes 11-16. Early letters mainly pertain to the family matters and finances of Isaac Wayne, including the ongoing settlement of his father's estate and various claims against it. Several items relate to his career, including an acceptance of the resignation of a soldier from Erie Light Infantry Company during the War of 1812 (March 27, 1813), and a circular letter urging support for his candidacy for governor of Pennsylvania (October 3, 1814), which was ultimately unsuccessful. Other topics include his refusal of a nomination to Congress (February 1824); requests for information about his father by historians and biographers; the August 1828 death of his son Charles, who served in the navy; and other political and family matters discussed by Wayne. His primary correspondents include William Richardson Atlee, Charles Miner, Callender Irvine, Samuel Hayman, and various members of Evans family, to whom he was related through his sister Margaretta.

The bulk of the letters postdating 1850 relate to William Wayne. Early correspondence concerns his courtship with his future wife, Hannah Zook, in 1852, the death of Isaac Wayne on October 25, 1852, and various social visits and family concerns. On March 14 and 15, 1860, Wayne wrote to his wife about travel through Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and Erie to Meadville, Pennsylvania. Though he stayed in the prominent Monongahela House, he described Pittsburgh as a "dirty village," and unfavorably compared the "Western Penitentiary" to its counterpart in Philadelphia, "the Castle on Cherry Hill." He noted that Cleveland "is said to be the handsomest City in the Union," but reserved his opinion on this point.

The collection also contains six letters written by Wayne during his Civil War service with the 97th Pennsylvania Infantry. On June 27, 1862, he wrote to his wife from James Island, South Carolina, concerning his regiment's role in building fortifications and mounting guns. He also commented on General George McClellan and his cautious strategy. Wayne wrote the remainder of the letters from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. On October 13, 1862, three days after the Confederate raid on Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, Wayne wrote about rumors concerning "the movements of 'secesh' along our border" in what he suspected was an attempt to interfere with the election of 1862. In another letter, he expressed disappointment that he had arrived at camp too late to accompany a group of new recruits to Washington (November 3, 1862). Of interest are four letters from Wayne's friend, Joseph Lewis, which relate to Wayne's attempt to resign from the army, as well as five items relating to General Galusha Pennypacker. The Pennypacker correspondence includes a sketch of his service, written by Edward R. Eisenbeis (December 24, 1865), and letters concerning his recovery from severe wounds received at the Second Battle of Fort Fisher in 1865. Also of interest are several postwar letters to and from General George A. McCall concerning his meetings with Wayne.

The Manuscripts Division has created a list of the names of the letter-writers in the collection: Wayne Family Papers Contributor List.

The Letter Books series contains three volumes of Anthony Wayne's outgoing military correspondence. The periods covered are June 4, 1792-October 5, 1793 (Volume 30), April 12, 1792-June 21, 1794 (Volume 31), and October 23, 1793-September 20, 1794 (Volume 32). The letters are official and semi-official in nature and pertain to army administration, encounters with Native Americans, troop movements, provisioning, and other topics.

The Land Documents series (Volume 17) contains land indentures, surveys, and deeds relating to several generations of the Wayne family, 1681-1879. This includes numerous documents relating to the Waynesborough estate and illustrating its possession by various family members. The surveys pertain to such matters as the line between Easttown and Willistown in Pennsylvania, several surveys performed for James Claypool in Chester County, Pennsylvania, and a drawing (including several trees) of the land of James Rice. Also included is a vellum land indenture dated October 3, 1732, between Anthony Wayne's father, Isaac, and a widow named Mary Hutton.

For other land documents, see the following surveys by Anthony Wayne in the Correspondence and Documents series:
  • Land in Tredyffrin Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania (December 15, 1764)
  • Wayne property in Easttown and Willistown, Pennsylvania (January 12, 1767)
  • Newtown, Chester County, Pennsylvania (January 12, 1767)
  • Waynesborough, Chester County, Pennsylvania ([ca. 1784])
  • Survey notes on a tract of land reserved by Wayne on the Little Setilla River, Georgia (July 23, 1786)

The Other Legal Documents series (Volume 17) spans 1686-1868 and contains wills, inventories, certificates, financial agreements, and other document types. Included are several documents related to the death of Samuel K. Zook, brother-in-law of William Wayne, at the Battle of Gettysburg on July 2, 1863; certificates related to the Ancient York Masons, Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati, and the American Philosophical Society; and several articles of agreement concerning financial transactions between various members of the Wayne family. Also of note are the wills of Anthony Wayne, Mary (Penrose) Wayne, Elizabeth Wayne, William Richardson, and others.

The Diaries and Notebooks series (Volumes 17-20) contains 19 diaries and notebooks written by various members of the Wayne family between 1815 and 1913. Of these, Charles Wayne wrote one volume, an unknown author wrote one, William Wayne wrote ten, and William Wayne, Jr., wrote seven. The books have been assigned letters and arranged in chronological order. The Charles Wayne notebook, labeled "A," covers 1815-1816 and contains algebraic equations and notes from Charles' lessons at Norristown Academy in Pennsylvania. Volume "B," written by an unknown author, dates to about 1820 and contains a number of medicinal cures for ailments such as cholera, snakebite, consumption, jaundice, and dysentery, as well as notes on the weather and references to agriculture and a few daily events.

William Wayne, the great-grandson of Anthony Wayne, wrote volumes "C" through "L," documenting the years 1858 to 1872, with a gap from November 11, 1861-August 13, 1862. The volumes record Wayne's pre-Civil War agricultural pursuits, his service with the 97th Pennsylvania Infantry, and his postwar activities. Of particular interest are the entries that Wayne wrote while posted on Hilton Head Island in August 1862, as well as his brief descriptions of the arrival and processing of recruits at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in October of the same year. He also referenced Pennsylvania politics, the elections of 1863 and 1864, and the reaction of Philadelphians to the news of Lincoln's assassination. Also worth noting are Wayne's accounts of the Confederate cavalry raids on Chambersburg in November 1862, the Gettysburg campaign, and Wayne's attempts to recover the body of his brother-in-law after Gettysburg. Postwar, Wayne wrote on such topics as Reconstruction (August 14, 1866), a cholera outbreak in New York (November 4, 1865), and election fraud and rioting in Philadelphia (October 14, 1868).

William Wayne, Jr., wrote diaries "M" through "S," 1883-1913, with a gap between September 30, 1902, and April 19, 1911. These contain near-daily brief entries on weather, family life, health, and Wayne's interest in politics. Included is a description of an unveiling of a Sons of the Revolution monument (June 19, 1893), the illness of his wife, Mary (Fox) Wayne (February 28, 1884), and Wayne's work during an election (February 19, 1884).

The Account Books series contains 24 volumes, spanning 1769-1856. The earliest volume ("A") covers approximately 1769 to 1780, and contains accounts for unknown transactions, as well as scattered memoranda concerning travel between Ireland and North America and several references to schooling. Volume "B" is Anthony Wayne's military account book for 1793-1794, which lists monthly pay to various members of the Legion of the United States. Volumes "C" through "S" encompass a large amount of financial information for Anthony Wayne's son, Isaac, for the years 1794-1823. Volumes "T" through "X" are overlapping financial account books for William Wayne, covering 1854 through 1877. Also included is an account book recording tannery transactions and activities of the Wayne family in the 18th century (Volume 29), and a book of register warrants drawn by Anthony Wayne on the paymaster general in 1796 (Volume 34)

The Anthony Wayne Portait and Miscellaneous series contains an undated engraved portrait of Wayne by E. Prud'homme from a drawing by James Herring. Also included are various newspaper clippings, genealogical material, and printed matter representing the 19th and 20th centuries.


Holme family account book, 1684-1762

102 pages

Irish Quakers and compatriots of William Penn, the family of John Holme prospered in the new colony of Pennsylvania. The Holme family account book includes accounts of goods sold and services rendered to Philadelphia families in the 1680s and 1690s. Interspersed throughout are medicinal and food preparation receipts, mostly recorded in the 1740s, as well as copies of the laws of Pennsylvania, ca. 1685, the wills of Capt. Thomas Holme, 1695, and John Holme, Jr., and a poem and two religious songs.

The Holme account book is particularly heterogeneous in its construction. It includes accounts of goods sold and services rendered to Philadelphia families in the 1680s and 1690s. However, the accounts appear to have been kept by several different members of the family. These include records of the sale of shoes, gun powder, grain, cloth, nails, and many other goods. Interspersed throughout the accounts are pages of calculations, numerous medicinal receipts, and receipts for various food preparations (including a large number relating to wine), most of which appear to have been recorded in the 1740s, though some are earlier.

John Holme, Sr., also appears to have used the "account book" to copy the laws of Pennsylvania (copied ca.1685), and he or a later Holme recorded the wills of Capt. Thomas Holme (1695; William Penn's Surveyor General), and of one of the John Holmes, probably John Holme, Jr. Finally, a poem and two religious songs have been included, the former perhaps written by one of the Holmes. It is tempting to attribute the poem to John Holme, Sr., whose poetry is among the earliest recorded as having been written in the province (see Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vols. 3 and 20).

Medicinal receipts are indexed under the term "Receipts" while those for foods are indexed as "Cookery." Additional indexing (e.g. for type of food or medicine) is highly selective. Similarly, only the primary names are indexed for the accounts.


Jewett family account books, 1692-1736 (majority within 1692-1711)

2 volumes and 1 manuscript

This collection contains 2 account books kept by Abraham Jewett and his son, also named Abraham, as well as a fragment of an apprenticeship contract. The account books primarily record the Jewetts' income from making and repairing shoes for residents of Rowley and Ipswich, Massachusetts, between 1692 and 1711.

This collection contains 2 account books kept by Abraham Jewett and his son, also named Abraham, as well as a fragment of an apprenticeship contract. The account books primarily record the Jewetts' income from making and repairing shoes for residents of Rowley and Ipswich, Massachusetts, between 1692 and 1711.

The elder Abraham Jewett began his account book in 1692, and recorded his transactions with individuals in Rowley and Ipswich. The accounts relate to Jewett's work making and repairing shoes; he received payments in cash, foodstuffs, and other items. Notes throughout the volume provide the dates of financial reconcilement with debtors. Though the accounts in this volume cover the years 1692 to 1695, most date between 1692 and 1694.

The account book of Abraham's son is similar in format and also documents his work with shoes and hides. He, too, often received payments in corn, molasses, and other foodstuffs. Most accounts date between 1700 and 1711, though some are as late as 1720, with additional brief notes in a different hand dated as late as 1736. Both father and son recorded the names of persons for whom they made shoes, sometimes including the debtors' wives and children. One note in the second volume concerns a charge for a boarder, and the volume also has a 1-page prayer about death.

The account books are accompanied by a fragment of an undated indenture binding "Abraham Jewett" as an apprentice shoemaker in Essex County, Massachusetts.


West family papers, 1697-1880

2.25 linear feet

The West family papers are comprised of approximately 1,400 letters, letter books, documents, and financial records pertaining to Reverend Samuel West and his two sons, Benjamin and Nathan P., of Boston. The bulk of the collection (approximately 900 items) relates to business concerns, particularly to Benjamin West's sugar refining firm.

The West family papers are comprised of approximately 1,400 letters, letter books, documents, and financial records pertaining to Reverend Samuel West and his two sons, Benjamin and Nathan P., of Boston. The bulk of the collection (approximately 900 items) relates to business concerns, particularly to Benjamin West's sugar refining firm.

The Correspondence and documents series consists of approximately 150 items, dating from 1679 to 1880; the bulk of these are dated between 1759 and 1826. Though the majority of the material within the series pertains to business affairs, several groups of letters relate to other topics. One early group of letters concerns Samuel West's move from Needham, Massachusetts, to Boston's Hollis Street Church, and another group to a Boston committee's proposal to alter the municipal government in 1815, which includes its lengthy report [September 25, 1815]. In addition, the series contains personal and family correspondence, though to a lesser extent. Primary correspondents within the series include Caleb and Joshua Davis, Benjamin West, Enoch H. West, Samuel West, Richards Child, Mills Olcott, Samuel and Ephraim May, Sarah Plimpton, George Cheyne Shattuck, and Elisha and Elizabeth Ticknor.

The collection's two Letter books belonged to Benjamin West, and hold copies of 166 outgoing letters, dated 1803-1827, related to his various business affairs and the settlement of his uncle's estate, as well as personal matters.

The Financial records series contains three subseries: Bills and receipts, Sugarhouse accounts, and Account and expense books. The series contains approximately 300 bills and receipts dating from 1748 to 1824, primarily pertaining to labor, repairs, and donations to various Boston societies and institutions. About 600 sugarhouse accounts (1796-1823) record financial transactions associated with Benjamin West's sugar refining business, and include accounts, bills, and receipts. The four books cover Benjamin's West's personal accounts and expenses between 1797-1799 and 1811-1827; the first of these concerns West's service in a local militia, as well as his other financial matters, including numerous accounts for clothing, tobacco, and trips to the theater.

Legal documents within the collection are divided into two subseries, covering Land and real estate (1707-1824) and other Legal documents (1738-1834). The first subseries consists of approximately 60 items, which relate to mortgages, indentures, and other agreements about land around Boston and in Charlestown, New Hampshire. The West family frequently dealt with the Wheelock and Metcalf families when purchasing land. The second subseries is comprised of approximately 75 miscellaneous documents, including material related to Samuel West's interests in Needham, Massachusetts; bills from Nathan P. West's time at Harvard College (1788-1792); and the family's additional business and legal concerns.

The Printed and miscellaneous items series consists of approximately 20 items, dated 1714 to 1825. Among these are broadsides, including programs for Samuel West's internment services and various anniversaries, and partially printed school reports. Miscellaneous manuscript items are 13 statements of Christian faith; manuscript music for several hymns; two books kept by Nathan P. West, including a copybook of mathematical problems and exercises (1792-1807) and a commonplace book (1798-1813) with medicinal recipes West used in his drugstore; and scattered quotations. The copybook also includes a small drawing of a skull next to a bottle of borax on its inside cover.


Wilson family papers, 1704-1884

16.25 linear feet

The Wilson papers contain letters and documents relating to the lives and careers of three generations of the family of William Wilson, residents of Clermont, N.Y. in the mid-Hudson River Valley.

The Wilson family papers contains over 4,000 letters relating to the lives and fortunes of three generations of the family of William Wilson, residents of Clermont, N.Y, in the mid-Hudson River Valley. Virtually all of the letters in the collection were received by members of the Wilson family, with only a very few out-going drafts. Together, these present an impressively detailed perspective on many aspects of family life, political culture, agriculture, commerce, and the economy of Columbia and Dutchess County, N.Y., in the fifty years following the end of the American Revolution. As well being educated, energetic members of the social elite, the Wilsons engaged in a variety of pursuits, from the legal and medical professions, to land proprietorship, farming, and politics, and they commented extensively at every turn. A genealogical chart of the Wilson family, detailing the relationships of all those mentioned in the collection can be found in box 42:11.

The core of the Wilson papers consists of the letters received by William Wilson, who shouldered a wide variety of responsibilities in Columbia and Dutchess counties and knew their residents intimately. The breadth of his interests brought him into contact with many of the state's leading citizens, but also with the tenant farmers, medical patients, merchants and clerks. William's major pursuit in life was medicine, and his surviving papers contain seven medical daybooks (40:3; 47:9-14), providing a chronological record of his visits, diagnoses and prescriptions, as well as his fees. He also kept two notebooks dealing with the causes and symptoms of various diseases (47:15, 16), and scattered throughout his papers are letters from patients discussing their illnesses. Of particular importance are the letters relative to the deaths of Chancellor Robert R. Livingston and his wife, for whom Wilson was the attending physician (18:6-10; 19:15, 21, 23). Wilson was also a founding member of the Medical Society of Dutchess and Columbia Counties in 1796, and was associated with the founding of the New York Medical Society, as well as with the effort to establish a medical college (15:69; 16:17, 24, 44, 46, 52, 66, 70, 76, 80; 17:3, 13, 17, 23, 29; 45:19).

William Wilson was also employed as an administrator of landed property, usually for members of the Livingston family, and particularly Henry Livingston (1752/53-1823). The wide-spread unrest among "General Livingston's" tenants is discussed in many of the letters, along with more general discussions of land tenure, proprietary power, and tenant satisfaction. Wilson also served as administrator for the property of Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, especially during the latter's appointment to France, for two absentee landlords from New York City, Walter Rutherford and J. Stark Robinson (41:1, 2); and he was an executor or administrator for the estates of Robert Cambridge Livingston (1742-1794) (42:1), Peter Robert Livingston (1737-1794) (42:7), and the Chancellor (42:3-6). The materials relating to Livingston rental properties consists largely of receipts for rents received, but also include lease agreements, about twenty account books relative to the Chancellor's lands, and negotiations for the sale of land, especially the Chancellor's property in New Jersey after his death. A section of the estate documents for Robert R. Livingston relate to payment of medical, boarding, and clothing bills for Isabella and her son, Stephen, who were enslaved by Livingston (42:4). Some of the documents refer to her as Isabella Bond.

In 1791, Wilson added the office of Deputy Postmaster to his collection of responsibilities, becoming the first such agent for the town of Clermont. He was reappointed in 1803, and continued at his lucrative post until surrendering it to his son in 1825. As with everything else, Wilson saved all of his papers (42:12-15), and this the collection includes Wilson's original appointment commissions, signed by Post Master General Timothy Pickering (1:46 and 12:72), as well as the postal accounts and other records, which are generally of an administrative and bureaucratic nature. There are a few scattered items from correspondents critical of the speed and unreliability of the mails.

William Wilson also filled various political appointments in the county, and was active in state politics. As a Jeffersonian-Republican, befitting a friend of Chancellor Livingston, he played an important local role as judge of the county court, yet while many of his letters are addressed to "Judge" Wilson, virtually nothing pertaining to his official judicial activities survives in the collection apart from a series of receipts from various sheriffs and a few examinations of a woman for illegitimacy (43:44; 41:19). However Wilson corresponded with other judges and lawyers in the region, a fair amount of which has been preserved, especially from Peter Van Schaack and members of the prominent Van Ness family. Wilson's role as one of the first school supervisors in the area is represented by some scant records (41:22), as is his position as a commissioner for the granting of tavern licenses (41:23).

Wilson was involved in two other county-wide projects that had an important impact on Columbia County, and for which there is excellent material. One of these was the construction of the Highland Turnpike, which ran from Westchester County to near Albany, with gates in Columbia County. Wilson sat on its Board of Directors, and was a frequent and regular correspondent with its president, Joseph Howland (43:1, 2). Howland's are among the few letters that bear on broader national issues, and are in many ways the most interesting series of letters in the collection (see especially 17:87). Secondly, Wilson was instrumental in the establishment of the Agricultural Society of Dutchess and Columbia Counties, or the "Farm Club," as it was usually called. As (variously) president, vice president, secretary, or treasurer, Wilson was intimately involved in the operation of the organization. Of particular interest is the material relative to the annual county fairs held by the club, and the notifications from potential participants, the standards for awards, and the lists of winners (41:3-11). These records, together with the information to be gathered from the receipts from merchants, presents a detailed picture of agricultural life in the rural Hudson Valley.

In sum, those portions of the Wilson Papers that deal directly with William Wilson and his many activities provides a comprehensive picture of rural life in Columbia County and the state of New York in the forty years after the American Revolution.

The letters from Wilson's children offer insights into other aspects of life in early nineteenth-century New York. Alexander Wilson wrote many letters to his father while a student, and it is from his papers that one gets a good idea of the nature of legal education at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Alexander's early death means there is little material relating to his career as a practicing attorney, but what is lacking from Alexander is more than made up for by the papers of his younger brother, Robert. Robert kept extensive records of his practice, including a register of cases covering the entire period of his independent practice in New York, 1823-1830 (46:17), and his day books and account books, which list his professional duties preformed on behalf of clients, and his expenses, fees, and collections (40:1; 46:15,16). The Wilson Papers also includes file papers for many of the cases in which Robert participated (43:5-30), providing a broad, and occasionally deep insight into one man's legal practice in the early 19th century.

The letters of Wilson's other sons are less numerous than those of Alexander and Robert. William H. spent most of his life in Clermont, and so wrote less often, and Stephen B. was a secretive man, who simply did not write many letters. William H. wrote several letters during his tour of duty on the Lake Champlain frontier during the War of 1812 (18:43, 52; 19:18, 26, 36, 47, 56, 60, 68; 20:16, 18), but these are preoccupied with descriptions of camp life and military "politics" rather than strategy or the social impact of the war. William succeeded his father as Deputy Postmaster in 1825, and kept the same copious records as his father (42:12-15). He was not, however, as active in politics as his father, and except for a few letters relating to his run for a seat in the state senate in 1839, and some candidate lists and election return broadsides (41:25-27), there is little of political interest in William's papers. Stephen's letters are the more interesting for their rarity. When he does write, it is well worth the reading.

In addition to the letters written and collected by William, William H., and Robert L. Wilson, the Wilson Papers contain a vast quantity of documents. The largest category of this material contains an enormous number of accounts and receipts from merchants with whom the Wilsons did business. In terms of the number of items, fully half of the Wilson Papers is comprised of these accounts. Approximately 800 individual laborers, craftsmen, merchants, and business firms are represented as having done business with one or another member of the Wilson family, and the collection includes accounts for nearly every kind of household goods, from furniture to food to building materials, agricultural supplies, from seeds to fruit trees to sheep, and personal goods, from cheap "segars" to an "invalid chair" for Robert L., to wine.

The accounts (box 44 and 45:1-16) are arranged alphabetically by creditor. A complete list of merchants and firms represented in the collection is included under "Merchants" in the subject index. The accounts are a particularly valuable resource for social historians. For example the accounts of Samuel Haner (44:12) document aspects of blacksmithing; those of the Clermont grocers Bonesteel and Broadhead (44:4) reveal aspects of diet and nutrition; those of Thomas Beekman (44:2) document medicine and medical supplies; and those of Peter Outwater (45:6) provide information on transportation and commerce on the Hudson River. Receipts for payment that do not include goods or services are filed by surname (45:20-23). The collection also includes a number of the Wilsons' account books, especially William's and Robert's, which offer a view of the other side of the ledger (40:5; 46:18; 47:1, 2).

A second subdivision of the collection, and one closely related to the merchant accounts, deals with land administration. In addition to the correspondence of Henry Livingston with William Wilson mentioned above, the collection contains several subject files related to this important issue in Hudson River Valley history. Most important are the folders containing information on absentee landlords (41:1, 2); deeds (41:4); land grants (43:4); leases (43:31, 32); mortgages (45:17); various rental accounts (46:1-7); surveys and surveying (46:8); as well as William Wilson's rental account books (46:17-20).

Finally the collection contains a small body of material of an essentially genealogical or local history value, and a wide, if not very deep, collection of letters of the Livingston family. William Wilson was an executor for some of the Livingston family estates, most notably for Robert Cambridge Livingston (42:1, 2) and Robert R. Livingston (42:3-6), as well as for other estates (41:29; 42:7-10). The information included in the "genealogy" folder (42:11) is particularly helpful in interpreting the material relating to estate settlement and administration.

The local history of the town of Clermont and Columbia County appears throughout the collection, ranging from arrest warrants to local taxes, and including a very important group of papers relating to the establishment of Clermont Academy (41:16-23). As for the Livingstons, while the famous Chancellor does not overpower the collection, the Livingston family does play an important part. Over sixty members of the family are mentioned in some significant way in the Wilson Papers. Some -- like "General" Henry with his tenant problems, the administration of the estates of Walter T. Livingston (1772-1827) and the Chancellor (42:3-7), or the letters of Edward Philip Livingston (1779-1843) concerning his trip to France -- are meaningful parts of the collection (9:78, 86, 98; 10:8, 64). Other Livingstons are merely the signers of documents or letters, such as Janet Livingston Montgomery's (1743-1828) announcement that she plans to enter the Farm Club fair, a request from Mary Thong Livingston Wilson for financial assistance after the birth of Wilson's grandson, or the Chancellor's grandson, Clermont Livingston, who signed a quit claim deed for the benefit of Clermont Academy.

In sum, the Wilson papers are primarily a collection of family papers. While some members of the family participated in significant activities, and while the letters relating to those activities are important, there is a strongly personal aspect about them, and whatever broader historical significance that can be gotten from them must be gotten in the mass.


James Moncrieff papers, 1710-1894 (majority within 1780-1804)

403 items (1.5 linear feet)

The James Moncrieff papers are made up of letters, documents, and reports partially documenting the military career of Moncrieff, a British engineer. In particular, the papers regard Moncrieff’s engineering work following the siege of Charlestown, South Carolina (1780 ff.), and in the West Indies in the early 1790s.

The James Moncrieff papers consist of 403 items, dated from August 2, 1710, to June 15, 1894 (the bulk dating between August 28, 1780, and April 4, 1804). The collection contains seven bound letter and account books, 38 pieces of correspondence, 244 documents pertaining to Works and Services for the Engineers Dept. of the British military, six military reports, 43 miscellaneous military documents, 10 documents pertaining to land holdings, 41 personal and financial documents, and 14 miscellaneous items.

The letterbooks and 38 individual letters pertain to the military career of James Moncrieff and regard military orders, personal purchases of Moncrieff, military purchases, military fortifications and other matters pertaining to the Engineer Corps. The 244 documents are numbered payment orders for Works Services in the Engineers Department of the British military. They include detailed lists of services and materials purchased for the operation of the Department. Each document is authorized and signed by the Commanding Engineer, James Moncrieff, by the sellers after payment, by the Paymaster, and by witnesses to the financial transactions. The 6 Military Reports (1791), initialed by G.B., G.D., B.P. and J.M., contain material regarding military engineering in the West Indies. Four of the reports contain James Moncrieff’s reports on military fortifications on Barbados, Dominica, St. Christopher’s and St. Vincent’s. The remaining reports are investigations into account fraud by bookkeepers on Barbados and St. Christopher’s.

The 43 miscellaneous military documents regard the Royal Engineer Corps. 10 documents pertain to land in Great Britain, several of which relate to the estate of George Moncrieff. The most extensive of the land documents is 13 pages in length and is titled “Search of Incumbrances on the Lands of Kingsbarns” (November 11 to November 20, 1887). The 41 documents related to personal affairs are almost exclusively accounts and receipts of James Moncrieff.

The 14 miscellaneous items include four bound volumes, including a manuscript book of poetry and notes by Moncrieff on the principles of war and on water drainage. The remaining 10 items are all undated and consist of: one printed fragment, one manuscript fragment, six unlabeled maps, one broadside and a print labeled “THE CASINO Promenade Concert Rooms.”